Amendment 2 - Ultrasonics - Hydrophones - Part 2: Calibration for ultrasonic fields up to 40 MHz

Amendement 2 - Ultrasons - Hydrophones - Partie 2: Etalonnage des champs ultrasoniques jusqu'à 40 MHz

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Published
Publication Date
21-Mar-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
22-Mar-2017
Completion Date
22-Mar-2017
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IEC 62127-2:2007/AMD2:2017 - Amendment 2 - Ultrasonics - Hydrophones - Part 2: Calibration for ultrasonic fields up to 40 MHz
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IEC 62127-2
Edition 1.0 2017-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
A MENDMENT 2
AM ENDEMENT 2
Ultrasonics – Hydrophones –
Part 2: Calibration for ultrasonic fields up to 40 MHz
Ultrasons – Hydrophones –
Partie 2: Etalonnage des champs ultrasoniques jusqu’à 40 MHz
IEC 62127-2:2007-08/AMD2:2017-03(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62127-2
Edition 1.0 2017-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
A MENDMENT 2
AM ENDEMENT 2
Ultrasonics – Hydrophones –
Part 2: Calibration for ultrasonic fields up to 40 MHz
Ultrasons – Hydrophones –
Partie 2: Etalonnage des champs ultrasoniques jusqu’à 40 MHz
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 17.140.50 ISBN 978-2-8322-3904-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62127-2:2007/AMD2:2017
© IEC 2017
FOREWORD
This amendment has been prepared by IEC technical committee 87: Ultrasonics.
The text of this amendment is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
87/612/CDV 87/639/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this amendment can be found in the report

on voting indicated in the above table.

The committee has decided that the contents of this amendment and the base publication will

remain unchanged until the stability date indicated on the IEC website under

"http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the

publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
_____________
2 Normative references
Add the following new reference:

IEC 61689, Ultrasonics – Physiotherapy systems – Field specifications and methods of

measurement in the frequency range 0,5 MHz to 5 MHz
3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.26
derived instantaneous intensity
(added by Amendment 1)
Delete the following text below the term:
"approximation of the instantaneous intensity"
Replace the existing four lines before Equation (1) by the following:

quotient of squared instantaneous acoustic pressure and characteristic acoustic impedance of

the medium at a particular instant in time at a particular point in an acoustic field

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62127-2:2007/AMD2:2017 – 3 –
© IEC 2017
4 List of symbols
Replace:
ρc specific acoustic impedance
ρc characteristic acoustic impedance of the measurement liquid (water)
Add the following new symbols:

d distance between the auxiliary transducer and the reflector measured along the axis of

symmetry

d distance between the auxiliary transducer and the active element of the hydrophone

measured along the axis of symmetry
d distance between the auxiliary transducer and the last minimum of the acoustic
pressure amplitude along the axis of symmetry of the auxiliary transducer
R amplitude reflection coefficient for the reflector/water interface
Z characteristic acoustic impedance of the reflector
J reciprocity coefficient for plane waves
S apparent transmitting current response of an auxiliary transducer
M apparent receiving voltage response of an auxiliary transducer
p acoustic pressure generated by a transducer at its surface
p acoustic pressure incident on a transducer surface
p acoustic pressure incident on the hydrophone surface
I transmitting current driven to a transducer
U voltage generated by a transducer in the receiving mode

G correction that accounts for the diffraction in the propagation field and is related to the

waveform generation by the transducer and the reception by the hydrophone

G correction that accounts for the diffraction in the propagation field and is related to the

generation and the reception by the transducer
U voltage measured with the transducer coupled to the system
load
I current measured over a short circuit jumper replacing the transducer
9 Free field reciprocity calibration
9.1 General
Replace the existing text by the following:

This clause specifies the primary reference measurement procedure (see JCGM 200:2012,

2.8 [79]) calibration of hydrophones under free field conditions using the principle of

reciprocity.
Add the following new note:

NOTE The free field condition can be achieved in a confined water space by following any of a variety of

measurement procedures, such as with the use of tone-burst (time-gated sine wave – see 10.5.3), time-delay

spectrometry [63, 68], frequency modulated chirp [80, 81] or other techniques [82].

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62127-2:2007/AMD2:2017
© IEC 2017
9.4 Two-transducer reciprocity calibration method
9.4.1 Apparatus
Replace the existing subclause title and text by the following:
9.4.1 Auxiliary transducers

Circularly plane piston auxiliary transducers should be used to generate the ultrasonic field in

the frequency range of interest, limited to the maximum range between 1 MHz and 15 MHz.

