Road vehicles — Component test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic energy — Part 9: Portable transmitters

This document specifies test methods and procedures for testing electromagnetic immunity of electronic components for passenger cars and commercial vehicles to portable transmitters in close proximity, regardless of the propulsion system (e.g. spark-ignition engine, diesel engine, electric motor). The device under test (DUT), together with the wiring harness (prototype or standard test harness), is subjected to an electromagnetic disturbance generated by portable transmitters inside an absorber-lined shielded enclosure, with peripheral devices either inside or outside the enclosure. The electromagnetic disturbances considered are limited to continuous narrowband electromagnetic fields.

Véhicules routiers — Méthodes d'essai d'un équipement soumis à des perturbations électriques par rayonnement d'énergie électromagnétique en bande étroite — Partie 9: Émetteurs portables

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Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Oct-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
22-Oct-2021
Completion Date
22-Oct-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11452-9
Second edition
2021-10
Road vehicles — Component test
methods for electrical disturbances
from narrowband radiated
electromagnetic energy —
Part 9:
Portable transmitters
Véhicules routiers — Méthodes d'essai d'un équipement soumis
à des perturbations électriques par rayonnement d'énergie
électromagnétique en bande étroite —
Partie 9: Émetteurs portables
Reference number
ISO 11452-9:2021(E)
© ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 11452-9:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 11452-9:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Test conditions .......................................................................................................................................................................................................1

5 Test location .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Test instrumentation ......................................................................................................................................................................................2

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.2 Simulated portable transmitters ........................................................................................................................................... 2

6.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6.2.2 Dual directional coupler .............................................................................................................................................. 3

6.2.3 Power monitoring .............................................................................................................................................................. 3

6.2.4 Low loss coaxial cable .................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.5 Vector network analyser (VNA)............................................................................................................................ 4

6.2.6 Transmit antenna .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.2.7 Stimulation and monitoring of the DUT ........................................................................................................ 5

7 Test set-up ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.1 Ground plane ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

7.2 LV power supply system ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

7.3 HV power supply system ............................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.4 Location of the DUT ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.5 Location of the test harness ........................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.6 Location of the load simulator .................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.7 Location of the simulated portable transmitter equipment. ........................................................................ 7

8 Test procedure ....................................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 17

8.2 Test plan .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 17

8.3 Test procedure ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 17

8.3.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 17

8.3.2 DUT test ................................................................................................................................................................................... 18

8.3.3 Antenna positioning for coupling to the DUT/connectors ......................................................... 21

8.3.4 Antenna positioning for coupling to harness ......................................................................................... 26

8.4 Test report ...............................................................................................................................................................................................36

Annex A (normative) Net power characterization procedure ...............................................................................................37

Annex B (informative) Typical characteristics and use of portable transmitters ..........................................48

Annex C (informative) Characteristics of simulated portable transmitter antenna ....................................51

Annex D (informative) Function performance status classification (FPSC) ..........................................................73

Annex E (informative) Remote/local grounding .................................................................................................................................74

Annex F (informative) Broadband noise source by AWG (arbitrary waveform generator) ...................76

iii
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 11452-9:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 32,

Electrical and electronic components and general system aspects.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 11452-9:2012), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes are as follows:
— change of the frequency range from 26 MHz – 5,85 GHz to 142 MHz – 6 GHz;
— suppression of test methodology with commercial transmitters;
— use of modulation from ISO 11452-1;
— modifications of ground plane dimensions;

— introduction of additional artificial networks (HV-AN, AMN, AAN) for DUT powered by a shielded

power system;
— addition of test set-up descriptions and figures for HV power supply system;
— addition of wording for DUT, connector and harness testing;

— addition of new Annex A with description of test methodology for net power characterization

procedure;

— addition in Annex C of microwave broadband dipole antenna and HF broadband sleeve antenna;

— addition of Annex F on broadband noise source with arbitrary waveform generator.

