Semiconductor devices - Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and generation - Part 6: Test and evaluation methods for vertical contact mode triboelectric energy harvesting devices

IEC 62830-6:2019(E) defines terms, definitions, symbols, and specifies configurations and test methods to be used to evaluate and determine the performance characteristics of vertical contact mode triboelectric energy harvesting devices for practical use. This document is applicable to energy harvesting devices as power sources for wearable devices and wireless sensors used in healthcare monitoring, consumer electronics, general industries, military and aerospace applications without any limitations on device technology and size.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Jul-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
25-Jul-2019
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IEC 62830-6
Edition 1.0 2019-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Semiconductor devices – Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and
generation –
Part 6: Test and evaluation methods for vertical contact mode triboelectric
energy harvesting devices
IEC 62830-6:2019-07(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62830-6
Edition 1.0 2019-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Semiconductor devices – Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and
generation –
Part 6: Test and evaluation methods for vertical contact mode triboelectric
energy harvesting devices
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 31.080.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-7165-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62830-6:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

3.1 General terms ......................................................................................................... 6

3.2 Triboelectric transducer .......................................................................................... 7

3.3 Characteristic parameters ....................................................................................... 8

4 Essential ratings and characteristics .............................................................................. 10

4.1 Identification and type ........................................................................................... 10

4.2 Limiting values and operating conditions ............................................................... 10

4.3 Additional information ........................................................................................... 10

5 Test method .................................................................................................................. 10

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

5.2 Electrical characteristics ....................................................................................... 12

5.2.1 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 12

5.2.2 Open-circuit voltage ....................................................................................... 13

5.2.3 Short-circuit current ....................................................................................... 13

5.2.4 Output voltage ............................................................................................... 14

5.2.5 Output current ............................................................................................... 14

5.2.6 Output power ................................................................................................. 15

5.2.7 Optimal load impedance ................................................................................ 15

5.2.8 Maximum output power .................................................................................. 15

5.2.9 Stored charge ................................................................................................ 15

5.2.10 Capacitance .................................................................................................. 16

5.3 Mechanical characteristics .................................................................................... 17

5.3.1 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 17

5.3.2 Contact area .................................................................................................. 17

5.3.3 Input force ..................................................................................................... 18

5.3.4 Input frequency .............................................................................................. 19

5.3.5 Relative humidity range ................................................................................. 19

5.3.6 Temperature range ........................................................................................ 20

Annex A (informative) Vertical contact modes ...................................................................... 21

A.1 Double electrode mode ......................................................................................... 21

A.2 Single electrode mode .......................................................................................... 21

Annex B (informative) Test setup for vertical contact mode triboelectric energy

harvester .............................................................................................................................. 22

B.1 Example of test setup and characterization ........................................................... 22

B.2 Experimental data ................................................................................................. 22

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 24

Figure 1 – Vertical contact mode triboelectric energy harvester .............................................. 7

Figure 2 – Fundamental theories of four working modes of vertical contact mode

triboelectric energy harvester .................................................................................................. 8

Figure 3 – Equivalent circuit of triboelectric energy harvester ................................................. 9

Figure 4 – Measurement procedure of vertical contact mode triboelectric energy

harvester .............................................................................................................................. 11

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IEC 62830-6:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –

Figure 5 – Test setup for the electrical characteristics of vertical contact mode

triboelectric energy harvester ................................................................................................ 12

Figure 6 – Instantaneous open-circuit output voltage characteristics ..................................... 13

Figure 7 – Instantaneous short-circuit output current characteristics ..................................... 14

Figure 8 – Output voltage and current of triboelectric energy harvester under different

loads..................................................................................................................................... 14

Figure 9 – Output power of triboelectric energy harvester at various external loads .............. 15

Figure 10 – Stored charging time relationship at different load capacitances of

triboelectric energy harvester ................................................................................................ 16

Figure 11 – Capacitance between the two electrodes of a triboelectric energy harvester ...... 16

