Safety of laser products - Part 14: A user's guide

IEC TR 60825-14:2022 This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2004. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:  
incorporates changes made in IEC 60825-1:2014;
adds information to users of laser equipment on administrative controls to ensure safety in the workplace, including the training and appointment of people to specific laser safety management roles;
updates an approach to risk assessment;
includes updated guidance on the management of incidents and accidents;
includes updated guidance on medical surveillance for laser workers;
includes revised examples of calculations.  This document is intended to help laser users and their employers to understand the general principles of safety management, to identify the hazards that can be present, to assess the risks of harm that can arise, and to set up and maintain appropriate control measures. Although the guidance given in this document is aimed principally at organizations (whether private, corporate or public), where systems of safety management would be expected to be in place, it can be applied by anyone using lasers.
Laser control measures vary widely. They depend on the type of laser equipment in use, the task or process being performed, the environment in which the equipment is used and the personnel who are at risk of harm. Specific requirements for certain laser applications are given in other documents in the IEC 60825 series.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Mar-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
25-Mar-2022
Ref Project

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IEC TR 60825-14
Edition 2.0 2022-03
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Safety of laser products –
Part 14: A user's guide
IEC TR 60825-14:2022-03(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 60825-14
Edition 2.0 2022-03
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Safety of laser products –
Part 14: A user's guide
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 31.260 ISBN 978-2-8322-1087-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 60825-14:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 7

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms, definitions and symbols...................................................................................... 11

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 11

3.2 Symbols ................................................................................................................ 11

4 Administrative policies ................................................................................................... 13

4.1 Safety responsibilities ........................................................................................... 13

4.2 Competent Person ................................................................................................ 13

4.3 Laser Safety Officer .............................................................................................. 13

4.4 Information and training ........................................................................................ 14

4.5 Levels of competence ........................................................................................... 15

4.5.1 Laser Protection Adviser ................................................................................ 15

4.5.2 Laser Safety Officer ....................................................................................... 15

4.5.3 Laser Safety Supervisor ................................................................................ 17

4.5.4 Laser user ..................................................................................................... 17

4.5.5 Awareness for other persons ......................................................................... 17

4.6 Training requirements ........................................................................................... 18

4.7 Accreditation ......................................................................................................... 18

5 Laser radiation hazards ................................................................................................. 19

5.1 Laser products ...................................................................................................... 19

5.1.1 Laser product classification ........................................................................... 19

5.1.2 Product classes ............................................................................................. 19

5.1.3 Embedded lasers ........................................................................................... 22

5.1.4 Optical fibres ................................................................................................. 23

5.1.5 Laser demonstrations and displays ................................................................ 23

5.1.6 Consumer laser products ............................................................................... 24

5.2 Exposure to laser radiation ................................................................................... 24

5.2.1 Maximum permissible exposure ..................................................................... 24

5.2.2 Transient visual effects .................................................................................. 24

5.3 Determining the level of laser exposure ................................................................ 25

5.3.1 The effective exposure .................................................................................. 25

5.3.2 Limiting apertures .......................................................................................... 26

5.3.3 Angle of acceptance for the assessment of exposure from extended

sources.......................................................................................................... 27

5.3.4 Use of binoculars ........................................................................................... 29

6 Determining the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) ................................................. 29

6.1 General remarks ................................................................................................... 29

6.2 Repetitively pulsed or modulated lasers ................................................................ 36

6.3 Multiple wavelengths ............................................................................................. 38

6.4 Extended source MPEs ......................................................................................... 38

6.5 Hazard distance and hazard area.......................................................................... 39

6.5.1 Nominal ocular hazard distance ..................................................................... 39

6.5.2 Nominal ocular hazard area ........................................................................... 39

7 Associated hazards ....................................................................................................... 40

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IEC TR 60825-14:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –

7.1 Additional health hazards ...................................................................................... 40

7.2 Hazards arising from the laser .............................................................................. 40

7.2.1 Electricity....................................................................................................... 40

7.2.2 Collateral radiation ........................................................................................ 40

7.2.3 Other laser radiation ...................................................................................... 41

7.2.4 Hazardous substances .................................................................................. 41

7.2.5 Fume ............................................................................................................. 41

7.2.6 Noise ............................................................................................................. 41

7.2.7 Mechanical hazards ....................................................................................... 41

7.2.8 Fire, explosion and thermal damage .............................................................. 41

7.2.9 Heat and cold ................................................................................................ 42

7.3 Hazards arising from the environment ................................................................... 42

7.3.1 Temperature and humidity ............................................................................. 42

7.3.2 Mechanical shock and vibration ..................................................................... 42

7.3.3 Atmospheric effects ....................................................................................... 42

7.3.4 Electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference ......................................... 42

7.3.5 Power supply interruption or fluctuation ......................................................... 42

7.3.6 Computer software problems ......................................................................... 42

7.3.7 Ergonomic and human-factor considerations ................................................. 42

7.4 Control of associated hazards ............................................................................... 43

8 Evaluating risk ............................................................................................................... 43

