Semiconductor devices - Non-destructive recognition criteria of defects in silicon carbide homoepitaxial wafer for power devices - Part 1: Classification of defects

IEC 63068-1:2019(E) gives a classification of defects in as-grown 4H-SiC (Silicon Carbide) epitaxial layers. The defects are classified on the basis of their crystallographic structures and recognized by non-destructive detection methods including bright-field OM (optical microscopy), PL (photoluminescence), and XRT (X-ray topography) images.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Jan-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
30-Jan-2019
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IEC 63068-1:2019 - Semiconductor devices - Non-destructive recognition criteria of defects in silicon carbide homoepitaxial wafer for power devices - Part 1: Classification of defects
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IEC 63068-1
Edition 1.0 2019-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Semiconductor devices – Non-destructive recognition criteria of defects in
silicon carbide homoepitaxial wafer for power devices –
Part 1: Classification of defects
IEC 63068-1:2019-01(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63068-1
Edition 1.0 2019-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Semiconductor devices – Non-destructive recognition criteria of defects in
silicon carbide homoepitaxial wafer for power devices –
Part 1: Classification of defects
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 31.080.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-6479-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63068-1:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Classification of defects ................................................................................................. 10

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

4.2 Description of the defect classes........................................................................... 11

4.2.1 Examples of defects ...................................................................................... 11

4.2.2 Point defect ................................................................................................... 11

4.2.3 Micropipe ....................................................................................................... 11

4.2.4 TSD ............................................................................................................... 12

4.2.5 TED ............................................................................................................... 13

4.2.6 BPD ............................................................................................................... 14

4.2.7 Scratch trace ................................................................................................. 15

4.2.8 Stacking fault ................................................................................................. 16

4.2.9 Propagated stacking fault .............................................................................. 17

4.2.10 Stacking fault complex ................................................................................... 18

4.2.11 Polytype inclusion .......................................................................................... 19

4.2.12 Particle inclusion ........................................................................................... 20

4.2.13 Bunched-step segment .................................................................................. 21

4.2.14 Surface particle ............................................................................................. 22

4.2.15 Others ........................................................................................................... 22

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 23

Figure 1 – Micropipe ............................................................................................................. 12

Figure 2 – TSD ..................................................................................................................... 13

Figure 3 – TED ..................................................................................................................... 14

Figure 4 – BPD ..................................................................................................................... 15

Figure 5 – Scratch trace ........................................................................................................ 16

Figure 6 – Stacking fault ....................................................................................................... 17

Figure 7 – Propagated stacking fault ..................................................................................... 18

Figure 8 – Stacking fault complex ......................................................................................... 19

Figure 9 – Polytype inclusion ................................................................................................ 20

Figure 10 – Particle inclusion ................................................................................................ 21

Figure 11 – Bunched-step segment ....................................................................................... 22

Table 1 – Classification of defects ........................................................................................ 11

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IEC 63068-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
NON-DESTRUCTIVE RECOGNITION CRITERIA OF DEFECTS IN SILICON
CARBIDE HOMOEPITAXIAL WAFER FOR POWER DEVICES –
Part 1: Classification of defects
FOREWORD

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International Standard IEC 63068-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 47:

Semiconductor devices.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
47/2474/CDV 47/2521A/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

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– 4 – IEC 63068-1:2019 © IEC 2019

A list of all parts in the IEC 63068 series, published under the general title Semiconductor

devices – Non-destructive recognition criteria of defects in silicon carbide homoepitaxial wafer

for power devices, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 63068-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Silicon carbide (SiC) is widely used as a semiconductor material for next-generation power

semiconductor devices. SiC, as compared with silicon (Si), has superior physical properties

such as a higher breakdown electric field, higher thermal conductivity, lower thermal

generation rate, higher saturated electron drift velocity, and lower intrinsic carrier

concentration. Their attributes realize SiC-based power semiconductor devices with faster

switching speeds, lower losses, higher blocking voltages, and higher temperature operation

relative to standard Si-based power semiconductor devices.