The effective radiation area (A ) shall be determined, according to IEC 61689, for each

transducer and at all frequencies the transducer is intended to be used. If a frequency

modulated chirp is to be used as excitation signal, the A shall be determined at least in the

minimum, maximum and one intermediate frequency in the range of interest.

The position of the last minimum of acoustic pressure amplitude along the axis of symmetry,

d , shall be determined with an uncertainty not larger than 1 mm. It shall be done as an on-

axis line scan, according to IEC 61689, at the same frequencies the A was determined. The

near field distance produced by the auxiliary transducer is defined as N = a /λ, where λ is

1 t

the ultrasonic wavelength in water at the frequency of operation and a = 2λd +λ is the

t m
effective radius of the ultrasonic transducer.

NOTE Focusing auxiliary transducers can be used, but several corrections need to be applied, and this document

is only intended for plane-piston transducers. A detailed implementation of a reciprocity-based calibration method

using focusing transducers can be found in [84].

The effective radiation area (A ) is used in the equations of Annex K to properly assess the

diffraction correction and the reciprocity coefficient for plane waves, whilst the last minimum

) is used to indirectly define the near
of pressure amplitude along the axis of symmetry (d

field distance (N ), being N = (2λd + λ )/λ. Although both quantities A and d are directly

1 1 m ER m

linked for ideal transducers, both shall be determined experimentally according to IEC 61689.

9.4.2 Procedure
Replace the existing subclause title and text by the following:
9.4.2 Reflector

The reflector should comprise a flat surface whose smallest linear dimension shall be at least

four times the effective radius of the ultrasonic transducer a . The reflector shall also be flat to

±10 μm, with a surface finish good to ±5 μm (surface roughness: R < 5 μm; R < 5 μm;

v p

R < 1 μm). The thickness of the reflector shall be such that the first reflection from the rear

surface will not interfere with that directly from the front surface for any of the excitation

signals to be used. Special attention shall be given for long burst or low-rate frequency

modulated chirps, mainly at the lowest frequencies of interest.

The amplitude reflection coefficient for the reflector/water interface R shall be

experimentally determined, for instance by the relation R = (Z – ρc)/(Z + ρc), were ρc

RT RT RT

is the characteristic acoustic impedance of the water and Z is the characteristic acoustic

impedance of the reflector.

NOTE R is the maximum valley depth, R is the maximum peak height and R is the arithmetic average

v p a
describing the reflector profile roughness amplitude parameters.
Add the following new subclauses:
9.4.3 Measurement field

As both the auxiliary transducer and the hydrophone have finite apertures, a diffraction

pattern is present in the ultrasonic field. To minimize uncertainties due to the analytical or

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62127-2:2007/AMD2:2017 – 5 –
© IEC 2017

numerical corrections to be applied to the measurement quantities, the nearest measurement

shall be performed at least at 0,9 × N , and the furthest distance shall not be larger than

2,2 × N . Water-air surface and tank walls shall be far enough from the ultrasonic path such

that any reflected waveform will not interfere with the direct waveform at the measurement

spot.

If any structure is too close to the direct ultrasonic waveform path, it shall be covered with

absorbing lining to minimize the interference with the measurement signal, and concern about

that interference shall be included in the uncertainty budget.
9.4.4 Reciprocity approach

Reciprocity can be established as a primary hydrophone calibration method provided some

practical and theoretical details are adopted. Annex K depicts the fundamentals of the

reciprocity approach.
9.4.5 Measurement procedure

Several distinct setups (see Annex K [83, 84, 85]) could be used regarding the positioning of

the three main elements of the two-transducer reciprocity calibration method: auxiliary

transducer, reflector and hydrophone.

Regardless of the configuration adopted, the self-calibration of the auxiliary transducer is the

first step, and it is done to quantify the acoustic pressure generated by the transducer in a

defined spot in the ultrasonic field.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62127-2:2007/AMD2:2017
© IEC 2017
Annex K
(informative)
Two-transducer reciprocity calibration method
Replace the existing Annex K, added by Amendment 1, by the following:
K.1 General

The two-transducer reciprocity method involves the assessment of the acoustic pressure in a

defined spot in the ultrasonic field. To accomplish that, the first step is to assess the

ultrasonic field generated by an auxiliary transducer. The second step is to place the active

element of the hydrophone to be calibrated in a defined spot for which the acoustic pressure

can be defined as precisely as possible.
K.2 Fundamentals of reciprocity

A reversible transducer has an apparent transmitting current response S (ω) and apparent

receiving voltage response M (ω) defined as
p (ω) U(ω)
* 0 * t
S = and M = (K.1)
t t
I(ω) p(ω)
t i

where p is the acoustic pressure generated by the auxiliary transducer at its surface, I is the

transmitting current of the transducer, p is the acoustic pressure incident on the transducer

surface and U is the voltage generated by the transducer in the receiving mode.

