Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 1-4: General - Historical rationale for the limitation of power-frequency conducted harmonic current emissions from equipment, in the frequency range up to 2 kHz

IEC TR 61000-1-4:2022 is available as IEC TR 61000-1-4:2022 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.IEC TR 61000-1-4:2022 which is a technical report, reviews the sources and effects of power frequency conducted harmonic current emissions in the frequency range up to 2 kHz on the public electricity supply, and gives an account of the reasoning and calculations leading to the existing emission limits for equipment in the editions of IEC 61000-3-2, up to and including the fifth edition (2018) with Amendment 1 (2020), and in the second edition of IEC 61000-3-12. The history is traced from the first supra-national standard on low-frequency conducted emissions into the public electricity supply, EN 50006:1975 and its evolution through IEC (60)555-2 to IEC 61000-3-2, IEC TR 61000-3-4 and IEC 61000-3-12. To give a full picture of the history, that of the standard for the measuring instrument IEC 61000-4-7 is mentioned as well. NOTE All IEC standards were renumbered starting from 60000 from 1998-01-01. To indicate the references of standards withdrawn before, or not reprinted after, that date, the “60x” prefix is here enclosed in parentheses. Hence “IEC (60)555-2”. Some concepts in this document apply to all low voltage AC systems, but the numerical values apply specifically to the European 230 V/400 V 50 Hz system. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2005. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- relation between compatibility levels, emission limits and immunity requirements clarified;
- sharing of emission levels between LV, MV and HV clarified;
- new historical information added.

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Published
Publication Date
06-Jun-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
07-Jun-2022
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IEC TR 61000-1-4:2022 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 1-4: General - Historical rationale for the limitation of power-frequency conducted harmonic current emissions from equipment, in the frequency range up to 2 kHz
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IEC TR 61000-1-4
Edition 2.0 2022-06
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) –
Part 1-4: General – Historical rationale for the limitation of power-frequency
conducted harmonic current emissions from equipment, in the frequency range
up to 2 kHz
IEC TR 61000-1-4:2022-06(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC TR 61000-1-4
Edition 2.0 2022-06
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) –
Part 1-4: General – Historical rationale for the limitation of power-frequency
conducted harmonic current emissions from equipment, in the frequency range
up to 2 kHz
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.100.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-2263-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 61000-1-4:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 General appraisal ............................................................................................................ 8

5 Acceptable provisions in standards related to regulatory legislation ................................. 8

6 History of IEC 61000-3-2 and its predecessors ................................................................ 9

6.1 History table ........................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Before 1960 ............................................................................................................ 9

6.3 1960 to 1975 ........................................................................................................... 9

6.4 1975 to 1982 ......................................................................................................... 10

6.5 1982 to 1995 ......................................................................................................... 10

6.6 1995 to 2000 ......................................................................................................... 12

6.7 The “Millennium Amendment”................................................................................ 13

6.8 2000 to 2019 ......................................................................................................... 13

6.9 2020 to 2022 ......................................................................................................... 14

6.9.1 Impact factor approach .................................................................................. 14

6.9.2 Effect of the coronavirus pandemic from 2020 to 2022 ................................... 15

7 History of IEC 61000-3-12 and its predecessor .............................................................. 15

7.1 Origin .................................................................................................................... 15

7.2 1989 to 1998 ......................................................................................................... 15

7.3 After 1998 ............................................................................................................. 16

8 History of IEC 61000-4-7 up to 2008 .............................................................................. 16

8.1 First edition in 1991 .............................................................................................. 16

8.2 Second edition in 2002 ......................................................................................... 16

8.3 Amendment 1 to the second edition ...................................................................... 16

8.4 Developments since 2008 ..................................................................................... 17

9 Economic considerations taken into account in setting limits in IEC 61000-3-2

before publication in 1995, and before the finalization of the text of the Millennium

Amendment ................................................................................................................... 17

Annex A (informative) Compatibility level and compensation factor ...................................... 19

A.1 Explanation of the allocation of only part of the total compatibility level to the

low-voltage network .............................................................................................. 19

A.2 Compensation factor ............................................................................................. 20

A.2.1 Maximum permissible current emission – original approach ........................... 20