SiC-based power semiconductor devices are not fully realized due to high costs, low yield,

and perceived reliability concerns. One of the serious issues lies in the defects existing in SiC

homoepitaxial wafers. Although an effort of decreasing defects in the SiC homoepitaxial layer

is actively implemented, there are a number of defects (approximately 1 000 defects/cm ) in

commercially available SiC homoepitaxial wafers. Therefore, it is indispensable to establish

an international standard regarding the quality assessment of SiC homoepitaxial wafers.

The IEC 63068 series of standards is planned to comprise Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3, as

detailed below. The outline of this Part 1 is to list, illustrate and provide reference for various

characteristic features and defects that are observed on SiC homoepitaxial wafers of

crystallographic polytype 4H used in high-power semiconductor device manufacturing.

Part 1: Classification of defects
Part 2: Test method for defects using optical inspection
Part 3: Test method for defects using photoluminescence
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– 6 – IEC 63068-1:2019 © IEC 2019
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
NON-DESTRUCTIVE RECOGNITION CRITERIA OF DEFECTS IN SILICON
CARBIDE HOMOEPITAXIAL WAFER FOR POWER DEVICES –
Part 1: Classification of defects
1 Scope

This part of IEC 63068 gives a classification of defects in as-grown 4H-SiC (Silicon Carbide)

epitaxial layers. The defects are classified on the basis of their crystallographic structures and

recognized by non-destructive detection methods including bright-field OM (optical

microscopy), PL (photoluminescence), and XRT (X-ray topography) images.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
silicon carbide
SiC

semiconductor crystal composed of silicon and carbon, which exhibits a large number of

polytypes such as 3C, 4H, and 6H

Note 1 to entry: A symbol like 4H gives the number of periodic stacking layers (2, 3, 4,…) and the crystal

symmetry (H = hexagonal, C = cubic) of each polytype.
3.2
3C-SiC

SiC crystal with zinc blende structure, in which three Si-C layers are periodically arranged

along the <111> direction
3.3
4H-SiC

SiC crystal showing a hexagonal symmetry, in which four Si-C layers are periodically

arranged along the crystallographic c-axis

Note 1 to entry: The crystal structure of 4H-SiC is similar to wurtzite with a unit cell having four periodical

occupied sites along the <0001> direction.
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IEC 63068-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 7 –
3.4
6H-SiC

SiC crystal showing a hexagonal symmetry, in which six Si-C layers are periodically arranged

along the crystallographic c-axis

Note 1 to entry: The crystal structure of 6H-SiC is similar to wurtzite with a unit cell having six periodical occupied

sites along the <0001> direction.
3.5
crystal plane

plane, usually denoted as (hkl), representing the intersection of a plane with the a-, b- and c-

axes of the unit cell at distances of 1/h, 1/k and 1/l, where h, k and l are integers

Note 1 to entry: The integers h, k and l are usually referred to as the Miller indices of a crystal plane.

Note 2 to entry: In 4H-SiC showing a hexagonal symmetry, four-digit indices are frequently used for planes (hkil).

[SOURCE: ISO 24173:2009, 3.2, modified – Note 2 to entry has been entirely redrafted.]

3.6
crystal direction

direction, denoted as [uvw], representing a vector direction in multiples of the basis vectors

describing the a-, b- and c-axes

Note 1 to entry: In 4H-SiC showing a hexagonal symmetry, four-digit indices [uvtw] are frequently used for crystal

directions.

Note 2 to entry: Families of symmetrically equivalent directions are written by and for cubic and

hexagonal symmetries, respectively.

[SOURCE: ISO 24173:2009, 3.3, modified – Note 1 to entry and Note 2 to entry have been

added.]
3.7
polytypism

phenomenon where a material occurs in several structural modifications, each of which can

be regarded as built up by stacking layers of identical structure and chemical composition

3.8
polytype
one of the modifications of monocrystalline material which shows polytypism
3.9
substrate
material on which homoepitaxial layer is deposited
3.10
homoepitaxial layer

thin monocrystalline film epitaxially-formed on a substrate of the same material and

crystallographic orientation, inheriting the atomic order of the substrate
3.11
crystal
mon
...

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