A list of all parts in the ISO 11452 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11452-9:2021(E)
Road vehicles — Component test methods for electrical
disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic
energy —
Part 9:
Portable transmitters
1 Scope

This document specifies test methods and procedures for testing electromagnetic immunity of

electronic components for passenger cars and commercial vehicles to portable transmitters in close

proximity, regardless of the propulsion system (e.g. spark-ignition engine, diesel engine, electric

motor). The device under test (DUT), together with the wiring harness (prototype or standard test

harness), is subjected to an electromagnetic disturbance generated by portable transmitters inside an

absorber-lined shielded enclosure, with peripheral devices either inside or outside the enclosure. The

electromagnetic disturbances considered are limited to continuous narrowband electromagnetic fields.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11452-1, Road vehicles — Component test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband

radiated electromagnetic energy — Part 1: General principles and terminology

Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to

300 GHz). International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11452-1 and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
reference position

geometrical centre of the radiation pattern of the antenna, which is determined by the manufacturer

based on near field measurement
4 Test conditions
The applicable frequency range of the test method is 142 MHz to 6 GHz.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11452-9:2021(E)

The user of this document shall specify the test severity level or levels over the frequency bands. The

test severity level shall take into account:

— typical portable transmitter characteristics (frequency bands, power level and modulation), and

— the characteristics of the antenna(s) used for this test.

The user shall specify the test severity level(s) over the frequency range. Suggested test levels are

included in Annex D.
Standard test conditions are given in ISO 11452-1 for the following:
— test temperature;
— supply voltage;
— dwell time;
— test signal quality;
— frequency steps;
— modulation.

NOTE Alternate modulations, if required, can be found in Annex B. Users of this document are advised

that Annex B is for information only and cannot be considered as an exhaustive description of various portable

transmitters available in all countries.
5 Test location
The test shall be performed in an absorber lined shielded enclosure (ALSE).
6 Test instrumentation
6.1 General

The field-generating device shall be simulated portable transmitters, with a broadband amplifier

connected to a transmit antenna.
Test personnel shall be protected in accordance with ICNIRP Guidelines.
NOTE National or other regulations can apply.
6.2 Simulated portable transmitters
6.2.1 General
The following equipment is used:
— ground plane;

— radio frequency (RF) generator with internal or external modulation capability;

— power amplifier;
— power measuring instrumentation to measure the forward and reverse power;
— dual directional coupler;
— low loss coaxial cables;
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 11452-9:2021(E)
— vector network analyser (VNA);
— transmit antenna;

— artificial networks (AN), and/or high voltage artificial networks (HV-AN), and/or artificial mains

networks (AMN), and/or asymmetric artificial networks (AAN).

Figure 1 illustrates the basic setup for the RF generation equipment. Testing is based on a required

net power (P ) applied to the test antenna. The net power level is derived from the forward power

(P ) measured at the directional coupler, which is remotely connected to the transmit antenna via

low loss coaxial cable. Requirements on directional coupler, cable and power sensors are listed in 6.2.2

to 6.2.4. The procedures delineated in Annex A shall be used determine the required forward power to

achieve the net power levels listed in Annex A or within the test plan. Although not required, it is highly

recommended to use a single directional coupler to cover the entire frequency band.

Key
1 RF signal generator P measured forward power at the directional coupler
2 RF amplifier P measured reverse power at the directional coupler
3 dual directional coupler P net power delivered to antenna
4 power sensor or measurement receiver
5 low loss coaxial cable with transmission loss
6 transmit antenna
Figure 1 — RF generation equipment setup
6.2.2 Dual directional coupler
The coupler shall exhibit the following characteristics:
— coupling factor: >20 dB (40 dB recommended),
— mainline port VSWR: <1,3,
— coupling port VSWR: <1,5,
— mainline transmission loss: <0,5 dB,
— directivity: >18 dB.

Selection of coupling factor (20 – 40 dB) shall be compatible with the sensitivity of the measurement

equipment used to measure forward and reflected power (see 6.2.3 for details).
6.2.3 Power monitoring

Either power sensors or a spectrum analyser (or measurement receiver) shall be used for measurement

of the forward and reflected power at the dual directional coupler.
When power sensors are used to measure forward and reflected power:

— CW or AM signal shall be measured either with an average or peak power sensor (peak conservation

may be applied for AM per ISO 11452-1);
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11452-9:2021(E)
— pulsed power modulation shall be measured with a peak envelope power sensor;
— power sensors should be connected directly to the coupler ports;
— power sensors shall exhibit a VSWR <1,2 and a measurement accuracy <0,5 dB.

When a spectrum analyser (or measurement receiver) is used to measure forward and reflected power,

it shall exhibit the same VSWR and measurement accuracy as required for power sensors.