Figure 12 – Block diagram of a test setup for evaluating the reliability of vertical

contact mode triboelectric energy harvester .......................................................................... 17

Figure 13 – Instantaneous open-circuit voltage characteristics for four different contact

areas of contact mode triboelectric energy harvester ............................................................ 18

Figure 14 – Output voltage and current under different input forces on vertical contact

mode triboelectric energy harvester ...................................................................................... 18

Figure 15 – Output voltage and current under different working frequencies on vertical

contact mode triboelectric energy harvester .......................................................................... 19

Figure 16 – Triboelectric output voltage as a function of relative humidity ............................. 20

Figure 17 – Open-circuit voltage of triboelectric energy harvester at different

temperatures ........................................................................................................................ 20

Figure A.1 – Operation mode of vertical contact mode triboelectric energy harvester ............ 21

Figure B.1 – Measurement setup for vertical contact mode triboelectric energy

harvester .............................................................................................................................. 22

Figure B.2 – Electrical characterization results of the pressure-voltage relationship .............. 23

Table 1 – Specification parameters for vertical contact mode triboelectric energy

harvester .............................................................................................................................. 10

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– 4 – IEC 62830-6:2019 © IEC 2019
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES FOR
ENERGY HARVESTING AND GENERATION –
Part 6: Test and evaluation methods for vertical
contact mode triboelectric energy harvesting devices
FOREWORD

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International Standard IEC 62830-6 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 47:

Semiconductor devices.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
47/2573/FDIS 47/2585/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62830-6:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –

A list of all parts in the IEC 62830 series, published under the general title Semiconductor

devices – Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and generation, can be found on the

IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
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– 6 – IEC 62830-6:2019 © IEC 2019
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES FOR
ENERGY HARVESTING AND GENERATION –
Part 6: Test and evaluation methods for vertical
contact mode triboelectric energy harvesting devices
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62830 defines terms, definitions, symbols, and specifies configurations and

test methods to be used to evaluate and determine the performance characteristics of vertical

contact mode triboelectric energy harvesting devices for practical use. This document is

applicable to energy harvesting devices as power sources for wearable devices and wireless

sensors used in healthcare monitoring, consumer electronics, general industries, military and

aerospace applications without any limitations on device technology and size.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
vertical contact

physical touching of two objects having relative movement at right angles to their planes at

the point of contact

Note 1 to entry: A vertical contact mode triboelectric energy harvester which converts physical contact to

electricity and is comprised of dielectric materials, surface electrode, external load, and air gap between dielectric

materials, is shown in Figure 1.

Note 2 to entry: The theories for four working modes of a contact triboelectric energy harvester are shown in

Figure 2.
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IEC 62830-6:2019 © IEC 2019 – 7 –
Key
Configuration of energy harvester Components to operate an energy harvester
El 1, El 2 electrode F pressing and releasing force
DE 1, DE 2 dielectric material R external load
Figure 1 – Vertical contact mode triboelectric energy harvester
3.1.2
nanogenerator

type of technology that converts mechanical/thermal energy as produced by small-scale

physical change into electricity
3.2 Triboelectric transducer
3.2.1
contact based energy harvester

energy transducer that transforms physical energy due to deceleration/acceleration of the

moving contact into electrical energy
3.2.2
triboelectric effect

type of contact electrification in which certain materials become electrically charged after they

come into frictional contact and separation action with a different material
3.2.3
triboelectric series

list of materials, some of which have a greater tendency to become positive (+) and the others

have a greater tendency to become negative (−)
3.2.4
triboelectric transducer

energy converter to generate electricity from mechanical energy by means of triboelectric

effect
3.2.5
surface roughness

quantified surface texture by the deviations in the direction of the normal vector of a

real surface from its ideal form
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– 8 – IEC 62830-6:2019 © IEC 2019
a) dielectric-to-dielectric contact b) dielectric-to-conductor
double electrode mode contact double electrode mode
c) dielectric-to-primary conductor d) dielectric-to-conductor contact
contact single electrode mode single electrode mode
Key
Parameters of basic operation
d dielectric thickness Q transferred charge
x(t) gap between dielectric materials V potential difference
σ charge g gap between two electrodes

