Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Rectangular Micro QR Code (rMQR) bar code symbology specification

This document defines the requirements for the symbology known as rMQR. It specifies the rMQR symbology characteristics, data character encoding methods, symbol formats, dimensional characteristics, error correction rules, reference decoding algorithm, printing quality requirements and user-selectable application parameters.

Technologies de l'information — Techniques d'identification automatique et de capture des données — Spécification de la symbologie de code à barres Rectangular Micro QR Code (rMQR)

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Published
Publication Date
19-May-2022
Current Stage
4060 - Close of voting
Start Date
12-Jun-2021
Completion Date
11-Jun-2021
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ISO/IEC 23941:2022 - Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Rectangular Micro QR Code (rMQR) bar code symbology specification Released:5/20/2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 23941
First edition
2022-05
Information technology — Automatic
identification and data capture
techniques — Rectangular Micro QR
Code (rMQR) bar code symbology
specification
Technologies de l'information — Techniques d'identification
automatique et de capture des données — Spécification de la
symbologie de code à barres Rectangular Micro QR Code (rMQR)
Reference number
ISO/IEC 23941:2022(E)
© ISO/IEC 2022
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ISO/IEC 23941:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23941:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Mathematical and logical symbols, abbreviated terms and conventions ...............................................3

4.1 Mathematical and logical symbols........................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.3 Conventions ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3.1 Module positions ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.3.2 Byte notation ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3.3 Version references............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6 rMQR specifications ........................................................................................................................................... ...............................................4

6.1 Basic characteristics ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Summary of additional features ............................................................................................................................................. 5

6.3 Symbol structure .................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.3.2 Symbol Versions and sizes ......................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3.3 Finder pattern .................................................................................................................................................................... 10

6.3.4 Separator ................................................................................................................................................................................ 10

6.3.5 Timing pattern .................................................................................................................................................................. 10

6.3.6 Alignment patterns ....................................................................................................................................................... 11

6.3.7 Finder sub pattern ......................................................................................................................................................... 11

6.3.8 Corner finder pattern ..................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.9 Encoding region ...............................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.10 Quiet zone .............................................................................................................................................................................. 13

7 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.1 Encode procedure overview ........................................................................................................................................... .........13

7.2 Data analysis ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 14

7.3 Modes ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15

7.3.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.3.2 Extended channel interpretation (ECI) mode ....................................................................................... 15

7.3.3 Numeric mode .................................................................................................................................................................... 15

7.3.4 Alphanumeric mode ..................................................................................................................................................... 15

7.3.5 Byte mode ..............................................................................................................................................................................15

7.3.6 Kanji mode ............................................................................................................................................................................ 16

7.3.7 Mixing modes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 16

7.3.8 FNC1 mode ............................................................................................................................................................................ 16

7.4 Data encoding ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

7.4.1 Sequence of data .............................................................................................................................................................. 16

7.4.2 Extended channel interpretation (ECI) mode ....................................................................................... 18

7.4.3 Numeric mode .................................................................................................................................................................... 20

7.4.4 Alphanumeric mode ..................................................................................................................................................... 21

7.4.5 Byte mode .............................................................................................................................................................................. 22

7.4.6 Kanji mode ............................................................................................................................................................................ 22

7.4.7 Mixing modes .....................................................................................................................................................................23

7.4.8 FNC1 modes ......................................................................................................................................................................... 24

7.4.9 Terminator ............................................................................................................................................................................25

7.4.10 Bit stream to codeword conversion ............................................................................................................... 25

7.5 Error correction .................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.5.1 Error correction capacity ........................................................................................................................................28

iii
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ISO/IEC 23941:2022(E)

7.5.2 Generating the error correction codewords .......................................................................................... 31

7.6 Constructing the final message codeword sequence ........................................................................................ 32

7.7 Codeword placement in matrix............................................................................................................................................. 33

7.7.1 Symbol character representation..................................................................................................................... 33

7.7.2 Function pattern placement .................................................................................................................................. 33

7.7.3 Symbol character placement ................................................................................................................................ 33

7.8 Data masking ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 37

7.8.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 37

7.8.2 Data mask patterns ....................................................................................................................................................... 37