A.2.2 Detailed consideration ................................................................................... 21

A.2.3 New work prompted by the preparation of this document ............................... 23

Annex B (informative) Comparison of Class A limits and the harmonic spectra of

phase-controlled dimmers of incandescent lamps at 90° firing angle ..................................... 27

Annex C (informative) Comparison of Class C (IEC 61000-3-2:2018 and IEC 61000-3-

2:2018/AMD1:2020, Table 2) limits and the harmonic spectrum of a discharge lamp

with inductive ballast ............................................................................................................. 28

Annex D (informative) Comparison of Class D limits and the harmonic spectra of

capacitor-filtered single-phase rectifiers with 35° and 65° conduction angles ........................ 29

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IEC TR 61000-1-4:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –

Annex E (informative) Economic considerations taken into account in setting limits,

before finalization of the text of the Millennium Amendment to IEC 61000-3-2 ...................... 30

Annex F (Informative) Concept plan for a full revision of IEC 61000-3-2 ............................... 32

F.1 Rationale .............................................................................................................. 32

F.2 Density ................................................................................................................. 32

F.3 Usage factor ......................................................................................................... 32

F.4 Contribution .......................................................................................................... 32

F.5 Phase angle factor ................................................................................................ 32

F.6 System and site mitigation .................................................................................... 33

F.7 Network factors ..................................................................................................... 33

Annex G (informative) Histories of IEC 61000-3-2 and IEC 61000-3-12 and related

standards .............................................................................................................................. 34

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 36

Figure A.1 – Harmonic voltage drops and harmonic current injections in a typical

system .................................................................................................................................. 20

Figure A.2 – Permissible number of Class A loads versus harmonic order, with an

additional 10 Ω load on the feeder ........................................................................................ 26

Figure B.1 – Comparison of Class A limits and spectra of dimmers ....................................... 27

Figure C.1 – Comparison of Class C limits and the harmonic spectrum of a discharge

lamp ..................................................................................................................................... 28

Figure D.1 – Comparison of Class D limits and harmonic spectra of single-phase

230 W rectifiers with capacitor filters..................................................................................... 29

Figure E.1 – Illustration of the concept of total aggregate cost trade-offs for meeting

compatibility levels ................................................................................................................ 31

Table A.1 – Compensation factors k considered valid in 1995 (IEC 61000-3-2:1995
p,h

[1] (first edition)) ................................................................................................................... 21

Table A.2 – Sub-factors of k ............................................................................................. 22

p,h

Table A.3 – Compensated sharing factors ............................................................................. 24

Table G.1 – Publication history of IEC 61000-3-2 .................................................................. 34

Table G.2 – Publication history of IEC 61000-3-12 ................................................................ 35

Table G.3 – Publication history of IEC 61000-4-7 .................................................................. 35

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– 4 – IEC TR 61000-1-4:2022 © IEC 2022
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) –
Part 1-4: General – Historical rationale for the limitation
of power-frequency conducted harmonic current emissions
from equipment, in the frequency range up to 2 kHz
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

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may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC TR 61000-1-4 has been prepared by subcommittee 77A: EMC – Low frequency

phenomena, of IEC technical committee 77: Electromagnetic compatibility. It is a Technical

Report.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2005. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) relation between compatibility levels, emission limits and immunity requirements clarified;

b) sharing of emission levels between LV, MV and HV clarified;
c) new historical information added.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC TR 61000-1-4:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
77A/1136/DTR 77A/1141/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this Technical Report is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/publications.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61000 series, published under the general title Electromagnetic

compatibility (EMC), can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC TR 61000-1-4:2022 © IEC 2022
INTRODUCTION
IEC 61000 is published in separate parts according to the following structure:
Part 1: General
General considerations (introduction, fundamental principles)
Definitions, terminology
Part 2: Environment
Description of the environment
Classification of the environment
Compatibility levels
Part 3: Limits
Emission limits

Immunity limits (in so far as they do not fall under the responsibility of product committees)

Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques
Measurement techniques
Testing techniques
Part 5: Installation and mitigation guidelines
Installation guidelines
Mitigation methods and devices
Part 6: Generic standards
Part 9: Miscellaneous

Each part is further subdivided into several parts published either as international standards or

as technical specifications or technical reports, some of which have already been published as

sections. Others will be published with the part number followed by a dash and a second number

identifying the subdivision (example: IEC 61000-6-1).