NOTE: The two major vertical contact modes, i.e. double electrode mode and single electrode mode, are

described in Annex A (informative).
Figure 2 – Fundamental theories of four working modes
of vertical contact mode triboelectric energy harvester
3.3 Characteristic parameters
3.3.1
equivalent circuit

arrangement of ideal circuit elements that has circuit parameters, over a range of interest,

electrically equivalent to those of a particular circuit or device

Note 1 to entry: A vertical contact mode triboelectric energy harvester can be shown into parts as shown in

Figure 3. The equivalent circuit consists of capacitance C which stores the charge as +Q and -Q, open-circuit

voltage source V and external load R.
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IEC 62830-6:2019 © IEC 2019 – 9 –
a) b)
Key parameters
C capacitance R external load
TENG load
d dielectric thickness open-circuit voltage
TENG
TENG Tribo-electric nano-generator x(t) gap between dielectric materials
m movable mass spring
c damper u , u substrates
z z1 z2
Figure 3 – Equivalent circuit of triboelectric energy harvester
3.3.2
optimum load impedance
opt
value of load impedance at which the load absorbs the maximum energy
3.3.3
contact area
area of physical contact of one object with the other object

Note 1 to entry: When two objects touch, a certain portion of their surface areas will be in contact with each

other. The contact area is the fraction of this area that consists of the atoms of one object in contact with the atoms

of the other object. Because objects are never perfectly flat due to asperities, the actual contact area (on a

microscopic scale) is usually much less than the contact area apparent on a macroscopic scale. The contact area

can depend on the normal force between the two objects due to deformation.
3.3.4
input frequency
rate at which a repetitive force is applied
3.3.5
surface contact time
time of contact between two triboelectric surfaces

Note 1 to entry: The bigger the surface contact, the greater the net charge on the two surfaces after separation.

3.3.6
relative humidity range

range of humidity as measured on the enclosure over which the energy harvester will not

sustain permanent damage though not necessarily functioning within the certain tolerances

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– 10 – IEC 62830-6:2019 © IEC 2019
3.3.7
temperature range

range of temperature as measured on the enclosure over which the energy harvester will not

sustain permanent damage though not necessarily functioning within the specified tolerances

4 Essential ratings and characteristics
4.1 Identification and type

The energy harvester shall be clearly and durably marked in the order given below:

a) year and week (or month) of manufacture;
b) manufacturer’s name or trademark;
c) terminal identification (optional);
d) serial number;
e) factory identification code (optional).
4.2 Limiting values and operating conditions

The characteristic parameters should be listed as shown in Table 1. The manufacturer shall

clearly announce the operating conditions and their limitation for energy harvesting. The

limiting value is the maximum operating cycle to ensure the operation of the vertical contact

mode energy harvester for power generation without any damage. Some mandatory input

parameters, such as applied force, input frequency, number of cycles and internal impedance

of the harvester shall be recorded. Some optional input parameters, such as surface

roughness, material strain, capacitance, and dimension of the harvester shall also be

recorded. Some mandatory output parameters are open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current,

output voltage (for matching load), output current (for matching load), charge transfer

between electrodes, and optimum load impedance. Some optional output parameters, such as

rectified voltage and current, capacitor charging voltage, and reliability shall also be recorded.

Table 1 – Specification parameters for vertical contact
mode triboelectric energy harvester
Measuring
Parameters Symbol Min. Max. Unit
conditions
4.3 Additional information

Some additional information should be given such as equivalent circuits, handling precautions,

physical information (outline dimensions, terminals, etc.), accessories, installation guide,

package information, PCB interface and mounting information, and other information.

5 Test method
5.1 General

Basically, general test procedures for a contact-based energy harvester are performed as

shown in Figure 4. After the energy harvester has been mounted on a test fixture, the

harvester is characterized by using an electrometer and force gauge. To measure and

characterize these devices accurately, ultra-high-impedance meters should be used.