8.1 Hazards and risks ................................................................................................. 43

8.2 Risk assessment: Stage 1 – Identifying potentially injurious situations .................. 44

8.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 44

8.2.2 The hazards involved ..................................................................................... 44

8.2.3 The laser environment ................................................................................... 44

8.2.4 The people at risk .......................................................................................... 44

8.3 Risk assessment: Stage 2 – Assessing risk for potentially injurious situations ....... 45

8.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 45

8.3.2 Frequency ..................................................................................................... 45

8.3.3 Severity ......................................................................................................... 45

8.3.4 Resultant risk ................................................................................................ 45

8.4 Risk assessment: Stage 3 – Selecting control measures ....................................... 46

9 Control measures .......................................................................................................... 46

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 46

9.2 Hazard reduction .................................................................................................. 47

9.3 Enclosing the hazard ............................................................................................ 48

9.3.1 Beam enclosures ........................................................................................... 48

9.3.2 Viewing windows ........................................................................................... 48

9.3.3 Interlock protection ........................................................................................ 48

9.4 Hazard mitigation .................................................................................................. 49

9.4.1 Preventing access ......................................................................................... 49

9.4.2 Laser controlled areas ................................................................................... 50

9.4.3 Local rules and procedures ............................................................................ 56

9.4.4 Localized risk reduction ................................................................................. 57

9.4.5 Personal protection ........................................................................................ 58

9.4.6 Protective clothing ......................................................................................... 61

9.5 Equipment servicing .............................................................................................. 61

9.5.1 Increased risks during laser equipment servicing ........................................... 61

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– 4 – IEC TR 60825-14:2022 © IEC 2022

9.5.2 Temporary laser controlled areas................................................................... 61

9.5.3 Controls during servicing ............................................................................... 62

9.5.4 Visiting installation and service engineers ..................................................... 62

10 Maintenance of safe operation ....................................................................................... 62

11 Contingency plans ......................................................................................................... 63

11.1 General ................................................................................................................. 63

11.2 Dealing with an actual eye injury ........................................................................... 63

11.3 Dealing with an actual skin injury .......................................................................... 63

11.4 Dealing with a suspected eye injury ...................................................................... 64

12 Incident reporting and accident investigation ................................................................. 64

13 Medical surveillance ...................................................................................................... 64

Annex A (informative) Examples of interlock systems for laser controlled areas ................... 65

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 65

A.2 Common elements ................................................................................................ 65

A.2.1 Interlock control system ................................................................................. 65

A.2.2 Door interlock switches .................................................................................. 65

A.2.3 Override switches .......................................................................................... 65

A.2.4 Shutter .......................................................................................................... 66

A.2.5 Illuminated warning sign ................................................................................ 66

A.2.6 Emergency stop switch .................................................................................. 66

A.2.7 Electric locks (door strikes) ............................................................................ 66

A.2.8 Non-locking interlock systems (see Figure A.1) ............................................. 66

A.2.9 Locking interlock systems (see Figure A.2) .................................................... 66

Annex B (informative) Examples of calculations ................................................................... 69

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 69

B.2 Symbols used in the examples of Annex B ............................................................ 69

B.3 Maximum permissible exposure (MPE) – Overview ............................................... 69

B.4 Maximum permissible exposure (MPE) – Single small source ............................... 70

B.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 70

B.4.2 Example for a helium-cadmium laser ............................................................. 70

B.4.3 Example for a pulsed ruby laser ..................................................................... 70

B.4.4 Example for a single pulse of a gallium-arsenide laser ................................... 70

B.4.5 Example for a continuous wave helium-neon laser ......................................... 71

B.5 Maximum permissible exposure (MPE) – Repetitively pulsed systems ................... 71

B.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 71

B.5.2 Example for a pulsed argon laser................................................................... 71

B.5.3 Example for a pulsed Nd:YAG laser ............................................................... 73

B.6 Nominal ocular hazard distance (NOHD) ............................................................... 74

B.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 74

B.6.2 Example NOHD for a Gaussian beam with negligible atmospheric

attenuation .................................................................................................... 79

B.6.3 Example of NOHD with beam expanding optics ............................................. 80

B.6.4 Example of NOHD with atmospheric attenuation ............................................ 80

B.6.5 Example of NOHD for a helium-neon laser with an expanding beam .............. 81

