Sustainability criteria for bioenergy

ISO 13065:2015 specifies principles, criteria and indicators for the bioenergy supply chain to facilitate assessment of environmental, social and economic aspects of sustainability. ISO 13065:2015 is applicable to the whole supply chain, parts of a supply chain or a single process in the supply chain. ISO 13065:2015 applies to all forms of bioenergy, irrespective of raw material, geographical location, technology or end use. ISO 13065:2015 does not establish thresholds or limits and does not describe specific bioenergy processes and production methods. Compliance with ISO 13065:2015 does not determine the sustainability of processes or products. ISO 13065:2015 is intended to facilitate comparability of various bioenergy processes or products. It can also be used to facilitate comparability of bioenergy and other energy options.

Critères de durabilité pour la bioénergie

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Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Sep-2015
Current Stage
9020 - International Standard under periodical review
Start Date
15-Jul-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13065
First edition
2015-09-15
Sustainability criteria for bioenergy
Critères de durabilité pour la bioénergie
Reference number
ISO 13065:2015(E)
ISO 2015
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ISO 13065:2015(E)
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ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13065:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General requirements and recommendations ...................................................................................................................... 9

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.2 Purpose and context ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.3 Scope of assessment ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.4 Stakeholder involvement ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.5 Relevance and significance ........................................................................................................................................................10

4.6 Recording of legal requirements ..........................................................................................................................................10

4.7 Time periods ..........................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.8 Science-based approach...............................................................................................................................................................11

4.9 Data and information .....................................................................................................................................................................11

4.10 Traceability .............................................................................................................................................................................................12

4.11 Comparability........................................................................................................................................................................................12

4.12 Direct and indirect effects ..........................................................................................................................................................13

4.13 Ecosystem services ...........................................................................................................................................................................13

5 Principles, criteria and indicators ..................................................................................................................................................13

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.2 Environmental principles, criteria and indicators ................................................................................................13

5.2.1 GHG ...........................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.2.2 Water .......................................................................................................................................................................................14

5.2.3 Soil .............................................................................................................................................................................................14

5.2.4 Air ..............................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.2.5 Biodiversity .......................................................................................................................................................................15

5.2.6 Energy efficiency...........................................................................................................................................................16

5.2.7 Waste .......................................................................................................................................................................................16

5.3 Social principles, criteria and indicators .......................................................................................................................17

5.3.1 Human rights ...................................................................................................................................................................17

5.3.2 Labour rights ....................................................................................................................................................................17

5.3.3 Land use rights and land use change ..........................................................................................................19

5.3.4 Water use rights ............................................................................................................................................................19

5.4 Economic principle, criteria and indicators ................................................................................................................20

5.4.1 Economic sustainability..........................................................................................................................................20

6 Greenhouse gas methodologies, assessments and comparisons ....................................................................20

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.2 Special considerations for time periods for GHG assessments ..................................................................21

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.2.2 Reference system ..........................................................................................................................................................21

6.3 Assigning GHG emissions or GHG removals from carbon stock change in biomass

and soil to the bioenergy product .................. ......................................................................................................................22

6.4 Other climate-forcing agents ...................................................................................................................................................22

6.5 Functional and delivered units ...............................................................................................................................................22

6.6 Treatment of co-products in a GHG quantification ...............................................................................................23

6.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................23

6.6.2 Procedures for treatment of co-products ................................................................................................23

6.7 Treatment of waste...........................................................................................................................................................................24

6.8 System boundaries ...........................................................................................................................................................................24

6.9 Process for comparison to determine GHG reduction .......................................................................................24

Annex A (informative) Example format for summarizing information ........................................................................25

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ISO 13065:2015(E)

Annex B (informative) Guidance related to water indicators ..................................................................................................30

Annex C (informative) Guidance related to soil indicators ........................................................................................................34

Annex D (informative) Guidance related to air indicators .........................................................................................................39

