Document management — Digital preservation — Analog recording to silver-gelatin microform

ISO/TR 18160:2014 recommends test methods for evaluating the consistency of the digital images recorded onto black and white silver microfilm using input from both digitally born documents as well as digital documents created from document scanners. Quality control procedures to be used for optimizing and maintaining output quality onto film over time are described. ISO/TR 18160:2014 stresses the use of both commercial and ISO approved standard test targets. The test methods are based on the visual examination of the output of office document scanners and digitally born test targets on film image recorders. It is applicable to assessing the output quality of document scanners used in the office and film image recorders used to record the resultant scanned images to microfilm. Microforms can be any common formats including 16 mm, 35 mm, and 105 mm roll microfilm, as well as microfiche depending on the film image recorder capability.

Gestion des documents — Conservation numérique — Enregistrement analogique au microforme sur gélatine-argent

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
02-Sep-2014
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Completion Date
03-Sep-2014
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 18160
First edition
2014-09-15
Document management — Digital
preservation — Analog recording to
silver-gelatin microform
Gestion des documents — Conservation numérique — Enregistrement
analogique au microforme sur gélatine-argent
Reference number
ISO/TR 18160:2014(E)
ISO 2014
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ISO/TR 18160:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 18160:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Document imaging .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

5 Archive storage media .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Document scanner setting and quality control .................................................................................................................... 4

6.1 Digital imaging system quality control .............................................................................................................................. 4

6.2 Image creation — document scanner setting and quality control — use of ISO test chart .. 4

7 Guidelines for image recording quality control ................................................................................................................... 5

8 Film process quality control ..................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (informative) Targets .................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TR 18160:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 171, Document management applications,

Subcommittee SC 1, Quality.
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 18160:2014(E)
Introduction

The perceived value of condensing information by optically filming documents, engineering drawings,

and cartographic materials to microfilm has been well established along with a large collection of ISO

standards that have provided standards and guidance for many years. As more and more information is

generated in digital format, only concerns have arisen regarding preservation of digital data and images.

History has shown that as long as preservation information is kept in analog format, the digital format

becomes more usable, upgradable, and most importantly, safer. The National Micrographics Association

(NMA) in 1943 started standardization of practices for the manufacture and use of microfilm, supplies,

and equipment in conjunction with organizations such as, the National Bureau of Standards (later to

become National Institute of Standards (NIST), National Archives of the US (NARA), Library of Congress

(LOC), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), manufacturers such as, Eastman Kodak Company,

3M, Dupont, IBM, and many others.
These documents were introduced into the ISO environment and published as

— ISO 6199:2005, Micrographics — Microfilming of documents on 16 mm and 35 mm silver-gelatin type

microfilm — Operating procedures, and
— ISO 9923:1994, Micrographics — Transparent A6 microfiche — Image arrangements.

In about 1960, Enterprise Report Management (ERM) recognized the value of directly recording

computer data onto microfilm using Computer Output Microfilm (COM). These practices and documents

all share the common practice of using optical techniques for information capture onto microfilm. The

critical test element used in measuring quality in all these systems is based on the ISO test chart 3334

(see Figure 1).
These were introduced into ISO as

— ISO 8514-1:2000, Micrographics — Alphanumeric computer output microforms — Quality control —

Part 1: Characteristics of the test slide and test data, and

— ISO 8514-2:2000, Micrographics — Alphanumeric computer output microforms — Quality control —

Part 2: Method.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/TR 18160:2014(E)
Figure 1 — Reproduction of ISO test chart 3334

The key features of this target are sets of five equally spaced lines and spaces that can be filmed at any

optical reduction ratio; and by simply examining the resultant image, one can determine camera/film

system resolution. The resolution is determined by multiplying the smallest readable element by the

reduction ratio to determine line pairs per mm resolution.

In summary, there is a good body of standardized reference materials for measuring quality and ensuring

good quality control for traditional optical microfilming or for recording digital data onto microfilm.

ISO 11506 further demonstrated the value and gave some guidelines for formatting digital data and

images to microfilm.
vi © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 18160:2014(E)
Document management — Digital preservation — Analog
recording to silver-gelatin microform
1 Scope

This Technical Report recommends test methods for evaluating the consistency of the digital images

recorded onto black and white silver microfilm using input from both digitally born documents as

well as digital documents created from document scanners. Quality control procedures to be used for

optimizing and maintaining output quality onto film over time are described. This Technical Report

stresses the use of both commercial and ISO approved standard test targets.

The test methods are based on the visual examination of the output of office document scanners and

digitally born test targets on film image recorders.

It is applicable to assessing the output quality of document scanners used in the office and film image

recorders used to record the resultant scanned images to microfilm. Microforms can be any common

formats including 16 mm, 35 mm, and 105 mm roll microfilm, as well as microfiche depending on the

film image recorder capability.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6196 (all parts), Micrographics — Vocabulary

ISO 12651-1, Electronic document management — Vocabulary — Part 1: Electronic document imaging

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 6196 and ISO 12651-1 apply.

4 Document imaging

In the late 1980s, companies such as Anacomp Inc., Agfa Gevaert, and later on, Micrographic Technology

Corporation [now Global Information Distributors (GlD)] introduced all points addressable imaging

devices that no longer use fixed form slides, and thus, ISO 8514-1:2000 was no longer applicable. With

the cooperation of manufacturers and users, ISO developed new standards for controlling quality

produced on these all points addressable image recorders. These standards describe a digital target,

which when called out by the software will write an image intended to verify the performance of the

imaging device. This target is independent of the particular COM manufacturer as it is written from

digital data only. The primary application of these devices at that time was still outputting Enterprise

Report Management (ERM) data.
These were developed by ISO as

— ISO 14648-1:2001, Micrographics — Quality control of COM recorders that generate images using a

single internal display system — Part 1: Characteristics of the software test target, and

— ISO 14648-2:2001, Micrographics — Quality control of COM recorders that generate images using a

single internal display system — Part 2: Method of use.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TR 18160:2014(E)
5 Archive storage media
With the advent of document scanner
...

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