When the sensors or a spectrum analyser (or measurement receiver) are connected to the coupler via

coaxial cables, the cable’s transmission loss shall be taken into account during characterization. See

Annex A for details.
6.2.4 Low loss coaxial cable

The 50 Ω coaxial cable assembly (including all adaptors, switches, etc.) connecting the dual directional

coupler to the transmit antenna shall exhibit a VSWR <1,1 and transmission loss <4 dB. Verification

shall be performed in accordance with Annex A.
6.2.5 Vector network analyser (VNA)
The VNA shall exhibit the following characteristics:
— frequency range: 142 MHz – 6 GHz,
— frequency step: specified by the manufacturer (logarithmic step recommended),
— dynamic range: >60 dB (IF bandwidth <3 kHz),
— return loss: >32 dB,
— transmission loss accuracy: <0,1 dB,
— power level: 0 dBm (recommended value),
— minimum averaging factor (optional),
— minimum number of points: 401 (with logarithmic sweep),

— IF bandwidth: selected to meet return and transmission loss requirements (typically 1 kHz),

— VNA calibration kit to facilitate TOSM (through, open, short, matched) measurements:

— termination through: return loss >35 dB,
— termination short/open: deviation in nominal phase <2°,
— termination match: return loss >40 dB,

— it is recommended to use the same connector type to match that of the interconnecting cable

assembly and transmit antenna (avoid using adaptors).
6.2.6 Transmit antenna

The transmit antenna shall be a passive antenna. For accurate exposure during testing, the following

commercially available antennas are listed in Table 1.

Details associated with each antenna are found in Annex C. Only one type of antenna is required for the

frequency range being tested.

Testing requires near field excitation of the DUT and its attached harness. To facilitate this, the transmit

antennas listed in Table 1 have specific reference positions where the magnitude of the electric and

magnetic fields are at a maximum, dependent on the test frequency. To ensure testing is accurately

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 11452-9:2021(E)

executed, the reference positions shall be clearly defined by the antenna manufacturer for each

transmitting antenna (see Annex C for guidance).
Table 1 — Transmit antenna types
Antenna description Frequency coverage
Folded dipole antennas 142 MHz – 246 MHz
Sleeve antennas 380 MHz – 460 MHz
Broadband dipole antenna 360 MHz – 2 700 MHz
Broadband sleeve antenna 700 MHz – 3 200 MHz
Microwave broadband dipole antenna 2 000 MHz – 6 000 MHz
HF broadband sleeve antenna 2 400 MHz – 6 000 MHz
Requires antenna tuning for selected test frequencies (see Annex C).
6.2.7 Stimulation and monitoring of the DUT

The DUT shall be operated in accordance with the test plan by actuators which have a minimum effect

on the electromagnetic characteristics, for example, plastic blocks on the pushbuttons, pneumatic

actuators with plastic tubes.

Connections to equipment monitoring electromagnetic interference reactions of the DUT may be

accomplished by using fibre-optics or high-resistance leads. Other types of leads may be used but

require extreme care to minimize interactions. The orientation, length and location of such leads shall

be carefully documented to ensure repeatability of test results.

CAUTION — Any electrical connection of monitoring equipment to the DUT could cause

malfunctions of the DUT. Extreme care shall be taken to avoid such an effect.
7 Test set-up
7.1 Ground plane

The ground plane shall be made of 0,5 mm thick (minimum) copper, brass or galvanized steel.

The minimum width of the ground plane shall be 1 000 mm, or the width of the entire underneath

of the test setup [DUT and associated equipment (e.g. harness including supply lines, load simulator

located on the test bench and AN(s)), excluding battery and/or power supply] plus 200 mm, whichever

is the larger.

The minimum length of the ground plane shall be 2 000 mm, or the length of the entire underneath

of the test setup [DUT and associated equipment (e.g. harness including supply lines, load simulator

located on the test bench and AN(s)), excluding battery and/or power supply] plus 200 mm, whichever

is the larger.

The height of the ground plane (test bench) shall be (900 ± 100) mm above the floor.

The ground plane shall be bonded to the shielded enclosure such that the DC resistance shall not exceed

2,5 mΩ. The distance from the edge of the ground strap to the edge of the next strap shall not be greater

than 300 mm. The maximum length to width ratio for the ground straps shall be 7:1.

7.2 LV power supply system

Figures 2 and 3 show the test bench setup when using only a LV power supply system.

Each DUT power supply lead shall be connected to the power supply through an artificial network (AN).

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11452-9:2021(E)

Power shall be applied to the DUT via a 5 µH/50 Ω AN. Whether two ANs or only one is required depends

on the intended DUT installation in the vehicle:

— for remotely grounded DUTs (vehicle power return line longer than 200 mm), two ANs are required,

one AN for the positive supply line and the other AN for the power return line (see Annex E);

— for locally grounded DUTs (vehicle power return line 200 mm or shorter), only one AN is required,

for the positive supply (see Annex E).