NOTE The term ‘acoustic pressure’ is used in Annex K, although it is recognized that in any practical situation

this quantity will vary spatially. Similarly, the electrical output of transducer devices used in reception mode will be

dependent on the acoustic pressure spatially-averaged on their active surface.

If the transducer is reciprocal, the reciprocity coefficient for plane waves J relates S (ω) and

p t
M (ω) as follows:
M (ω)
J = (K.2)
S (ω)
By definition, J = .
ρ c

If the wave generated by a reciprocal transducer propagates in water and reflects off with a

normal incidence at a reflector distant d from the transducer surface placed on its axis of

symmetry, it produces an incident wave whose acoustic pressure can be measured by the

reciprocal transducer. Relating the definition by Equation (K.3)
−2α d
p(ω)= p (ω) R e G (K.3)
0 RT tt

where α is the amplitude attenuation coefficient of plane waves in water and G is the

correction due to the fact that the returning waveform is generated and measured by a finite

transducer, i.e. it accounts for the diffraction in the propagation field and is related to the

generation and reception by the transducer. Combining Equations (K.1), (K.2) and (K.3), the

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62127-2:2007/AMD2:2017 – 7 –
© IEC 2017

acoustic pressure generated by a reciprocal transducer at its surface is related to electrical

and geometrical quantities as follows:
ρ c
p (ω)= U (ω)I (ω) . (K.4)
t t
−2α d
2A R e G
ER RT tt

A normal incidence reflection on the reflector is necessary for the self-calibration. This is

ensured by maximizing the waveform reflection from the reflector as measured by the

transducer. The driven electrical current I is measured with the auxiliary transducer in the

output mode. The input voltage U is measured when the auxiliary transducer is in the input

mode. It should be an open-circuit voltage, and electrical corrections should be applied to the

measured current and voltage.

In sequence, the hydrophone active element is placed in a determined spot in the ultrasonic

field, and the acoustic pressure is maximized in order to assure the alignment of the

hydrophone active element symmetry axis and the transducer symmetry axis. The acoustic

pressure at this point is calculated using the following expression:
−α d
( ) ( ) (K.5)
p ω = p ω e G
0 th

where p is the measured acoustic pressure incident on the hydrophone’s active element if

the hydrophone were removed, d is the distance from the transducer surface to the active

hydrophone element measured on the symmetry axis, and G is the correction that accounts

for the diffraction in the propagation field and is related to the generation transducer and the

reception by the hydrophone.

The open-circuit voltage from the hydrophone U should be measured with p incident on its

h h
active element. The end of cable sensitivity is therefore given as
U (ω)
M(ω)= (K.6)
p (ω)
K.3 Electrical quantities

The transmitting current, I , shall be measured as precisely as possible, which can be

performed in many different ways. Measuring the voltage drop across a calibrated impedance

or using a current probe are typical electrical setups.

The output voltage from the transducer in the receiving mode, U , shall be measured unloaded

by the transducer, i.e. as an open circuit voltage. One way to perform that is to measure the

current over a short circuit replacing the transducer. The open circuit voltage is

I (ω)
U (ω)= U (ω) (K.7)
t load
I (ω)

where U is the voltage measured with the transducer coupled to the system and I is the

load sc
current measured over a short circuit jumper replacing the transducer.

In the case of a constant load assumed throughout the calibration process, corrections

described in Annex C could be applied directly to the final assessed sensitivity.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62127-2:2007/AMD2:2017
© IEC 2017
K.4 Diffraction correction and loss due to nonlinear sound propagation

Due to the finite size of auxiliary transducers and hydrophones, a diffraction pattern

develops in the ultrasonic field. In the two-transducer reciprocity method, two diffraction

corrections are applied: G , correction that accounts for the diffraction in the propagation

field and is related to the waveform generation by the transducer and the reception by the

hydrophone, and G , correction due the generation and the reception by the transducer.

Many references can be used to theoretically describe the diffraction loss in ultrasonic fields

[83, 86, 87], and a numerical implementation of diffraction corrections can be applied [88, 89,

90, 91].
K.5 Ultrasonic field

For the two-transducer reciprocity calibration, the ultrasonic field is shaped by the influence of

many aspects, mainly:

• diffraction pattern for both the auxiliary transducer and hydrophone (see K.3);

• signal type (see Annex G and [8, 80]);
• reflector reflection coefficient (see 9.4.2);
• water path attenuation (see [92]);
• speed of sound (see [36]).