B.6.6 Example for an infrared surveying instrument ................................................ 82

B.6.7 Example for a Q-switched rangefinder ........................................................... 83

B.6.8 Example for a CW optical fibre transmitter ..................................................... 85

B.7 Diffuse reflections that are extended sources ........................................................ 87

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IEC TR 60825-14:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –

B.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 87

B.7.2 Example for a reflection from a perfect diffuser .............................................. 88

B.7.3 Example for close viewing of reflection from a perfect diffuser ....................... 89

B.7.4 Example for assessing the minimum safe viewing distance ............................ 90

B.8 Eye protection ....................................................................................................... 90

B.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 90

B.8.2 Example protective eyewear for example B.6.7 .............................................. 91

B.8.3 Example protective eyewear for example B.6.2 .............................................. 91

B.9 Example for a complex laser diode array source ................................................... 92

B.9.1 General ......................................................................................................... 92

B.9.2 Single diode .................................................................................................. 94

B.9.3 Horizontal two-diode group ............................................................................ 95

B.9.4 Vertical two-diode group ................................................................................ 95

B.9.5 Four-diode group ........................................................................................... 95

B.9.6 One row of 10 diodes ..................................................................................... 96

B.9.7 20-diode group .............................................................................................. 97

B.9.8 Additional remarks ......................................................................................... 97

B.9.9 Required optical density ................................................................................ 98

B.9.10 Use of an optical device................................................................................. 98

Annex C (informative) Biophysical considerations .............................................................. 100

C.1 Anatomy of the eye ............................................................................................. 100

C.2 The effects of laser radiation on biological tissue ................................................ 101

C.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 101

C.2.2 Hazards to the eye ...................................................................................... 103

C.2.3 Skin hazards ................................................................................................ 106

C.3 MPEs and irradiance averaging .......................................................................... 107

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 108

Figure 1 – Measurement set-ups to achieve a well-defined angle of acceptance ................... 28

Figure 2 – Combination of safety signs ................................................................................. 54

Figure 3 – Warning; Laser beam symbol (ISO 7010-W004:2011-05), .................................... 54

Figure 4 – Wear eye protection symbol (ISO 7010-M004:2011-05) ........................................ 55

Figure 5 – No thoroughfare symbol (ISO 7010-P004:2011-05) .............................................. 56

Figure A.1 – Non-locking interlock system ............................................................................ 67

Figure A.2 – Locking interlock system ................................................................................... 68

Figure B.1 – Nominal ocular hazard distance ........................................................................ 75

Figure B.2 – Chart for determining the NOHD (with various atmospheric attenuation

factors from the NOHD found without considering atmospheric attenuation) .......................... 78

Figure B.3 – Laser diode array with three groupings ............................................................. 92

Figure C.1 – Anatomy of the eye ......................................................................................... 100

Figure C.2 – Diagram of laser-induced damage in biological systems ................................. 102

Table 1 – Default protective control measures for laser products .......................................... 22

Table 2 – The diameter of the limiting aperture applicable to measurements of

irradiance and radiant exposure (t is time of the relevant exposure, either pulse

duration or total exposure) .................................................................................................... 26

Table 3 – Typical transmission percentages for binoculars .................................................... 29

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– 6 – IEC TR 60825-14:2022 © IEC 2022
Table 4 – Maximum permissible exposure (MPE) at the cornea for small sources
a,b

expressed as irradiance or radiant exposure ................................................................... 31

Table 5 – Maximum permissible exposure (MPE) at the cornea for extended sources in

the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1 400 nm (retinal hazard region) expressed as

irradiance or radiant exposure .............................................................................................. 32

Table 6 – Maximum permissible exposure (MPE) of Table 4 (C = 1) for the
a,b

wavelength range from 400 nm to 1 400 nm expressed as power or energy ................... 33

Table 7 – Maximum permissible exposure (MPE) of Table 5 (extended sources) for the

a,b

wavelength range from 400 nm to 1 400 nm expressed as power or energy .................... 34

a,b

Table 8 – Maximum permissible exposure (MPE) of the skin to laser radiation ................ 35

Table 9 – Correction factors and breakpoints for use in MPE evaluations ............................. 35

Table 10 – Duration T below which pulse groups are summed up ......................................... 38

Table 11 – Additivity of effects on eye (O) and skin (S) of radiation of different spectral

regions ................................................................................................................................. 38

Table 12 – Laser controlled areas ......................................................................................... 51

Table C.1 – Summary of pathological effects from excessive exposure to light ................... 104

Table C.2 – Explanation of measurement apertures applied to the MPEs ............................ 107

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IEC TR 60825-14:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SAFETY OF LASER PRODUCTS –
Part 14: A user's guide
FOREWORD

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