The AN(s) shall be mounted directly on the ground plane. AN cases shall be bonded to the ground plane.

The power supply return shall be connected to the ground plane, between the power supply and the

AN(s).
The measuring port of each AN shall be terminated with a 50 Ω load.
7.3 HV power supply system
Figures 4 to 7 show the test bench setup when using an HV power supply system.

Each DUT power supply lead shall be connected to the power supply through an HV AN (for DUT with

DC HV supply) and/or AMN (for DUT with AC supply).

— DC HV supply shall be applied to the DUT via a 5 μH/50 Ω HV AN (see ISO 11452-1:2015, Annex B for

the schematic).

— AC supply shall be applied to the DUT via a 50 μH/50 Ω AMN (see ISO 11452-1:2015, Annex B for the

schematic).

The HV AN(s) shall be mounted directly on the ground plane. The case or cases of the HV AN(s) shall be

bonded to the ground plane.
The measuring port of each HV AN(s) shall be terminated with a 50 Ω load.

The vehicle HV battery should be used; otherwise, the external HV power supply shall be connected via

feed-through-filtering.

Shielded supply lines for the positive HV DC terminal line (HV+), the negative HV DC terminal line (HV-

) and three phase HV AC lines may be separate coaxial cables or in a common shield depending on the

connector system used.

The shielded harnesses used for this test shall be representative of the vehicle application in terms of

cable construction and connector termination as defined in the test plan.

For the charger, the AMN(s) shall be mounted on the test facility floor ground plane. The case or cases

of the AMN(s) shall be bonded to the test facility floor ground plane. The charger PE (protective earth)

line shall be bounded to the test set-up ground plane and to the AMN(s) PE connection.

The measuring port of each HV AN(s) / AMN(s) shall be terminated with a 50 Ω load.

7.4 Location of the DUT

For LV power supply system, unless otherwise specified, the DUT shall be placed on non-conductive

material of low relative permittivity (dielectric constant) (ε ≤ 1,4) at least 50 mm above the ground

plane. The height shall be selected to assure that no portion of the transmit antenna is any closer than

50 mm to the ground plane. The DUT height selected shall be documented in the test plan.

The case of the DUT shall not be grounded to the ground plane unless it is intended to simulate the

actual vehicle configuration.

For HV power supply system, unless otherwise specified, the DUT shall be placed directly on the ground

plane with the DUT case bonded to the ground plane either directly or via defined impedance.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 11452-9:2021(E)
The DUT shall be located at least 100 mm from the edge of the ground plane.
7.5 Location of the test harness

For LV power supply system, the total length of the test harness between the DUT and the load simulator

(or the RF boundary) shall be (1 700 +300/0) mm. The part of the test harness parallel to the front edge

of the ground plane shall be at least 1 400 mm.

For HV power supply system, unless otherwise specified in the test plan (e.g. use of original vehicle

harnesses), the total length of harnesses shall be as follows:
+300

— (1 700 ) mm for the LV lines and the length of the LV test harness parallel to the front of the

ground plane shall be at least 1 400 mm;
+300

— (1 700 ) mm for the HV lines and the length of the HV test harness parallel to the front of the

ground plane shall be at least 1 400 mm;
+300

— (1 700 ) mm for the AC lines and the length of the AC test harness parallel to the front of the

ground plane shall be at least 1 400 mm and

— less than 1 000 mm for the three phase lines between DUT and electric motor(s).

If the HV test harness is over 2 000 mm, the HV test harness length should be defined in the test plan

and described in the test report.

The wiring type (e.g. single wires, twisted wire pairs) is defined by the actual system application and

requirement.

The test harness shall be placed on non-conductive material of low relative permittivity (dielectric

constant) (ε ≤ 1,4) at (50 ± 5) mm above the ground plane.

The LV test harness shall be located at least 200 mm from the edge of the ground plane. The long

+100

segment of the shielded HV power harness, if present, shall be located at100 mm from the LV

harness.

For an inverter/charger device, the setup in Figures 6 and 7 are examples of further HV and LV load

simulators and supplies attached to the DUT, e.g. for testing an on-board charger and its communication

+100

links. The distance between the AC power lines and the closest harness (LV or HV) shall be100 mm

7.6 Location of the load simulator

Unless otherwise specified in the test plan, the load simulator (designed to simulate typical loading as

in the vehicle) shall be placed directly on the ground plane. If the load simulator has a metallic case, this

case shall be bonded to the ground plane.