IEC TR 61000-1-4:2005 (first edition) gave a historical rationale for the emission limits for

equipment up to 2005. Since there is new historical material available about the developments

in the past several years, SC77A is adding this new historical material as a revision of

IEC TR 61000-1-4. The revision also clarifies and amends some existing statements that are

now known not to report the history until 2005 correctly.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TR 61000-1-4:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) –
Part 1-4: General – Historical rationale for the limitation
of power-frequency conducted harmonic current emissions
from equipment, in the frequency range up to 2 kHz
1 Scope

This part of IEC 61000, which is a technical report, reviews the sources and effects of power

frequency conducted harmonic current emissions in the frequency range up to 2 kHz on the

public electricity supply, and gives an account of the reasoning and calculations leading to the

existing emission limits for equipment in the editions of IEC 61000-3-2 [1] , up to and including

the fifth edition (2018) with Amendment 1 (2020), and in the second edition of IEC 61000-3-12

(2011) [2].

The history is traced from the first supra-national standard on low-frequency conducted

emissions into the public electricity supply, EN 50006:1975 [3] and its evolution through IEC

(60)555-2 [4] to IEC 61000-3-2 [1], IEC TR 61000-3-4 [5] and IEC 61000-3-12 [2]. To give a full

picture of the history, that of the standard for the measuring instrument IEC 61000-4-7 [6] is

mentioned as well.

NOTE All IEC standards were renumbered starting from 60000 from 1998-01-01. To indicate the references of

standards withdrawn before, or not reprinted after, that date, the “60x” prefix is here enclosed in parentheses. Hence

“IEC (60)555-2”.

Some concepts in this document apply to all low voltage AC systems, but the numerical values

apply specifically to the European 230 V/400 V 50 Hz system.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.
IEC 61000 (all parts), Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 61000 (all parts)

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
___________
1 Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC TR 61000-1-4:2022 © IEC 2022
4 General appraisal

The electricity supply industry intends to supply electric power with a sinusoidal voltage

waveform, and customers' equipment is designed to operate correctly on such a supply.

However, because the internal impedance of the supply system is not zero, a non-linear load

connected by one customer produces distortion of the voltage waveform that can adversely

affect another customer's equipment, as well as equipment in the supply system itself. There is

no type of load or supply system equipment that is totally immune to distortion of the voltage

waveform, and “natural” immunity levels (those achieved by customary designs without special

attention to improving immunity) vary greatly. Based largely on experience of the amounts of

voltage distortion that give rise to evidence of malfunction of, or damage to, equipment,

compatibility levels of voltage distortion for the low-voltage (LV) public supply system have been

determined and are given in IEC 61000-2-2 [7]. The correspondences between these levels and

other values are shown schematically in IEC 61000-2-2:2002, Figure A.1. Compatibility levels

are set as an acceptable compromise between immunity to harmonics and reduction of

emissions. Methods to check that the immunity of equipment to voltage distortion is adequate

are given in IEC 61000-4-13 [8].

NOTE 1 Logically, compatibility levels would be set somewhat below the lowest acceptable immunity levels, but

those data were hard to come by in the past. Recommended immunity levels were first established in IEC 61000-4-13.

The intention of applying limits on the harmonic current emissions of equipment connected to

the public low-voltage (LV) system is to keep the actual levels of voltage distortion on the

system below the compatibility levels for a very large proportion of the time, and below lower

levels, known as planning levels, for a lesser but still large proportion of the time.

NOTE 2 Emissions into the medium-voltage (MV) and high voltage (HV) systems can be controlled by other methods

and procedures. See IEC TR 61000-3-6. [9]

NOTE 3 In some countries, the electricity supply industry places reliance on IEC 61000-3-2 [1] to control emissions

from portable equipment, whether the point of common coupling is at LV, MV or HV.

Emissions from equipment are expressed as currents, because these are largely, but not

completely, independent of the source impedance of the supply system, whereas the voltage

distortion produced by the equipment is almost proportional to the supply-system impedance

and therefore has no definite value. A product that draws a non-linear current from the supply

system can alternatively be regarded as drawing a sinusoidal current, while emitting into the

supply system harmonic currents of the opposite polarity to those that it actually draws.

