Electronic displays - Part 2-4: Transparent displays - Overview of application scenarios

IEC TR 62977-2-4:2018(E) provides a comprehensive overview of application scenarios for transparent displays of the two major display technologies (liquid crystal (LC) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays) and introduces the observation and illumination aspects that are taken into account for the establishment of appropriate measurement methods.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Nov-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
13-Nov-2018
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IEC TR 62977-2-4
Edition 1.0 2018-11
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Electronic displays –
Part 2-4: Transparent displays – Overview of application scenarios
IEC TR 62977-2-4:2018-11(en)
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IEC TR 62977-2-4
Edition 1.0 2018-11
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Electronic displays –
Part 2-4: Transparent displays – Overview of application scenarios
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 31.120; 31.260 ISBN 978-2-8322-6244-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 62977-2-4:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 6

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 6

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 7

4 Application scenarios ....................................................................................................... 7

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 7

4.2 Performance aspects .............................................................................................. 7

4.3 Application cases .................................................................................................... 8

4.4 Intended visual information and unwanted contributions from ambient light ............. 9

4.4.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

4.4.2 Visual information on screen ............................................................................ 9

4.4.3 Visual information behind the screen ............................................................. 10

4.4.4 Intended and disturbing components of light (case 1) .................................... 10

4.4.5 Transmissive transparent display (case 2) ..................................................... 11

4.4.6 Emissive transparent display (case 3) ............................................................ 12

5 Component specifications – For measurement ............................................................... 13

5.1 Spectral radiance .................................................................................................. 13

5.2 Object/scene ......................................................................................................... 14

5.3 Display ................................................................................................................. 14

5.4 Emissive transparent display................................................................................. 14

5.5 Transmissive transparent display .......................................................................... 15

5.6 Precautions during the measurements .................................................................. 15

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 19

Figure 1 – Two objects (i.e. a scenery) located behind and seen through a transparent

display .................................................................................................................................. 11

Figure 2 – On-screen contrast generated by electrically controlled transmittance, T

and T .................................................................................................................................. 11

Figure 3 – Luminance image of a detail of Figure 1 ............................................................... 12

Figure 4 – Two objects (i.e. a scenery) located behind and seen through a transparent

emissive display (emission shown in green for illustration) .................................................... 12

Figure 5 – Example of light which is supposed to be transmitted independently of the

state of the emission, by a transmittance T ......................................................................... 13

Figure 6 – Details of Figure 4 ................................................................................................ 13

Figure 7 – Emissive and transmissive display screen between the observer and the

object/scene ......................................................................................................................... 14

Figure 8 – Illustration of the effect of diffraction (left) and scattering (right) ........................... 16

Figure 9 – Transparent display's scheme for OLED and LCD without background

ambient illumination .............................................................................................................. 17

Figure 10 – Transparent display's on-screen performance affected by ambient

illuminance ........................................................................................................................... 17

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IEC TR 62977-2-4:2018 © IEC 2018 – 3 –

Table 1 – Application cases .................................................................................................... 9

Table 2 – Illustration and explanation of intended and disturbing light components in

the case of transparent display screens (TDS) ...................................................................... 10

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– 4 – IEC TR 62977-2-4:2018 © IEC 2018
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS –
Part 2-4: Transparent displays –
Overview of application scenarios
FOREWORD

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The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

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example "state of the art".

IEC TR 62977-2-4, which is a Technical Report, has been prepared by IEC technical

committee 110: Electronic display devices.
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IEC TR 62977-2-4:2018 © IEC 2018 – 5 –
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
110/972/DTR 110/988A/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62977 series, published under the general title Electronic displays,

can be found on the IEC website.

Future standards in this series will carry the new general title as cited above. Titles of existing

standards in this series will be updated at the time of the next edition.

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– 6 – IEC TR 62977-2-4:2018 © IEC 2018
ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS –
Part 2-4: Transparent displays –
Overview of application scenarios
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62977, which is a Technical Report, provides a comprehensive overview of

application scenarios for transparent displays of the two major display technologies (liquid

crystal (LC) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays) and introduces the observation

and illumination aspects that are taken into account for the establishment of appropriate

measurement methods.

This document only considers direct view displays, it does not include projection displays

(eye-projection and projection to screens.)
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the following terms, definitions and abbreviated terms

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
augmented reality
overlay of real objects and scenes with artificial visual information
3.1.2
intended visual information
visual information to be presented intentionally

Note 1 to entry: Visual information that is not intended can sometimes be observed, for example reflection of

ambient images.
3.1.3
unwanted contributions from ambient light

visual information that is unintentionally generated (by e.g. reflection of ambient light sources)

and superimposed over the intended visual information, thus creating disturbing visual effects

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IEC TR 62977-2-4:2018 © IEC 2018 – 7 –
3.1.4
on-screen contrast

contrast created by the display screen by emission or absorption (transmission), including the

background light transmitted and reflected light, when measured in an ambient lighting

environment
3.1.5
through-screen contrast

contrast of the object or scene behind the transparent display, mainly affected by the

transmissive properties of the transparent display screen, which can also include the

background reflected light and transmitted light outside the regular direction when measured

in an ambient lighting environment
3.2 Abbreviated terms
AR augmented reality
CIE Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage
(International Commission on Illumination)
LC liquid crystal
LCD liquid crystal display
OLED organic light emitting diode
TBLU transparent back-light unit
TDS transparent display screen
VR virtual reality
4 Application scenarios
4.1 General

Transparent displays are considered, for example, for advertising purposes (shop-windows

and showcases, also in combination with touch-screens) and for other similar applications

(e.g. refrigerator doors) where real scenes and objects are overlaid with additional visual

information just as in the case of augmented reality (AR). In airplanes and automobiles head-

up displays are used to present visual information on top of the surrounding scenery. Those

head-up displays, however, use projection optics to display visual information at a certain

distance in front of the observer, so usually no refocusing is required.

Transparent displays may also be realized by a reflective or transmissive screen on which

visual information is being projected, but this case is not considered in this document.

4.2 Performance aspects
Two cases have to be distinguished for the performance of transparent displays:
1) on-screen performance with visual
...

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