Alternatively, the load simulator may be located adjacent to the ground plane (with the case of the load

simulator bonded to the ground plane) or outside of the test chamber, provided the test harness from

the DUT passes through an RF boundary bonded to the ground plane. The layout of the test harness

that is connected to the load simulator shall be defined in the test plan and recorded in the test report.

When the load simulator is located on the ground plane, the DC power supply lines of the load simulator

shall be connected through the AN(s).
7.7 Location of the simulated portable transmitter equipment.

The interconnection between the directional coupler and the transmit antenna is a critical factor in

minimizing error in the net power delivered to the antenna.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 11452-9
ISO/TC 22/SC 32
Road vehicles — Component test
Secretariat: JISC
methods for electrical disturbances
Voting begins on:
2021-07-08 from narrowband radiated
electromagnetic energy —
Voting terminates on:
2021-09-02
Part 9:
Portable transmitters
Véhicules routiers — Méthodes d'essai d'un équipement soumis
à des perturbations électriques par rayonnement d'énergie
électromagnétique en bande étroite —
Partie 9: Émetteurs portables
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 11452-9:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 11452-9:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 11452-9:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Test conditions ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Test location .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Test instrumentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.2 Simulated portable transmitters ............................................................................................................................................. 2

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.2.2 Dual directional coupler ............................................................................................................................................ 3

6.2.3 Power monitoring ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2.4 Low loss coaxial cable ................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.2.5 Vector network analyser (VNA) .......................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.6 Transmit antenna ............................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.2.7 Stimulation and monitoring of the DUT ...................................................................................................... 5

7 Test set-up ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.1 Ground plane ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

7.2 LV power supply system ................................................................................................................................................................. 5

7.3 HV power supply system ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.4 Location of the DUT ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.5 Location of the test harness ......................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.6 Location of the load simulator ................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.7 Location of the simulated portable transmitter equipment. ........................................................................... 7

8 Test procedure .....................................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2 Test plan .....................................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.3 Test procedure ......................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.3.2 DUT test ................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.3.3 Antenna positioning for coupling to the DUT/connectors .......................................................21

8.3.4 Antenna positioning for coupling to harness .......................................................................................27

8.4 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................37

Annex A (normative) Net power characterization procedure ................................................................................................38

Annex B (informative) Typical characteristics and use of portable transmitters ..............................................49

Annex C (informative) Characteristics of simulated portable transmitter antenna ........................................52

Annex D (informative) Function performance status classification (FPSC) .............................................................74

Annex E (informative) Remote/local grounding ...................................................................................................................................75

Annex F (informative) Broadband noise source by AWG (arbitrary waveform generator) .....................77

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 11452-9:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 32,

Electrical and electronic components and general system aspects.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 11452-9:2012), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— change of the frequency range from 26 MHz – 5,85 GHz to 142 MHz – 6 GHz;
— suppression of test methodology with commercial transmitters;
— use of modulation from ISO 11452-1;
— modifications of ground plane dimensions;

— introduction of additional artificial networks (HV-AN, AMN, AAN) for DUT powered by a shielded

power system;
— addition of test set-up descriptions and figures for HV power supply system;
— addition of wording for DUT, connector and harness testing;

— addition of new Annex A with description of test methodology for net power characterization

procedure;

— addition in Annex C of microwave broadband dipole antenna and HF broadband sleeve antenna;

— addition of Annex F on broadband noise source with arbitrary waveform generator.

A list of all parts in the ISO 11452 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 11452-9:2021(E)
Road vehicles — Component test methods for electrical
disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic
energy —
Part 9:
Portable transmitters
1 Scope

This document specifies test methods and procedures for testing electromagnetic immunity of

electronic components for passenger cars and commercial vehicles to portable transmitters in close

proximity, regardless of the propulsion system (e.g. spark-ignition engine, diesel engine, electric

motor). The device under test (DUT), together with the wiring harness (prototype or standard test

harness), is subjected to an electromagnetic disturbance generated by portable transmitters inside

an absorber-lined shielded enclosure, with peripheral devices either inside or outside the enclosure.

