Paper and board — Cut-size office paper — Measurement of curl in a pack of sheets

This document specifies a method for the measurement of curl in cut-size office papers. The test method is typically used in evaluating papers of the type described in ISO 216. This method is limited to papers with a maximum dimension of 300 mm in both directions. The measurement can be made on papers as received, after conditioning, or after processing in a copier or printing device.

Papier et carton — Papier en format à usage de bureau — Mesurage du tuilage dans un paquet de feuilles

La présente Norme internationale spécifie une méthode de mesurage du tuilage dans les papiers en format à usage de bureau. Il s'agit de la méthode classique à utiliser pour évaluer les papiers du type décrit dans l'ISO 216. La méthode est limitée aux papiers ayant une dimension maximale de 300 mm dans les deux sens. Le mesurage peut être effectué sur les papiers en l'état au moment de leur réception, ou après conditionnement, ou après passage dans un photocopieur ou une imprimante.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Jan-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
04-Jan-2022
Due Date
25-Dec-2022
Completion Date
04-Jan-2022
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14968
Second edition
2022-01
Paper and board — Cut-size office
paper — Measurement of curl in a
pack of sheets
Papier et carton — Papier en format à usage de bureau — Mesurage
du tuilage dans un paquet de feuilles
Reference number
ISO 14968:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 14968:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 14968:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Curl gauge.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Test atmosphere ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

7 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8 Procedure ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................3

9 Expression of results ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9.1 Dominant curl axis — parallel to, or perpendicular to the machine direction axis ................. 4

9.2 No dominant curl .................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

9.3 Concave side .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

10 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

11 Test report .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

Annex A (informative) Types of curl .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex B (informative) Curl gauge construction...................................................................................................................................... 8

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 14968:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps, Subcommittee

SC 2, Test methods and quality specifications for paper and board.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 14968:1999), of which it constitutes a

minor revision.
The main changes are as follows:
— the normative references in Clause 2 have been updated;
— editorial corrections have been applied.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 14968:2022(E)
Introduction

Curl in cut-size office papers plays an important part in the performance of these papers in copying

processes. Frequently, cut-size papers are used on copier and other printing devices, operating at high

speeds. Curl which exists in the ream before the paper enters the imaging process, and curl developed

during the imaging process, can affect office paper performance, especially if two-sided printing or

collating is involved. Common problems experienced include jamming and misregistration.

The experience used in developing this test method was limited to uncoated papers in the commonly

used cut sizes. The technique is basic and can be used with coated papers as well as paperboard to

identify the type and magnitude of curl.

The test method identifies the type and degree of curl in a pack of sheets but does not address variations

that might be present in individual sheets. The method of ISO 11556 can be used to measure curl in

individual sheets.

It should be recognized that the curl occurring after processing in a copier or a printing device may

bear no relation to the curl of the paper as received.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14968:2022(E)
Paper and board — Cut-size office paper — Measurement
of curl in a pack of sheets
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for the measurement of curl in cut-size office papers. The test method

is typically used in evaluating papers of the type described in ISO 216.

This method is limited to papers with a maximum dimension of 300 mm in both directions.

The measurement can be made on papers as received, after conditioning, or after processing in a copier

or printing device.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 186:2002, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
curl

deviation from a flat surface which has three major components: magnitude, direction of curl axis and

the side towards which the paper curls
3.1.1
curl magnitude
quantitative measure of the deviation of a paper test piece from a flat surface

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as the reciprocal of the radius of curvature, R, of the curled test piece with units

of reciprocal metres (m ).

Note 2 to entry: The radius of curvature for the curled test piece is the distance from the arc to the centre of a

circle, of which the arc forms a part. The reciprocal radius (R ) has a value of zero for a flat sheet.

Note 3 to entry: Curl characteristics of paper and board are time-dependent and the magnitude of any curl may

be tra
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 14968
ISO/TC 6/SC 2
Paper and board — Cut-size office
Secretariat: SIS
paper — Measurement of curl in a
Voting begins on:
2021­09­22 pack of sheets
Voting terminates on:
Papier et carton — Papier en format à usage de bureau — Mesurage
2021­11­17
du tuilage dans un paquet de feuilles
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 14968:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14968:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14968:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Curl gauge .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Test atmosphere.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

7 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

8 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

9 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

9.1 Dominant curl axis — parallel to, or perpendicular to the machine direction axis .................... 4

9.2 No dominant curl .................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

9.3 Concave side .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

10 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

11 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Annex A (informative) Types of curl ..................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex B (informative) Curl gauge construction ....................................................................................................................................... 8

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14968:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6 Paper, board and pulps, Subcommittee

SC 2, Test methods and quality specifications for paper and board.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 14968:1999), of which it constitutes a

minor revision.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— the normative references in Clause 2 have been updated;
— editorial corrections have been applied.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14968:2021(E)
Introduction

Curl in cut-size office papers plays an important part in the performance of these papers in copying

processes. Frequently, cut-size papers are used on copier and other printing devices, operating at high

speeds. Curl which exists in the ream before the paper enters the imaging process, and curl developed

during the imaging process, can affect office paper performance, especially if two-sided printing or

collating is involved. Common problems experienced include jamming and misregistration.

The experience used in developing this test method was limited to uncoated papers in the commonly

used cut sizes. The technique is basic and can be used with coated papers as well as paperboard to

identify the type and magnitude of curl.

The test method identifies the type and degree of curl in a pack of sheets but does not address variations

that might be present in individual sheets. The method of ISO 11556 can be used to measure curl in

individual sheets.