Compatibility levels are set, using system disturbance data and standardized immunity levels,

so that the probability of the system disturbance level exceeding the lowest immunity test level

is acceptably low, and at present is set at 5 %.

NOTE 4 Because the system disturbance level is an aggregate of the emissions of very many loads, the emission

limits for equipment are set at quite low disturbance levels.

NOTE 5 For system design, planning values of disturbance levels are adopted unilaterally by distribution system

operators; these are not expected to be exceeded but are not subject to standardization.

5 Acceptable provisions in standards related to regulatory legislation

The equipment manufacturing industry can accept requirements in a voluntary standard, whose

application can be determined by custom or moderated during individual contract negotiations,

that would be unacceptable in a standard backed by regulatory enforcement. For example, a

standard can contain provisions that, if fully applied, would result in very long test times. Parties

to a contract might waive these provisions, wholly or partly (calculation or simulation might be

employed, for example) whereas in an enforcement situation, no deviation from the provisions

might be allowed.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC TR 61000-1-4:2022 © IEC 2022 – 9 –
Both EN 50006:1975, 7.1 and IEC (60)555-2:1988, IEC (60)555-2:1988/AMD1:1988 and

IEC (60)555-2:1988/AMD2:1988 ,5.3.1 [4], required the test operator to search for worst-case

conditions using the controls of the equipment under test, and in IEC (60)555-2, this was

required for each harmonic in turn. Such a test might well take many days, with no assurance

that another test operator might not find a different worst-case condition for just one harmonic.

Such a provision was also contained in IEC 61000-3-2:1995 (first edition), Clause C.1 and was

not removed until the publication of IEC 61000-3-2:2000/AMD1:2001 (second edition) [1].

A standard must not include regulatory requirements: it is concerned only with the procedures

necessary to determine whether a product within its scope meets its requirements.

6 History of IEC 61000-3-2 and its predecessors
6.1 History table

The revision histories of IEC 61000-3-2 and IEC 61000-3-12 are given in Annex G (informative).

An up-to-date table of the entire publication history of each IEC publication can be obtained via

the IEC webstore at https://webstore.iec.ch.
6.2 Before 1960

The most numerous non-linear loads were television receivers with half-wave rectifiers.

Because most of these had mains connectors of reversible polarity, the DC components

approximately cancelled. The number of receivers installed was insufficient to create any

significant system problems due to harmonic current emissions, but there is evidence that there

was enough random unbalance of polarity of connection in some countries for the resultant DC

component to cause corrosion problems in underground cables.
6.3 1960 to 1975

Phase-controlled dimmers for household lighting began to be marketed. These created high-

frequency conducted emissions, thus initially drawing the attention of radio-spectrum protection

authorities. Measures to limit these emissions could be made mandatory, but it was also noted

that the dimmers produced harmonic currents and there was no practicable way of reducing the

ratios of harmonic to fundamental current.

A system survey in Europe determined the 90th percentile value for supply impedance for

residential customers (who were mostly fed by overhead LV distribution) as (0,4 + j0,25) Ω, and

this value was included in IEC TR 60725:1981 [10]. In addition it was determined that without

some control of emissions from dimmers, the voltage distortion might grow to exceed acceptable

levels (later to be called “compatibility levels”).

NOTE In IEC (60)555-2:1982, Annex A [4], the supply impedance was regarded as purely resistive and inductive

((0,4 + jh0,25) Ω, where h is the harmonic order number). However, evidence was later presented that showed that

the impedance rises above 500 Hz more nearly proportional to the square root of frequency, rather than proportional

to frequency. The impedance presented to a particular load at the interface with the network (which is what

determines the voltage distortion produced by the current emissions from that load) includes the effect of the

impedances of other loads on the feeder. Even a light 10 kW load due to other equipment considerably lowers the

impedance at high-order harmonic frequencies. See 6.9.

The first standard on this subject (according to its own text it is not based on any previous

standard) was the European standard EN 50006:1975, implemented as various national

standards, including BS 5406:1976. This sta
...

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