The electromagnetic disturbances considered are limited to continuous narrowband electromagnetic

fields.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11452-1, Road vehicles — Component test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband

radiated electromagnetic energy — Part 1: General principles and terminology

Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to

300 GHz). International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11452-1 and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
reference position

geometrical centre of the radiation pattern of the antenna, which is determined by the manufacturer

based on near field measurement
4 Test conditions
The applicable frequency range of the test method is 142 MHz to 6 GHz.
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ISO/FDIS 11452-9:2021(E)

The user of this document shall specify the test severity level or levels over the frequency bands. The

test severity level shall take into account:

— typical portable transmitter characteristics (frequency bands, power level and modulation), and

— the characteristics of the antenna(s) used for this test.

The user shall specify the test severity level(s) over the frequency range. Suggested test levels are

included in Annex D.
Standard test conditions are given in ISO 11452-1 for the following:
— test temperature;
— supply voltage;
— dwell time;
— test signal quality;
— frequency steps;
— modulation.

NOTE Alternate modulations, if required, can be found in Annex B. Users of this document are advised

that Annex B is for information only and cannot be considered as an exhaustive description of various portable

transmitters available in all countries.
5 Test location
The test shall be performed in an absorber lined shielded enclosure (ALSE).
6 Test instrumentation
6.1 General

The field-generating device shall be simulated portable transmitters, with a broadband amplifier

connected to a transmit antenna.
Test personnel shall be protected in accordance with ICNIRP Guidelines.
NOTE National or other regulations can apply.
6.2 Simulated portable transmitters
6.2.1 General
The following equipment is used:
— ground plane;

— radio frequency (RF) generator with internal or external modulation capability;

— power amplifier;
— power measuring instrumentation to measure the forward and reverse power;
— dual directional coupler;
— low loss coaxial cables;
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ISO/FDIS 11452-9:2021(E)
— vector network analyser (VNA);
— transmit antenna;

— artificial networks (AN), and/or high voltage artificial networks (HV-AN), and/or artificial mains

networks (AMN), and/or asymmetric artificial networks (AAN).

Figure 1 illustrates the basic setup for the RF generation equipment. Testing is based on a required

net power (P ) applied to the test antenna. The net power level is derived from the forward power

(P ) measured at the directional coupler, which is remotely connected to the transmit antenna via

low loss coaxial cable. Requirements on directional coupler, cable and power sensors are listed in 6.2.2

to 6.2.4. The procedures delineated in Annex A shall be used determine the required forward power to

achieve the net power levels listed in Annex A or within the test plan. Although not required, it is highly

recommended to use a single directional coupler to cover the entire frequency band.

Key
1 RF signal generator P measured forward power at the directional coupler
2 RF amplifier P measured reverse power at the directional coupler
3 dual directional coupler P net power delivered to antenna
4 power sensor or measurement receiver
5 low loss coaxial cable with transmission loss
6 transmit antenna
Figure 1 — RF generation equipment setup
6.2.2 Dual directional coupler
The coupler shall exhibit the following characteristics:
— coupling factor: >20 dB (40 dB recommended),
— mainline port VSWR: <1,3,
— coupling port VSWR: <1,5,
— mainline transmission loss: <0,5 dB,
— directivity: >18 dB.

Selection of coupling factor (20 – 40 dB) shall be compatible with the sensitivity of the measurement

equipment used to measure forward and reflected power (see 6.2.3 for details).
6.2.3 Power monitoring

Either power sensors or a spectrum analyser (or measurement receiver) shall be used for measurement

of the forward and reflected power at the dual directional coupler.
When power sensors are used to measure forward and reflected power:

— CW or AM signal shall be measured either with an average or peak power sensor (peak conservation

may be applied for AM per ISO 11452-1);
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ISO/FDIS 11452-9:2021(E)
— pulsed power modulation shall be measured with a peak envelope power sensor;
— power sensors should be connected directly to the coupler ports;
— power sensors shall exhibit a VSWR <1,2 and a measurement accuracy <0,5 dB.

When a spectrum analyser (or measurement receiver) is used to measure forward and reflected power,

it shall exhibit the same VSWR and measurement accuracy as required for power sensors.