Annex E (informative) Guidance related to biodiversity indicators .................................................................................43

Annex F (informative) Guidance related to waste indicators ..................................................................................................47

Annex G (informative) Child labour (text from ISO 26000:2010) .......................................................................................51

Annex H (informative) Greenhouse gas ..........................................................................................................................................................52

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................55

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ISO 13065:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is Project Committee ISO/PC 248, Sustainability criteria

for bioenergy.
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ISO 13065:2015(E)
Introduction

The production and use of bioenergy have potential roles in mitigating climate change, promoting energy

security and fostering sustainable development. This International Standard is designed to provide a

consistent basis on which the sustainability of bioenergy can be assessed within a defined context and

for a specified purpose. This International Standard provides principles, criteria and indicators. The

principles reflect aspirational goals while the criteria and indicators address sustainability aspects and

the information that is to be provided. However, the indicators in this International Standard might not

comprehensively capture all sustainability aspects for all bioenergy processes.

Virtually every country in the world uses some form of bioenergy. Various types of biomass are used for

the production of bioenergy through many types and sizes of economic operations. The characteristics

of bioenergy production therefore are heterogeneous and depend on several factors, such as geography,

climate, level of development, institutions and technologies.

The purpose of this International Standard is to provide a framework for considering environmental,

social and economic aspects that can be used to facilitate the evaluation and comparability of bioenergy

production and products, supply chains and applications. As part of the development of this International

Standard, other relevant sustainability initiatives and International Standards were considered.

This International Standard aims to facilitate the sustainable production, use and trade of bioenergy

and will enable users to identify areas for continual improvement in the sustainability of bioenergy.

It can be used in several ways. It can facilitate business-to-business communications by providing a

standard framework that allows businesses to “speak the same language” when describing aspects of

sustainability. Purchasers can use this International Standard to compare sustainability information

from suppliers to help identify bioenergy processes and products that meet their requirements. Other

standards, certification initiatives and government agencies can use this International Standard as a

reference for how to provide information regarding sustainability.

This International Standard does not provide threshold values. Threshold values can be defined by

economic operators in the supply chain and/or other organizations (e.g. government). Sustainability

information provided through the use of this International Standard can then be compared with

defined threshold values.
In International Standards, the following verbal forms are used:
— “shall” indicates a requirement;
— “should” indicates a recommendation;
— “may” indicates a permission;
— “can” indicates a possibility or a capability.
Further details can be found in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13065:2015(E)
Sustainability criteria for bioenergy
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies principles, criteria and indicators for the bioenergy supply chain

to facilitate assessment of environmental, social and economic aspects of sustainability.

This International Standard is applicable to the whole supply chain, parts of a supply chain or a single

process in the supply chain. This International Standard applies to all forms of bioenergy, irrespective

of raw material, geographical location, technology or end use.

This International Standard does not establish thresholds or limits and does not describe specific

bioenergy processes and production methods. Compliance with this International Standard does not

determine the sustainability of processes or products.

This International Standard is intended to facilitate comparability of various bioenergy processes or

products. It can also be used to facilitate comparability of bioenergy and other energy options.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/TS 14067:2013, Greenhouse gases — Carbon footprint of products — Requirements and guidelines for

quantification and communication
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
allocation

partitioning the input or output flows of a process (3.36) or a product system (3.38) between the product

system under study and one or more other product systems
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.17]
3.2
biodiversity
biological diversity

variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other

aquatic ecosystems (3.14) and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity

within species, between species and of ecosystems
[27]
[SOURCE: United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity ]
3.3
bioenergy
energy derived from biomass (3.4)

Note 1 to entry: Biomass can be processed into solid, liquid or gaseous fuels or stored energy in biomass can be

directly converted into other forms of energy (e.g. heat, light).
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ISO 13065:2015(E)
3.4
biomass

raw material (3.40) of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formations or

transformed to fossilized material

[SOURCE: ISO 13833:2013, 3.2, modified — The word “raw” has been added, because “raw material (3.40)”

is also defined in this International Standard, and “fossil” has been changed to “fossilized material”.]

