Information technology — User interfaces for mobile tools for management of database communications in a client-server model

This International Standard defines user interface functions for management of database communication of an MBT client capable of interchanging data with an MBT server. This International Standard is applicable to MBT clients. This International Standard specifically defines the following two user interfaces. - The user interface function for obtaining user approval in advance when MBT client's database is updated via a communication link, or when data in the MBT client's database is transmitted to another database. - The user interface function for providing feedback to the user, after the MBT client's or the MBT server's database has been updated via a communication link, or data in MBT client's database has been transmitted to another database.

Technologies de l'information — Interfaces utilisateur pour outils mobiles de gestion de communications des bases de données dans un modèle client-serveur

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
20-Feb-2002
Current Stage
9020 - International Standard under periodical review
Start Date
15-Jul-2013
Completion Date
15-Jul-2022
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ISO/IEC 18021:2002 - Information technology -- User interfaces for mobile tools for management of database communications in a client-server model
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 18021
First edition
2002-02-15
Information technology — User interfaces
for mobile tools for management of
database communications in a client-server
model
Technologies de l'information — Interfaces utilisateur pour outils mobiles
de gestion de communications des bases de données dans un modèle
client-serveur
Reference number
ISO/IEC 18021:2002(E)
ISO/IEC 2002
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18021:2002(E)
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© ISO/IEC 2002

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ii © ISO/IEC 2002 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18021:2002(E)
Contents Page

1 Scope................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Conformance..................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions....................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Illustration of processes for an MBT database operation............................................................................... 3

4.1 Functions of user interfaces.......................................................................................................................... 3

4.1.1 User approval or disapproval ..................................................................................................................... 3

4.1.2 Feedback ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Sequence of functions................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Description of contents in MBT database operation screens......................................................................... 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 User approval or disapproval ........................................................................................................................ 5

5.2.1 Prior notice.................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2.2 Granting or refusing approval .................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.3 Parameter setting........................................................................................................................................ 6

5.3 Feedback to the user (success)..................................................................................................................... 6

5.3.1 Notice of successful completion................................................................................................................ 6

5.3.2 User acknowledgement of successful completion.................................................................................... 6

5.4 Feedback to the user (failure)........................................................................................................................ 6

5.4.1 General notice of failure.............................................................................................................................. 6

5.4.2 Detailed reasons for failure......................................................................................................................... 7

5.4.3 Acknowledgement of failure....................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Utilization/operation of database of mobile tool........................................................... 8

A.1 Utilization/operation of database.................................................................................................................. 8

A.1.1 General........................................................................................................................................................ 8

A.1.2 Utilization/operation of database (1).......................................................................................................... 8

A.1.3 Utilization/operation of database (2).......................................................................................................... 9

A.1.4 Utilization/operation of database (3)........................................................................................................ 10

A.2 Sample application utilizing database via communication links............................................................... 11

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ISO/IEC 18021:2002(E)

Annex B (informative) Basic Screen Contents Presentation............................................................................12

B.1 User approval or disapproval...................................................................................................................... 12

B.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................... 12

B.1.1 Prior notice ............................................................................................................................................... 12

B.1.3 Granting and refusing approval............................................................................................................... 13

B.1.4 Parameter setting ..................................................................................................................................... 13

B.2 Feedback to the user (success).................................................................................................................. 14

B.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................... 14

B.2.2 Notice of successful completion ............................................................................................................. 14

B.2.3 User acknowledgement of successful completion ................................................................................. 15

B.3 Feedback to the user (failure) ..................................................................................................................... 16

B.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................... 16

B.3.2 General notice of failure........................................................................................................................... 16

B.3.3 Detailed reasons for failure...................................................................................................................... 17

B.3.4 Acknowledgement of failure .................................................................................................................... 17

Annex C (informative) Technical information: PDX tags as a screen content description language .......... 18

C.1 Overview of PDX tags.................................................................................................................................. 18

C.2 Sample program scripts written by using PDX tags with HTML tags ....................................................... 18

C.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................... 18

C.2.2 User approval or disapproval................................................................................................................... 19

C.2.3 Feedback to the user (success)............................................................................................................... 20

C.2.4 Feedback to the user (failure) .................................................................................................................. 21

Annex D (informative) Technical information: P4script as a database operation language ......................... 22

D.1 Overview of P4script ................................................................................................................................... 22

D.2 Sample command written by using P4script language ............................................................................. 22

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ISO/IEC 18021:2002(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical Commission)

form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of ISO or IEC

participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees established by the

respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees

collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in

liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have

established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.