When the sensors or a spectrum analyser (or measurement receiver) are connected to the coupler via

coaxial cables, the cable’s transmission loss shall be taken into account during characterization. See

Annex A for details.
6.2.4 Low loss coaxial cable

The 50 Ω coaxial cable assembly (including all adaptors, switches, etc.) connecting the dual directional

coupler to the transmit antenna shall exhibit a VSWR <1,1 and transmission loss <4 dB. Verification

shall be performed in accordance with Annex A.
6.2.5 Vector network analyser (VNA)
The VNA shall exhibit the following characteristics:
— frequency range: 142 MHz – 6 GHz,
— frequency step: specified by the manufacturer (logarithmic step recommended),
— dynamic range: >60 dB (IF bandwidth <3 kHz),
— return loss: >32 dB,
— transmission loss accuracy: <0,1 dB,
— power level: 0 dBm (recommended value),
— minimum averaging factor (optional),
— minimum number of points: 401 (with logarithmic sweep),

— IF bandwidth: selected to meet return and transmission loss requirements (typically 1 kHz),

— VNA calibration kit to facilitate TSOM (through, short, open, matched) measurements:

— termination through: return loss >35 dB,
— termination short/open: deviation in nominal phase <2°,
— termination match: return loss >40 dB,

— it is recommended to use the same connector type to match that of the interconnecting cable

assembly and transmit antenna (avoid using adaptors).
6.2.6 Transmit antenna

The transmit antenna shall be a passive antenna. For accurate exposure during testing, the following

commercially available antennas are listed in Table 1.

Details associated with each antenna are found in Annex C. Only one type of antenna is required for the

frequency range being tested.

Testing requires near field excitation of the DUT and its attached harness. To facilitate this, the transmit

antennas listed in Table 1 have specific reference positions where the magnitude of the electric and

magnetic fields are at a maximum, dependent on the test frequency. To ensure testing is accurately

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ISO/FDIS 11452-9:2021(E)

executed, the reference positions shall be clearly defined by the antenna manufacturer for each

transmitting antenna (see Annex C for guidance).
Table 1 — Transmit antenna types
Antenna description Frequency coverage
Folded dipole antennas 142 MHz – 246 MHz
Sleeve antennas 380 MHz – 460 MHz
Broadband dipole antenna 360 MHz – 2 700 MHz
Broadband sleeve antenna 700 MHz – 3 200 MHz
Microwave broadband dipole antenna 2 000 MHz – 6 000 MHz
HF broadband sleeve antenna 2 400 MHz – 6 000 MHz
Requires antenna tuning for selected test frequencies (see Annex C).
6.2.7 Stimulation and monitoring of the DUT

The DUT shall be operated in accordance with the test plan by actuators which have a minimum effect

on the electromagnetic characteristics, for example, plastic blocks on the pushbuttons, pneumatic

actuators with plastic tubes.

Connections to equipment monitoring electromagnetic interference reactions of the DUT may be

accomplished by using fibre-optics or high-resistance leads. Other types of leads may be used but

require extreme care to minimize interactions. The orientation, length and location of such leads shall

be carefully documented to ensure repeatability of test results.

CAUTION — Any electrical connection of monitoring equipment to the DUT could cause

malfunctions of the DUT. Extreme care shall be taken to avoid such an effect.
7 Test set-up
7.1 Ground plane

The ground plane shall be made of 0,5 mm thick (minimum) copper, brass or galvanized steel.

The minimum width of the ground plane shall be 1 000 mm, or the width of the entire underneath

of the test setup [DUT and associated equipment (e.g. harness including supply lines, load simulator

located on the test bench and AN(s)), excluding battery and/or power supply] plus 200 mm, whichever

is the larger.

The minimum length of the ground plane shall be 2 000 mm, or the length of the entire underneath

of the test setup [DUT and associated equipment (e.g. harness including supply lines, load simulator

located on the test bench and AN(s)), excluding battery and/or power supply] plus 200 mm, whichever

is the larger.

The height of the ground plane (test bench) shall be (900 ± 100) mm above the floor.

The ground plane shall be bonded to the shielded enclosure such that the DC resistance shall not exceed

2,5 mΩ. The distance from the edge of the ground strap to the edge of the next strap shall not be greater

than 300 mm. The maximum length to width ratio for the ground straps shall be 7:1.

7.2 LV power supply system

Figures 2 and 3 show the test bench setup when using only a LV power supply system.

Each DUT power supply lead shall be connected to the power supply through an artificial network (AN).

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ISO/FDIS 11452-9:2021(E)

Power shall be applied to the DUT via a 5 µH/50 Ω AN. Whether two ANs or only one is required depends

on the intended DUT installation in the vehicle:

— for remotely grounded DUTs (vehicle power return line longer than 200 mm), two ANs are required,

one AN for the positive supply line and the other AN for the power return line (see Annex E);

— for locally grounded DUTs (vehicle power return line 200 mm or shorter), only one AN is required,

for the positive supply (see Annex E).

The AN(s) shall be mounted directly on the ground plane. AN cases shall be bonded to the ground plane.