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 62830-6:2019 © IEC 2019 – 11 –

Before connecting the energy harvester to the test fixture, measuring meters shall be

calibrated. After calibration, a test cable is connected to the energy harvester test fixture

mounted on an actuator or force gauge. The output voltage or current reading on the display

of the meters is carefully taken, together with induced excitation which is measured by the

force sensor. The measurement method is common and independent of the materials or the

dimension of the device.

NOTE After mounting the energy harvester on an actuator, the electrical characteristics are measured by using a

meter or equivalent equipment. If the measurements are satisfactory, the reliability test for the temperature range

with thermal cycling and mechanical failure with various excitation is performed for commercial use.

Key
Procedure Reference subclause Procedure Reference subclause
Start Maximum output power 5.2.8
Electrical Stored charge 5.2.9
characterization
Capacitance 5.2.10
Open-circuit voltage 5.2.2 Mechanical
characterization
Contact area 3.3.3 and 5.3.2
Output voltage 5.2.4 Input force 5.3.3
Output current 5.2.5 Input frequency 3.3.4 and 5.3.4
Output power 5.2.6 Relative humidity range 3.3.6 and 5.3.5
Optimum load 3.3.2 and 5.2.7 Temperature range 3.3.7 and 5.3.6
impedance
Figure 4 – Measurement procedure of vertical
contact mode triboelectric energy harvester
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– 12 – IEC 62830-6:2019 © IEC 2019
5.2 Electrical characteristics
5.2.1 Test procedure

Figure 5 shows a test setup for measuring the electrical characteristics of a device under test.

To measure the electrical characteristics of the energy harvester, the device shall be mounted

on a linear motor or force gauge. When a continuous excitation with specified acceleration

and frequency is applied to the device, an output voltage or current across an external load is

measured. Before the contact-separation operation happens, the initial surface potential of

the interfacing material is zero. Therefore, the output performances (voltage, current and

charge) of the harvester experience unsteady change at the initial cycles of operation and

then reach a stable value. This unsteady change of output lasts between the first 1 to 5 cycles

of operation, based on the inherent properties of the interfacing materials. To avoid this

unavoidable unsteady change, it is recommended to take the output data after the first five

cycles of operation. In case a custom-made testing setup other than a linear motor or force

gauge is used, some input parameters, such as input frequency, applied force, and operating

cycles shall be monitored using precision sensing equipment.
The following test procedure is performed:
a) A specified excitation is induced to the energy harvester.

b) The voltage or current across the external load which is connected to the terminals of the

energy harvester is measured using a voltage or current meter.

c) The voltage and current are measured with various excitations by adjusting the

parameters via computer.

d) The maximum voltage and current are derived from various external loads to find the

optimal load.
Key
Input exciter and meters to monitor
DUT: device under test energy harvester Linear to apply force as input into
motor energy harvester

Electrometer to detect voltage, current, amount Controller to control linear motor and force

of charge transfer and resistance gauge
to select input excitation and to Stress and to monitor the stress and strain
Computer
get data points strain of energy harvesting device
sensor
NOTE A practical example of the test setup is shown in the Annex B.
Figure 5 – Test setup for the electrical characteristics
of vertical contact mode triboelectric energy harvester
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IEC 62830-6:2019 © IEC 2019 – 13 –
5.2.2 Open-circuit voltage

The objective of this test is to measure the instantaneous output voltage across the terminals

of the energy harvester without external load. When measuring the open-circuit voltage, the

input impedance of the voltage meter shall be recorded. Figure 6 shows the graphical shape

of a measured instantaneous open-circuit output RMS voltage as a function of time. When

measuring voltage, the input impedance of the meter shall be many decades higher than the

impedance of the voltage source. For example, if the meter’s input impedance is only 1 GΩ

(typical of DMMs), and the source of the voltage has 10 MΩ
...

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