The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting. Publication as an International

Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC 18021 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, Subcommittee

SC 35, User interfaces.
Annexes A to D of this International Standard are for information only.
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ISO/IEC 18021:2002(E)
Introduction

In recent years, MoBile Tools (MBT), typically personal digital assistants (PDA), smart phones (mobile phones

with web-browsing, e-mail, or some other network function) and other small size devices have become

increasingly popular. MBT are constrained by requirements of low power consumption, small physical size, light

weight, limited memory, low CPU processing power and restricted display screen size. To enable a variety of

services and applications to be used comfortably and efficiently on hardware-restricted MBT, they are typically

operated in conjunction with other devices via communication links. When the MBT works in conjunction with

server machines or other computers, it becomes more powerful and more useful. Due to these restrictions, it is

more difficult to achieve compatibility and interoperability than it would be in a large device. In order to achieve

compatibility and interoperability, a different approach than that used for larger equipment is necessary.

When the MBT exchanges data (e.g. address data, schedule data, or sales data, etc.) with other devices via a

potentially unreliable or narrow communication line, as in wireless communications, user interfaces for

management of database communications of mobile tools are required to meet user's needs such as fast

response, high usability, reliability and easy-to-use features. Standardizing these new user-interfaces will be very

beneficial and convenient for MBT users.

A MoBile Tool client (MBT client) is defined as the software of an MBT that performs client operations with other

devices via communication links. A MoBile Tool server (MBT server) is defined as the software of a device that

acts as a server with the MBT client via a communication link. An MBT server can be run on a multi-accessible

server or on another MBT. When an MBT client communicates with another MBT that has these MBT server

capabilities, the former acts as the MBT client and the latter as the MBT server, thereby allowing them to operate

together.

The MBT client typically has a small display screen, which provides the user interface that displays information

and receive user instructions/input. The MBT client and the MBT server each have their own database. The user

instructs/controls the database operation via the small display screen on the MBT client.

The following problems can occur with the utilization/operation of databases via communication links:

 There is the possibility that another device can operate the MBT client’s database or the MBT server’s

database via communication links. The user needs to know in advance which operations will be executed or

whether data in the MBT client’s database will be transmitted. However, there is no standard means to

enable the user to prevent the update of the MBT client's database or the transmission of data from the MBT

client's database without his approval. This creates a security problem.

 The connection, especially wireless, is sometimes broken. In this case, the user needs to know whether the

MBT client’s database and/or the MBT server's database have been updated or not. There is no standard

means for the user to receive feedback as to whether the MBT client's database has been successfully

updated. For this is the reason feedback is required.

The purpose of this International Standard is to satisfy these user requirements. If user interfaces providing these

functions are standardized, then the user can operate differing types of MBTs in a consistent manner.

This International Standard applies to smart phones, electronic organizers, PDAs, and palm sized personal

computers. The adoption of this International Standard will improve compatibility, interoperability and user

efficiency for database management.

Note: The principles described in ISO 9241-10 “Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) –

Part 10: Dialogue principles” are of key importance for this International Standard.

vi © ISO/IEC 2002 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 18021:2002(E)
Information technology — User interfaces for mobile tools for
management of database communications in a client-server model
1 Scope

This International Standard defines user interface functions for management of database communication of an

MBT client capable of interchanging data with an MBT server.
This International Standard is applicable to MBT clients.

This International Standard specifically defines the following two user interfaces.

 The user interface function for obtaining user approval in advance when MBT client's database is updated via

a communication link, or when data in the MBT client’s database is transmitted to another database.

 The user interface function for providing feedback to the user, after the MBT client's or the MBT server's

database has been updated via a communication link, or data in MBT client's database has been transmitted

to another database.
2 Conformance

A system conforms to this International Standard if it provides the screen contents described in sub clause 5.2

before the MBT database operation is executed and the contents described in sub clause 5.3 or sub clause 5.4

after the MBT database operation has been executed.
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this International Standard, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1
feedback to the user (failure)

function of the user interface that displays information about an MBT database operation if and when the MBT

database operation fails to execute
3.2
feedback to the user (success)

function of the user interface that displays information about an MBT database operation after the MBT database

operation is successful
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ISO/IEC 18021:2002(E)
3.3
consistent area

non-scrollable information area that is provided in a section of the MBT's screen

3.4
MoBile Tool, MBT

mobile communications device with a small display screen and a database intended to interchange data with other

devices / a server

Note: The screen size is typically between those of personal computers and mobile telephone devices.