It should be recognized that the curl occurring after processing in a copier or a printing device may

bear no relation to the curl of the paper as received.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 14968:2021(E)
Paper and board — Cut-size office paper — Measurement
of curl in a pack of sheets
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for the measurement of curl in cut-size office papers. The test method

is typically used in evaluating papers of the type described in ISO 216.

This method is limited to papers with a maximum dimension of 300 mm in both directions.

The measurement can be made on papers as received, after conditioning, or after processing in a copier

or printing device.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 186:2002, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
curl

deviation from a flat surface which has three major components: magnitude, direction of curl axis and

the side towards which the paper curls
3.1.1
curl magnitude
quantitative measure of the deviation of a paper test piece from a flat surface

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as the reciprocal of the radius of curvature, R, of the curled test piece with units

of reciprocal metres (m ).
Note 2 to entry: The radius
...

ISO/FDIS 14968:2021
ISO TC 6/SC 2
Date: 2021-08-17

Paper and board — Cut-size office paper — Measurement of curl in a pack of sheets

Papier et carton — Papier en format à usage de bureau — Mesurage du tuilage dans un paquet de feuilles

FDIS stage
Warning for WDs and CDs

This document is not an ISO International Standard. It is distributed for review and comment. It is subject to

change without notice and may not be referred to as an International Standard.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of

which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.
© ISO #### – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
© ISO 20XX
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14968:2021(E)
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no

part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without

prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or

ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.orgwww.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO #### – All rights reserved
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14968:2021(E)
CONTENT

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... v

1 Scope ....................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Test atmosphere ................................................................................................................................. 2

7 Sampling ................................................................................................................................................ 3

8 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................. 3

9 Expression of results ......................................................................................................................... 4

10 Precision ................................................................................................................................................ 4

11 Test report ............................................................................................................................................ 4

Annex A (informative) Types of curl .......................................................................................................... 5

Annex B (informative) Curl gauge construction ..................................................................................... 7

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 9

© ISO #### – All rights reserved
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14968:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO

collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World

Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.
Field Code Changed

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6 Paper, board and pulps, Subcommittee

SC 2, Test methods and quality specifications for paper and board.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 14968:1999)), of which it constitutes a

minor revision.
minor revision.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— Updating of the normative references in Clause 2. have been updated;
— Updated ISO template.
— editorial corrections have been applied.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO #### – All rights reserved
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14968:2021(E)
Introduction

Curl in cut-size office papers plays an important part in the performance of these papers in copying

processes. Frequently, cut-size papers are used on copier and other printing devices, operating at high

speeds. Curl which exists in the ream before the paper enters the imaging process, and curl developed

during the imaging process, can affect office paper performance, especially if two-sided printing or

collating is involved. Common problems experienced include jamming and misregistration.

The experience used in developing this test method was limited to uncoated papers in the commonly

used cut sizes. The technique is basic and couldcan be used with coated papers as well as paperboard to

identify the type and magnitude of curl.

The test method identifies the type and degree of curl in a pack of sheets but does not address variations

that might be present in individual sheets. The method of ISO 11556 can be used to measure curl in

individual sheets.

It should be recognized that the curl occurring after processing in a copier or a printing device may bear

no relation to the curl of the paper as received.
© ISO #### – All rights reserved
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 14968:2021(E)
Paper and board — Cut-size office paper — Measurement of curl
in a pack of sheets
1 Scope

This International Standarddocument specifies a method for the measurement of curl in cut-size office

papers. The test method wouldis typically be used in evaluating papers of the type described in ISO 216.

This method is limited to papers with a maximum dimension of 300 mm in both directions.

The measurement maycan be made on papers as received, after conditioning, or after processing in a

copier or printing device.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 186:2002, Paper and Boardboard — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 187 Paper, board and pulps — Standard atmosphere for conditioning and testing and procedure for

monitoring the atmosphere and conditioning of samples

ISO 216, Writing paper and certain classes of printed matter — Trimmed sizes — A and B series, and

indication of machine direction
53 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at httphttps://www.electropedia.org/
Field Code Changed
3.1
curl

deviation from a flat surface which has three major components: magnitude, direction of curl axis and the

side towards which the paper curls
3.1.1
curl magnitude
quantitative measure of the deviation of a paper test piece from a flat surface

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as the reciprocal of the radius of curvature, R, of the curled test piece with units

of reciprocal metres (m ).
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14968:2021(E)

Note 2 to entry: The radius of curvature for the curled test piece is the distance from the arc to the centre of a

circle, of which the arc forms a part. The reciprocal radius (R ) has a value of zero for a flat sheet.

Note 3 to entry: Curl characteristics of paper and board are time-dependent and the magnitude of any curl may

be transient.
3.1.2
curl axis direction
direction of the curl axis of paper and board, characterized as follows:
— curl axis which is perpendicular to the paper’s machine direction
— curl axis which is parallel to the paper’s machine direction

— curl axis which is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the paper’s machine direction

Note 1 to entry: See figures Figures A.1 to A.3, respectively.
3.1.3
concave side
side towards which the paper or board curls
Note 1 to entry: See also annex Annex A.
3.2
double curl

form of curl which tends to alternate between the two sides, when the sheet is manipulated lightly

Note 1 to entry: This tendency is a phenomenon which may be described as two curl patterns that are finely

balanced within the same sheet of paper.
3.3
cut-size office papers
2 2

papers in the range 60 g/m to 150 g/m which are used for writing and/or in various printing and

copying devices
3.4
reference side

for a non-imaged paper that side indicated by arrows on the end labels of a sealed ream, that side facing

the top of a box of unwrapped sheets or, if arrows, or other instru
...

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