3.5
book and claim

chain-of-custody (3.7) system where, from the production of raw material (3.40) to the final product

(3.37) for consumption, the information on sustainability (3.48) is decoupled from the physical product

Note 1 to entry: The system allows for the product itself and attributes of sustainability to be traded separately.

3.6
carbon dioxide equivalent
CO equivalent
CO e

unit for comparing the radiative forcing of a greenhouse gas (3.21) to that of carbon dioxide

Note 1 to entry: Mass of a greenhouse gas is converted into CO equivalents using global warming potentials.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 14067:2013, 3.1.3.2, modified — Original Note 2 to entry has been omitted.]

3.7
chain-of-custody

chain of responsibility for or control of materials as they move through each step of the process (3.36)

or product system (3.38) under assessment
3.8
child labour

work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to

their physical and mental development

Note 1 to entry: This is a frequently used definition according to the International Labour Organization (ILO).

[22]
[SOURCE: International Labour Organization, “What is child labour” , modified]
3.9
competent national authority

applicable national regulatory body or authority designated or otherwise recognized as such by the

national regulatory body for any purpose in connection with the requirements, recommendations and

principles (3.34), criteria (3.11) and indicators (3.27) in this International Standard

[SOURCE: ISO 16883:2007, 3.1, modified — The word “national” has been added to term, “any” has been

changed to “applicable”, “by the national regulatory body” has been added and “regulations specified”

has been changed to “requirements, recommendations and principles, criteria and indicators”.]

3.10
co-product

any of two or more products (3.37) coming from the same unit process (3.51) or product system (3.38)

[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.10]
3.11
criterion
requirement that describes what is to be assessed

Note 1 to entry: A criterion adds meaning and operability to a principle (3.34) without itself being a direct

measure of performance.
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ISO 13065:2015(E)

Note 2 to entry: A criterion is characterized by a set of related indicators (3.27).

3.12
direct effects

measurable environmental, social and economic effects under the direct control of the economic

operator (3.13) and caused by the process (3.36) being analysed

Note 1 to entry: Activities under direct control are defined as activities conducted by or subcontracted by the

economic operator.

Note 2 to entry: Subcontracted activities are activities undertaken by a subcontractor, being an organization

(3.33) that undertakes aspects of the processing, handling, storage, transport or distribution of the products

(3,37), co-products (3.10) or waste (3.52) on behalf of the economic operator (3.13), on a contractual basis, either

paid or non-paid.

Note 3 to entry: Direct effects within the scope of this International Standard are considered under the criteria

(3.11) and indicators (3.27) in Clause 5.

Note 4 to entry: Processes (3.36) inside the defined system boundaries (3.50) are included based on International

Standards (e.g. ISO 14040 and 14044) even if they are outside the direct control of the economic operator.

Note 5 to entry: Other potential effects may be added to the consideration when an international consensus

standard is established for the effect.
3.13
economic operator

individual or organization (3.33) that has ownership or control of one or more processes (3.36) of the

bioenergy supply chain
3.14
ecosystem

system of complex interactions between communities of plants, animals, microorganisms and their

environment (3.16), which functions as a unit
3.15
ecosystem services

benefits people obtain from ecosystems (3.14) including provisioning, regulating, supporting, and

cultural services
[26]

[SOURCE: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Ecosystems and Human Well-being Synthesis ]

3.16
environment

surroundings in which an organization (3.33) operates, including air, water, land, natural resources,

flora, fauna, humans and their interrelations

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.1, modified — Original Notes 1 and 2 to entry have been omitted.]