7.9 Format information ......................................................................................................................................................................... 37

8 Symbol printing and marking.............................................................................................................................................................39

8.1 Dimensions .............................................................................................................................................................................................39

8.2 Human-readable interpretation ........................................................................................................................................... 39

8.3 Marking guidelines ..........................................................................................................................................................................40

9 Symbol quality .....................................................................................................................................................................................................40

9.1 Methodology ..........................................................................................................................................................................................40

9.2 Symbol quality parameters ......................................................................................................................................................40

9.2.1 Fixed pattern damage .................................................................................................................................................40

9.2.2 Scan grade and overall symbol grade ...........................................................................................................40

9.2.3 Grid non-uniformity .....................................................................................................................................................40

9.3 Process control measurements ............................................................................................................................................40

10 Decoding procedure overview ...........................................................................................................................................................40

11 Reference decode algorithm ................................................................................................................................................................41

12 Auto-discrimination capability .........................................................................................................................................................52

13 Transmitted data .............................................................................................................................................................................................52

13.1 General principles ............................................................................................................................................................................. 52

13.2 Symbology identifier ...................................................................................................................................................................... 52

13.3 Extended channel interpretations ..................................................................................................................................... 52

13.4 FNC1 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 53

Annex A (normative) Error detection and correction generator polynomials ...................................................54

Annex B (normative) Error correction decoding steps ................................................................................................................56

Annex C (normative) Format information ..................................................................................................................................................58

Annex D (normative) Position of alignment patterns ....................................................................................................................61

Annex E (normative) Symbology identifier ...............................................................................................................................................62

Annex F (normative) rMQR print quality – symbology – specific aspects ................................................................63

Annex G (normative) Byte mode character sets ...................................................................................................................................69

Annex H (informative) JIS8 and Shift JIS character sets ..............................................................................................................70

Annex I (informative) Symbol encoding examples ............................................................................................................................72

Annex J (informative) User guidelines for printing and scanning of rMQR symbols ....................................74

Annex K (informative) Autodiscrimination ..............................................................................................................................................76

Annex L (informative) Process control techniques...........................................................................................................................77

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................79

© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23941:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance

are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria

needed for the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
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ISO/IEC 23941:2022(E)
Introduction

Rectangular Micro QR Code (rMQR) is a matrix symbology. The symbol consists of an array of nominally

square modules, arranged in a rectangular pattern. Included is a unique finder pattern located at a

single corner which is intended to assist in easy location of the symbols position, size, and inclination.

A wide range of sizes of symbol is provided for, together with two levels of error correction. Module

dimensions are user-specified to enable symbol production by a wide variety of techniques.

© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 23941:2022(E)
Information technology — Automatic identification and
data capture techniques — Rectangular Micro QR Code
(rMQR) bar code symbology specification
1 Scope

This document defines the requirements for the symbology known as rMQR. It specifies the

rMQR symbology characteristics, data character encoding methods, symbol formats, dimensional

characteristics, error correction rules, reference decoding algorithm, printing quality requirements

and user-selectable application parameters.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 19762, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary

ISO/IEC 8859-1, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin

alphabet No. 1

ISO/IEC 15415, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Bar

code symbol print quality test specification — Two-dimensional symbols
3 Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19762 and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
character count indicator
bit sequence which defines the data string length in a mode (3.6)
3.2
encoding region

region of the symbol not occupied by function patterns (3.4) and available for encoding of data and error

correction codewords, and for format information (3.3)
3.3
format information

encoded pattern containing information on the error correction level and version (3.15) applied to

symbol characteristics
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ISO/IEC 23941:2022(E)
3.4
function pattern

overhead component of the symbol [finder pattern, separator (3.12), timing patterns (3.14), alignment

patterns, finder sub patterns and corner finder pattern] required for location of the symbol or

identification of its characteristics to assist in decoding
3.5
masking

process of XORing the bit pattern in an area of the symbol with a mask pattern to equalize the number

of light and dark modules
3.6
mode
method of representing a defined character set as a bit string
3.7
mode indicator
identifier indicating in which mode (3.6) the following data sequence is encoded
3.8
padding bit

zero bit, not representing data, used to fill empty positions of the final codeword during the encoding

process
3.9
remainder bit

zero bit, not representing data, used to fill empty positions of the symbol encoding region (3.2) after

the final symbol character, where the area of the encoding region (3.2) does not divide exactly into 8-bit

symbol characters
3.10
remainder codeword

codeword, placed after the data codeword stream that was generated in data encoding process, used

to fill empty codeword positions to meet the requirements of number of data codeword of the version