The amplitude attenuation coefficient for plane ultrasonic waves, α, in the megahertz

frequency range is proportional to f  , and should be taken from a polynomial fit as a function

of temperature T in the temperature range from 0 °C to 60 °C [92]:
1 0
 
5,685⋅10 − 3,025⋅10 {T }
 
2  −1 2 −3 3 −15 −2 −1
α / f = + 1,174⋅10 {T } − 2,954⋅10 × {T } ×10 Hz ⋅ m (K.8)
 
−5 4 −7 5
 
+ 3,970⋅10 {T } − 2,111⋅10 {T }
 
NOTE 1 {T} denotes the numerical value of the temperature in °C.
-1 -1

NOTE 2 If the amplitude attenuation coefficient in m is going to be given in dB m , its numerical value should

be multiplied by 20·log (e) = 8,69.

The speed of sound is presented in tables in [36], and polynomial fits are available for

different accuracies, temperature ranges, and barometric pressures. The contribution for the

uncertainty budget should be taken into account regarding the formula used to assess the

speed of sound.

a) Temperature range: 0 °C to 100 °C at atmospheric pressure; accuracy better than

0,02 ms (see [93])
 
1402,39+ 5,03836 {T }− 0,0581173 {T }
 
 −4 3 −6 4 −1
c= + 3,34638⋅10 {T } − 1,48260⋅10 {T } m⋅ s (K.9)
 
−9 5
 
+ 3,16585⋅10 {T }
 

b) Temperature range: 10 °C to 40 °C at atmospheric pressure; accuracy better than

0,18 ms (see [93])
2 −1
c=(1405,03+ 4,624 {T }− 0,0383 {T } )m⋅ s (K.10)
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62127-2:2007/AMD2:2017 – 9 –
© IEC 2017

c) Temperature range: 15 °C to 35 °C at atmospheric pressure; accuracy better than

0,20 ms (see [94])
2 −1
( ) (K.11)
c= 1404,3+ 4,7 {T }− 0,04 {T } m⋅ s
For the atmospheric pressure dependence of the speed of sound, see [95].
K.6 Experimental setup
K.6.1 General

Different experimental arrangements have been proposed to perform the two-transducer

reciprocity calibration. Regardless of the electrical setup, the main concern in the

experimental preparation comprises the positioning of the auxiliary transducer, reflector, and

hydrophone. Three experimental setups are shown, each of them presenting advantages and

drawbacks.
K.6.2 Twisting reflector

Figure K.1 depicts an arrangement in which the reflector is twisted between the two steps of

the calibration procedure. Care should be taken to avoid a large angle of rotation of the

reflector. A maximum of 10° would be acceptable, but the uncertainty of the hydrophone

voltage measurement due to non-normal reflection should be considered. Moreover, for large

membrane hydrophones, it could be a negative issue to set the rotation angle small. Another

negative aspect of this arrangement is that it may not be simple to rotate large and heavy

stainless steel reflectors with appropriate accuracy.
Auxiliary
transducer
Hydrophone
d – d
h 1
Reflector
IEC
Figure K.1 – Experimental setup with a twisting reflector [83]
K.6.3 Translational reflector

Figure K.2 discloses an arrangement in which the reflector is inserted in the path between the

auxiliary transducer and the hydrophone.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62127-2:2007/AMD2:2017
© IEC 2017
Reflector
Auxiliary
transducer
Hydrophone
IEC
Figure K.2 – Experimental setup with a translational reflector [84]
K.6.4 Translational auxiliary transducer

In Figure K.3, the hydrophone and the reflector remain still during the measurement

procedure, and the moving element is the transducer.
Transducer
Plane reflector
Hydrophone
IEC
Figure K.3 – Experimental setup with a translational auxiliary transducer [85]
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 62127-2:2007/AMD2:2017 – 11 –
© IEC 2017
Bibliography
Add the following references:

[79] BIPM JCGM 200:2012, International vocabulary of metrology – Basic and general

concepts and associated terms (VIM).

[80] ISAEV, A.E. and Matveev A.N. Calibration of Hydrophones in a Field with Continuous

Radiation in a Reverberating Pool. Acoustical Physics, 2009, vol. 55, no. 6, p. 762-

770.
[81] COSTA-FELIX, R.P.B. and MACHADO, J.C. Output bandwidth enhancement of a
pulsed ultrasound system using a flat envelope and compensated frequency-
modulated input signal: Theory and experimental applications. Measurement, 2015,
vol. 69, p. 146-154.