3.17
food security

physical and economic access, at all times, to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet dietary needs

and food preferences for an active and healthy life
[18]
[SOURCE: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) ]
3.18
forced or compulsory labour

work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the

said person has not offered himself voluntarily
[21]

[SOURCE: International Labour Organization (ILO): Forced Labour Convention (No. 29) ]

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ISO 13065:2015(E)
3.19
forest

land spanning more than 0,5 ha with trees higher than 5 m and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent or

trees able to reach these thresholds in situ, not including land that is predominantly under agricultural

or urban land use

Note 1 to entry: According to FAO, stands in agricultural production systems, such as agroforestry systems when

crops are grown under tree cover, fruit tree plantations and oil palm plantations, are excluded. FAO provides

additional explanation about what a forest includes (see Reference [19]).
[19]

[SOURCE: FAO Forestry Paper 163 , modified — Additional explanation about what a forest includes

has been omitted and Note 1 to entry has been added.]
3.20
global warming potential
GWP

characterization factor describing the radiative forcing impact (3.26) of one mass-based unit of a given

greenhouse gas (3.21) relative to that of carbon dioxide over a given period of time

Note 1 to entry: “Characterization factor” is defined in ISO 14040:2006, 3.37.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 14067:2013, 3.1.3.4, modified — Original Note 1 to entry has been omitted, because

this is addressed in Note 1 to definition of “greenhouse gas”.]
3.21
greenhouse gas
GHG

natural or anthropogenic gaseous constituent of the atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation at

specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the earth’s surface, the

atmosphere, and clouds

Note 1 to entry: A list of greenhouse gases with their recognized global warming potentials (3.20) is provided in

ISO/TS 14067:2013, Annex A.

Note 2 to entry: Water vapour and ozone are anthropogenic as well as natural greenhouse gases but are not

included as recognized greenhouse gases due to difficulties, in most cases, in isolating the human-induced

component of global warming attributable to their presence in the atmosphere.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 14067:2013, 3.1.3.1, modified — The qualifier “both natural and anthropogenic” has

been changed to “natural or anthropogenic” and moved to beginning of definition.]

3.22
greenhouse gas emission
GHG emission
release of a greenhouse gas (3.21) to the atmosphere

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 14067:2013, 3.1.3.5, modified — The verb “released” has become the subject of the

definition as “release”, replacing “mass”, and the original source reference has been omitted.]

3.23
greenhouse gas removal
GHG removal
removal of a greenhouse gas (3.21) from the atmosphere

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 14067:2013, 3.1.3.6, modified — The verb “removed” has become the subject of the

definition as “removal”, replacing “mass”, and the original source reference has been omitted.]

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ISO 13065:2015(E)
3.24
hazardous work

work which by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out is likely to harm the health,

safety or morals of persons

Note 1 to entry: This definition refers specifically to hazardous work by persons as defined in Table G.1.

3.25
human rights

rights inherent to all human beings, whatever their nationality, place of residence, sex, national or

ethnic origin, colour, religion, language or any other status

Note 1 to entry: Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law in the form of treaties,

customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law. International human

rights law lays down obligations of governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts in order to

promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups.

[29]

[SOURCE: United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights , modified]

3.26
impact
change, adverse or beneficial, caused by the process (3.36) being assessed

[SOURCE: ISO 15392:2008, 3.13, modified — The words “any” and “that may be” have been omitted and

“caused by the process being assessed” has been added.]
3.27
indicator

quantitative, qualitative or binary variable that can be measured or described, in response to a defined

criterion (3.11)
3.28
land use change

change in the use or management of land by humans, which can lead to a change in land cover

Note 1 to entry: A rotation period (3.43) in a management cycle does not constitute land use change.

[24]
[SOURCE: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report , modified]
3.29
land use rights

form of land tenure, whether formal or informal, including customary rights or traditions

Note 1 to entry: There is great variability in land use rights in different parts of the world as they relate to

systems of ownership and property rights.
3.30
life cycle

consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system (3.38), from raw material (3.40) acquisition or

generation from natural resources to final disposal
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.1]
3.31
light work
work that is not likely to be h
...

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