(3.15) and error correction definitions
3.11
segment
sequence of data encoded according to the rules of one ECI or encoding mode
3.12
separator

function pattern (3.4) of all light modules, one module wide, used to separate the finder pattern from

the rest of the symbol
3.13
terminator

bit pattern of defined number (depending on symbol) of all zero bits used to end the bit string

representing data
3.14
timing pattern

alternating sequence of dark and light modules enabling module coordinates in the symbol to be

determined
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ISO/IEC 23941:2022(E)
3.15
version

size of the symbol represented in terms of the number of modules in the vertical and horizontal axes,

indicated, for example, as R7x59

Note 1 to entry: The error correction level applied to the symbol can be suffixed to the Version Indicator, e.g.,

Version R11x27-M.
3.16
version Indicator

five-bit identifier indicating symbol version used for a part of the format information (3.3)

3.17
error correction level indicator

one-bit identifier indicating error correction level used for a part of the format information (3.3)

4 Mathematical and logical symbols, abbreviated terms and conventions
4.1 Mathematical and logical symbols
DIV is the integer division operator
MOD is the integer remainder after division

XOR is the exclusive-or logic function whose output is one only when its two inputs are not equivalent.

It is represented by the symbol ⊕.
4.2 Abbreviated terms
BCH Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem
ECI Extended Channel Interpretation
RS Reed-Solomon
4.3 Conventions
4.3.1 Module positions

For ease of reference, module positions are defined by their row and column coordinates in the symbol,

in the form (i, j) where i designates the row (counting from the top downwards) and j the column

(counting from left to right) in which the module is located, with counting commencing at 0. Module

(0, 0) is therefore located at the upper left corner of the symbol.
4.3.2 Byte notation
Byte contents are shown as hexadecimal (hex) values.
4.3.3 Version references

Symbol versions are referred to in the form Version RC xC -E where C identifies the vertical number

V H V

of modules (7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17), C identifies the horizontal number of modules (27, 43, 59, 77, 99, 139),

and E indicates the error correction level (M and H). For example, R13x27-M indicates a rectangular

symbol that has 13 vertical modules, 27 horizontal modules, and an error correction level M. Versions

may be referred to without error correction level. For example, R13x27.
NOTE For M and H, see 6.1 e).
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ISO/IEC 23941:2022(E)
5 Conformance

rMQR symbols (and equipment designed to produce or read rMQR symbols) shall be considered as

conforming with this document if they provide or support the features defined in this document.

6 rMQR specifications
6.1 Basic characteristics
rMQR is a matrix symbology with the following characteristics.
a) Encodable character set:
1) numeric data (digits 0 - 9);

2) alphanumeric data (digits 0 - 9; upper case letters A - Z; nine other characters, as shown in

Table 5.);

3) byte data [default shall be the character set defined in Annex G; or other sets as otherwise

defined (see 7.3.5)];
4) Kanji characters (Characters can be compacted into 13 bits (see 7.3.6).
b) Representation of data:

A dark module is nominally a binary one and a light module is nominally a binary zero. See 6.2 for

details of reflectance reversal.
c) Symbol size (not including quiet zone):

See Table 1 for the symbol sizes for 7 x 43 modules to 17 x 139 modules (Version R7x43 to R17x139).

d) Data characters per symbol:
The maximum symbol size of Version R17x139-M is as specified below.
— numeric data: 361 characters
— alphanumeric data: 219 characters
— Byte data: 150 characters
— Kanji data: 92 characters
e) Selectable error correction:

This symbology supports two levels of Reed-Solomon error correction, M and H, which allows the

recovery of rMQR codewords up to the indicated rate below.
— M 15 %
— H 30 %
f) Code type:
Matrix
g) Orientation independence:
Yes (both rotation and reflection)
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ISO/IEC 23941:2022(E)
Figur
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