[82] ISAEV, A.E. A Quality Criterion for Obtaining Free-Field Conditions when Calibrating a

Hydroacoustic Receiver in a Water Tank with Reflecting Sides. Measurement
Techniques, 2014, vol. 57, no. 5, p. 549-556.

[83] BRENDEL, K., LUDWIG, G. Calibration of Ultrasonic Standard Probe Transducers.

Acustica, 1976, vol. 36, p. 203.

[84] SHOU W, DUAN S, HE P, XIA R, QIAN D. Calibration of a Focusing Transducer and

Miniature Hydrophone As Well As Acoustic Power Measurement Based on Free-Field

Reciprocity in a Spherically Focused Wave Field. IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr.

Freq. Contr., 2006, vol. 53 no. 3, p. 564-570.
[85] OLIVEIRA, E.G., COSTA-FELIX, R.P.B. and MACHADO, J.C. Primary reciprocity-

based method for calibration of hydrophone magnitude and phase sensitivity: complete

tests at frequencies from 1 to 7 MHz. Ultrasonics, 2015, vol. 58, p. 87-95.

[86] BRENDEL, K., LUDWIG, G. Measurement of Ultrasonic Diffraction Loss for Circular

Transducers. Acustica, 1975, vol. 32, p.110.

[87] BEISSNER, K. Free-field Reciprocity Calibration in the Transition Range between Near

Field and Far Field. Acustica, 1980, vol. 46, p.162.
[88] FAY, B. Numerische Berechnung der Beugungsverluste im Schallfeld von
Ultraschallwandlern. Acustica, 1976, vol. 36, p. 209.

[89] KHIMUNIN, A.S. Numerical Calculation of the Diffraction Corrections for the Precise

Measurement of Ultrasound Absorption. Acustica, 1972, vol. 27, p. 173.

[90] BEISSNER, K. Exact integral expression for the diffraction loss of a circular piston

source. Acustica, 1981, vol. 49, p. 212.
[91] YOSHIOKA, SATO, KIKUCHI and MATSUDA. Influence of ultrasonic nonlinear

propagation on hydrophone calibration using two-transducer reciprocity method. Jpn.

J. App. Phys., 2006, vol. 45, No.5B, p.4547-4549.

[92] PINKERTON, J.M.M. A Pulse Method for the Measurement of Ultrasonic Absorption in

Liquids Results for Water. Nature, 1947, vol. 160, p. 128.

[93] BILANIUK, N, WONG, G.S.K. Erratum: Speed of sound in pure water as a function of

temperature, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1996, vol. 99, no. 5, p. 3257.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 62127-2:2007/AMD2:2017
© IEC 2017

[94] LUBBERS, J, GRAAFF, R. A simple and accurate formula for the sound velocity in

water, Ultrasound Med. Biol., 1998, vol 24, no. 7, p. 1065-1068.
[95] BELOGOL'SKII, V.A., SEKOYAN, S.S., SAMORUKOVA, L.M. STEFANOV, S.R.,
Levtsov, V.I. Pressure dependence of the sound velocity in distilled water,
Measurement Techniques, 1999, vol. 42, no. 4, p. 406-413.
_____________
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
– 14 – IEC 62127-2:2007/AMD2:2017
© IEC 2017
AVANT-PROPOS

Le présent amendement a été établi par le comité d'études 87 de l'IEC: Ultrasons.

Le texte de cet amendement est issu des documents suivants:
CDV Rapport de vote
87/612/CDV 87/639/RVC

Le rapport de vote indiqué dans le tableau ci-dessus donne toute information sur le vote ayant

abouti à l'approbation de cet amendement.

Le comité a décidé que le contenu de cet amendement et de la publication de base ne sera

pas modifié avant la date de stabilité indiquée sur le site web de l'IEC sous

"http://webstore.iec.ch" dans les données relatives à la publication recherchée. A cette date,

la publication sera
• reconduite,
• supprimée,
• remplacée par une édition révisée, ou
• amendée.
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2 Références normatives
Ajouter la nouvelle référence suivante:
IEC 61689, Ultrasons – Systèmes de physiothérapie – Spécifications des champs et
méthodes de mesure dans la gamme de fréquences de 0,5 MHz à 5 MHz
3 Termes, définitions et symboles
3.26
intensité instantanée dérivée
(Ajouté par l'Amendement 1)
Supprimer la ligne de texte en dessous du
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