3.5
MoBile Tool client, MBT client

software for MBT, which operates under user instruction as a client in a communication link with other devices

3.6
MoBile Tool database operation, MBT database operation
database operation executed by the MBT server application,

Note: Database operation includes the processes of adding, modifying, removing and reading data. Updating of database

includes the processes of adding, modifying and removing data, but it doesn’t include the process of reading data.

3.7
MoBile Tool database operation parameter, MBT database operation parameter

parameter used by the MBT server application to execute the MBT database operation

Example: When the user operates the schedule book, he specifies year, month, day and time as parameters; when he operates

the address book, he specifies name, address, telephone number and E-mail address, and when he operates the inventory

database, he specifies product code, customer name and number of stock.
3.8
MoBile Tool server, MBT server

software for a device that operates as a server with the MBT client via a communication link

3.9
MoBile Tool server application, MBT server application

application software on the MBT server that, at the request of the MBT client, executes an operation and feeds

back the result of the operation to the MBT client via data interchange of any kind

3.10
screen content
information presented on physical display of an MBT
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ISO/IEC 18021:2002(E)
3.11
user approval

function of the user interface by which the user grants permission to the MBT server application to update the MBT

client's database or transmit data from the MBT client's database to the MBT server before the operation is

executed
4 Illustration of processes for an MBT database operation
4.1 Functions of user interfaces

When an MBT database operation is executed, the MBT client provides a user interface, which displays information

and receives user instructions/input.

The two functions available as part of the user interface for the MBT database operation are:

 User approval or disapproval.
 Feedback to the user.
4.1.1 User approval or disapproval

User approval or disapproval is necessary before the MBT database operation is executed. One screen content is

provided for the user to give his approval or his disapproval for operations yet to be performed.

4.1.2 Feedback

Feedback to the user is provided after the MBT database operation has been executed. It provides two screen

contents, one which displays information after the MBT database operation has been completed successfully, and

the other which displays information if and when the MBT database operation fails to execute.

4.2 Sequence of functions

The screen content for input of user approval or disapproval is displayed before the MBT database operation is

executed. If the user grants approval via this screen content, the MBT database operation is executed and the

feedback screen content that corresponds to the result of the operation is displayed. If the user disapproves, the

MBT database operation is not executed. However, the screen content for input of user approval or disapproval for

the MBT database operation need not be displayed, if this MBT database operation only consists of updating the

MBT server’s database, and if neither the MBT client’s database is updated nor data in the MBT client's database

is transmitted.
The processes for MBT database operation are illustrated in Figure 1.
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ISO/IEC 18021:2002(E)
Start
Modify/upload either only the
Modify/upload only the
MBT client’s database, or
MBT server’s database. both the MBT client’s and the
MBT server’s database.
Scope of the MBT
database operations
User approval or
disapproval
Granted Refused
MBT
database
operation
failed
successful
Feedback to the user Feedback to the user
(success)
(failure)
Exit
Figure 1 - Illustration of processes for MBT database operations
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ISO/IEC 18021:2002(E)
5 Description of contents in MBT database operation screens
5.1 General

When the MBT database operation is executed, the MBT client shall provide the screen contents described in sub

clauses 5.2, 5.3, and 5.4.

Regarding the support of cultural and linguistic adaptability requirements, message numbers specified in this

standard shall be used to preserve data interoperability among applications in different natural languages. The

messages may be modified or adapted in any natural language. However, the resulting changes shall respect the

function defined in this clause to which the messages applies.

Communication between components (the MBT client and the MBT server) shall always use one of the message

numbers.

Note: General messages of sample application corresponding to all example message numbers refer to Annex B. It is

understood that in the future graphics, voice messages, sounds could be used as the representation for the user. Should it be

the case, message numbers shall always be used for data interoperability between components (the MBT client and the MBT

server).

The system should have the capability to disable the notification upon the request of the user.