The power supply return shall be connected to the ground plane, between the power supply and the

AN(s).
The measuring port of each AN shall be terminated with a 50 Ω load.
7.3 HV power supply system
Figures 4 to 7 show the test bench setup when using an HV power supply system.

Each DUT power supply lead shall be connected to the power supply through an HV AN (for DUT with

DC HV supply) and/or AMN (for DUT with AC supply).

— DC HV supply shall be applied to the DUT via a 5 μH/50 Ω HV AN (see ISO 11452-1:2015, Annex B for

the schematic).

— AC supply shall be applied to the DUT via a 50 μH/50 Ω AMN (see ISO 11452-1:2015, Annex B for the

schematic).

The HV AN(s) shall be mounted directly on the ground plane. The case or cases of the HV AN(s) shall be

bonded to the ground plane.
The measuring port of each HV AN(s) shall be terminated with a 50 Ω load.

The vehicle HV battery should be used; otherwise, the external HV power supply shall be connected via

feed-through-filtering.

Shielded supply lines for the positive HV DC terminal line (HV+), the negative HV DC terminal line (HV-

) and three phase HV AC lines may be separate coaxial cables or in a common shield depending on the

connector system used.

The shielded harnesses used for this test shall be representative of the vehicle application in terms of

cable construction and connector termination as defined in the test plan.

For the charger, the AMN(s) shall be mounted on the test facility floor ground plane. The case or cases

of the AMN(s) shall be bonded to the test facility floor ground plane. The charger PE (protective earth)

line shall be bounded to the test set-up ground plane and to the AMN(s) PE connection.

The measuring port of each HV AN(s) / AMN(s) shall be terminated with a 50 Ω load.

7.4 Location of the DUT

For LV power supply system, unless otherwise specified, the DUT shall be placed on non-conductive

material of low relative permittivity (dielectric constant) (ε ≤ 1,4) at least 50 mm above the ground

plane. The height shall be selected to assure that no portion of the transmit antenna is any closer than

50 mm to the ground plane. The DUT height selected shall be documented in the test plan.

The case of the DUT shall not be grounded to the ground plane unless it is intended to simulate the

actual vehicle configuration.

For HV power supply system, unless otherwise specified, the DUT shall be placed directly on the ground

plane with the DUT case bonded to the ground plane either directly or via defined impedance.

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ISO/FDIS 11452-9:2021(E)
The DUT shall be located at least 100 mm from the edge of the ground plane.
7.5 Location of the test harness

For LV power supply system, the total length of the test harness between the DUT and the load simulator

(or the RF boundary) shall be (1 700 +300/0) mm. The part of the test harness parallel to the front edge

of the ground plane shall be at least 1 400 mm.

For HV power supply system, unless otherwise specified in the test plan (e.g. use of original vehicle

harnesses), the total length of harnesses shall be as follows:
+300

— (1 700 ) mm for the LV lines and the length of the LV test harness parallel to the front of the

ground plane shall be at least 1 400 mm;
+300

— (1 700 ) mm for the HV lines and the length of the HV test harness parallel to the front of the

ground plane shall be at least 1 400 mm;
+300

— (1 700 ) mm for the AC lines and the length of the AC test harness parallel to the front of the

ground plane shall be at least 1 400 mm and

— less than 1 000 mm for the three phase lines between DUT and electric motor(s).

If the HV test harness is over 2 000 mm, the HV test harness length should be defined in the test plan

and described in the test report.

The wiring type (e.g. single wires, twisted wire pairs) is defined by the actual system application and

requirement.

The test harness shall be placed on non-conductive material of low relative permittivity (dielectric

constant) (ε ≤ 1,4) at (50 ± 5) mm above the ground plane.

The LV test harness shall be located at least 200 mm from the edge of the ground plane. The long

+100

segment of the shielded HV power harness, if present, shall be located at100 mm from the LV

harness.

For an inverter/charger device, the setup in Figures 6 and 7 are examples of further HV and LV load

simulators and supplies attached to the DUT, e.g. for testing an on-board charger and its communication

+100

links. The distance between the AC power lines and the closest harness (LV or HV) shall be100 mm

7.6 Location of the load simulator

Unless otherwise specified in the test plan, the load simulator (designed to simulate typical loading as

in the vehicle) shall be placed directly on the ground plane. If the load simulator has a metallic case, this

case shall be bonded to the ground plane.

Alternatively, the load simulator may be located adjacent to the ground plane (with the case of the load

simulator bonded to the ground plane) or outside of the test chamber
...

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