5.2 User approval or disapproval
5.2.1 Prior notice
The MBT client shall inform the user in advance that

 the MBT database operation will be executed. (Note: Example message number 0100)

When appropriate, the MBT client shall inform the user in advance that

 the MBT client’s database will be updated by the MBT server application. (Note: Example message number

0111)

 the MBT server’s database will be updated by the MBT server application. (Note: Example message number

0121)

 data in the MBT client’s database will be transmitted to the MBT server. (Note: Example message number

0131)
5.2.2 Granting or refusing approval

The MBT client shall provide an on-screen button, a fixed button outside of the display screen, or similar control as

the means for:

 granting approval for the MBT server application to execute the MBT database operation,

 refusing approval for the MBT server application to execute the MBT database operation.

When the user grants approval, the MBT database operation shall be executed.

When the user refuses approval, the MBT database operation shall not be executed and another screen content

shall be displayed.
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ISO/IEC 18021:2002(E)

The MBT client shall ensure an exclusive choice between granting and refusing approval for an MBT database

operation, by providing radio buttons, select buttons, or the like.

The buttons for granting and refusing approval for the MBT database operation should always be displayed on the

screen in a consistent area without being removed by scrolling or any other navigation by the user. Those buttons

should be laid out side by side.
5.2.3 Parameter setting

The MBT client may provide a text input area, check buttons, a selectable menu, or similar control, as the means

for setting the MBT database operation parameters, if necessary for executing an MBT database operation. If the

user sets those MBT database operation parameters, the parameters shall be used by the MBT server application

to execute the corresponding MBT database operation. The means for setting the MBT database operation

parameters should be displayed on the screen.
5.3 Feedback to the user (success)
5.3.1 Notice of successful completion
The MBT client shall inform the user that:

 the MBT database operation has been completed successfully. (Note: Example message number 0200).

When appropriate, the MBT client shall inform the user that:

 the MBT client’s database has already been updated by the MBT server application. (Note: Example message

number 0211).

 the MBT server’s database has already been updated by the MBT server application. (Note: Example

message number 0221).

 data in the MBT client’s database has already been transmitted to the MBT server. (Note: Example message

number 0231).
5.3.2 User acknowledgement of successful completion

The MBT client shall provide an on-screen button, a fixed button outside of the display screen, or similar control,

as the means for acknowledging the successful completion of an MBT database operation.

After the user has acknowledged the successful completion of the operation, another screen content shall be

displayed.

The button for acknowledging the successful completion of the MBT database operation should always be

displayed on the screen in a consistent area without being removed by scrolling or any other navigation by the

user.
5.4 Feedback to the user (failure)
5.4.1 General notice of failure
The MBT client shall inform the user:
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ISO/IEC 18021:2002(E)

 that the MBT database operation has failed to execute. (Note: Example message number 0300).

When appropriate, the MBT client shall inform the user that:

 the MBT client’s database has already been updated by the MBT server application. (Note: Example message

number 0311),

 the MBT client’s database has not been updated by the MBT server application. (Note: Example message

number 0312),

 the MBT server’s database has already been updated by the MBT server application. (Note: Example

message number 0321),

 the MBT server’s database has not been updated by the MBT server application. (Note: Example message

number 0322),

 data in the MBT client’s database has already been transmitted to the MBT server. (Note: Example message

number 0331),

 data in the MBT client’s database has not been transmitted to the MBT server. (Note: Example message

number 0332).
5.4.2 Detailed reasons for failure

The MBT client should display the reason why the MBT database operation failed to execute. (Note: Example

message numbers 1001, 1002, 1003)
5.4.3 Acknowledgement of failure

The MBT client shall provide an on-screen button, a fixed button outside of the display screen, or similar control as

the means for acknowledging the failure of an MBT database operation.

When the user has acknowledged the failure of the operation, another screen content shall be displayed.

The button for acknowledging the failure of the MBT database operation should always be displayed on the screen

in a consistent area without being removed by scrolling or any other navigation by the user.

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ISO/IEC 18021:2002(E)
Annex A
(informative)
Utilization/operation of database of mobile tool
A.1 Utilization/operation of database
A.1.1 General
A user can utilize a database from an MBT client in the following three ways.
A.1.2 Utilization/operation of database (1)

This sub clause describes the stand-alone utilization/operation of the MBT client.

The user of the MBT client updates the MBT client's database without communicating with other devices. In this

instance/situation, the MBT client accesses the local database only, as shown in Figure A.1.

MBT client
Small
screen
Database
Figure A.1 - Database access by MBT client (1)

NOTE A database access that involves no communication links is outside of the scope defined in clause 1.

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ISO/IEC 18021:2002(E)
A.1.3 Utilization/operation of database (2)
...

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