Passenger cars — Simulation model classification — Part 1: Vehicle dynamics

A systematic framework has been created that facilitates the definition of the requirements of simulation models for certain applications and driving manoeuvres in a standardized manner. For this purpose, the proposed framework systematically divides the vehicle model into model classes and all model classes into different model types, corresponding to various model characteristics and common modelling methods. The vehicle dynamics manoeuvres have been additionally structured and clustered. Manoeuvres can be assigned to model classes and model types using an allocation and requirements table. This document thus also creates the basis for model recommendations relevant to vehicle dynamics with regard to advanced driver assistance systems and automated driving (ADAS/AD). The application of the framework and the specification of the model requirements are the responsibility of the user. Alternatively, they may be determined by other regulations and standards. This document contains recommendations for selectable model characteristics in terms of adequate simulation quality with respect to performance tests and associated application patterns. The recommendations can be adapted accordingly to be applied to functional testing.

Voitures particulières — Classification des modèles de simulation — Partie 1: Dynamique du véhicule

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Apr-2022
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Completion Date
13-Mar-2022
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 11010-1:2022 - Passenger cars — Simulation model classification — Part 1: Vehicle dynamics Released:4/15/2022
English language
32 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11010-1
First edition
2022-04
Passenger cars — Simulation model
classification —
Part 1:
Vehicle dynamics
Voitures particulières — Classification des modèles de simulation —
Partie 1: Dynamique du véhicule
Reference number
ISO 11010-1:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 11010-1:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 11010-1:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3  Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Model designation numbers .................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Physical system ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Controller .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Model classes ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Vehicle/body ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3 Aerodynamics ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Brake ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 11

5.5 Powertrain .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 14

5.6 Steering ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 17

5.7 Suspension .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 20

5.8 Tyre ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 23

5.9 Road surface .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 26

6 Driving manoeuvres .....................................................................................................................................................................................28

6.1 Driving manoeuvre classes ......................................................................................................................................................28

6.2 Classification of standardized driving manoeuvres ..........................................................................................28

7  Classification matrix ....................................................................................................................................................................................30

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................32

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 11010-1:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 33,

Vehicle dynamics and chassis components.
A list of all parts in the ISO 11010 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 11010-1:2022(E)
Introduction

This document has been developed in response to worldwide demand for the standardization of

simulation models and their requirements for use in specific applications and driving manoeuvres.

During the development and testing of road vehicles questions arise around which simulation models

should be applied and how well matched they need to be for performing certain applications with

related driving manoeuvres. In the absence of standards it is common practice that experts in different

organizations develop their own methods and processes as response to these questions. This causes

obstacles when it comes to comparability and model exchange between project partners. Currently,

unless the requirements for simulation models undergo extensive elaboration and coordination among

the experts involved, there will be major uncertainty with their implementation and quality.

The main purpose of this document is to provide a framework that enables a systematic assignment

of certain applications and driving manoeuvres to suitable simulation models and their elements

and characteristics. This document classifies the simulation models into certain model classes, their

designation number and related elements, characteristics and common modelling method. Assigning

models to classes related to specific applications is the responsibility of the user or other regulations

and standards. This document contains recommendations in the sense of an appropriate simulation

quality in terms of performance tests, thus enabling the user to specify the requirements for the models

with reference to this document. This document thus also creates the basis for model recommendations

relevant to vehicle dynamics with regard to advanced driver assistance systems and automated driving

[19]
(ADAS/AD) .
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11010-1:2022(E)
Passenger cars — Simulation model classification —
Part 1:
Vehicle dynamics
1 Scope

A systematic framework has been created that facilitates the definition of the requirements of

simulation models for certain applications and driving manoeuvres in a standardized manner.

For this purpose, the proposed framework systematically divides the vehicle model into model classes

and all model classes into different model types, corresponding to various model characteristics and

common modelling methods. The vehicle dynamics manoeuvres have been additionally structured

and clustered. Manoeuvres can be assigned to model classes and model types using an allocation and

requirements table. This document thus also creates the basis for model recommendations relevant to

vehicle dynamics with regard to advanced driver assistance systems and automated driving (ADAS/

AD).

The application of the framework and the specification of the model requirements are the responsibility

of the user. Alternatively, they may be determined by other regulations and standards. This document

contains recommendations for selectable model characteristics in terms of adequate simulation quality

with respect to performance tests and associated application patterns. The recommendations can be

adapted accordingly to be applied to functional testing.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3833, Road vehicles — Types — Terms and definitions
3  Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 3833 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
simulation model

mathematical model for the calculation of the system state variables based on equations describing a

vehicle or vehicle sub-system

Note 1 to entry: The vehicle’s environment is only modelled as far as required, i.e. friction of the road surface,

wind, etc. Models in this context are both, the unit under test (UuT) as well as models to supplement or complete

the simulation loop.
3.2
model class
mathematical model based on the vehicle or vehicle sub-systems
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 11010-1:2022(E)
3.3
model designation number

gradation of model type and depth with associated model characteristics, represented effects and

minimal model inputs and outputs
3.4
steady state model

physical model representing the definitions of steady state equilibrium mentioned in ISO 8855

Note 1 to entry: The model represents the transfer function between model input and output for steady-state

equilibrium. The model is not capable of representing the correct time behaviour. Effects caused through small

changes in time may be neglected. The model is usually mathematically described by a gain.

3.5
first order model

model, in addition to the steady state model (3.4), capable of representing the transient behaviour

Note 1 to entry: The physical model is usually described mathematically by a differential equation with a first

order lag force element such as PT1 behaviour with a first order.
3.6
second order model

model defined by a second order force element such as PT2 behaviour with second order

Note 1 to entry: Due to its conjunct complex poles, a time variant input results in an oscillatory output.

3.7
model-in-the-loop
MiL

testing method in which the controller is integrated as a unit under test (UuT) with a full-function

controller (3.12) into the simulation model (3.1) as a controller model
3.8
software-in-the-loop
SiL

testing method whereby the controller is integrated as a UuT with complete controller functionality as

application software from the ECU into the simulation model (3.1)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.9
processor-in-the-loop
PiL

testing method whereby the controller together with processor emulation is integrated as UuT into the

simulation model (3.1)
3.10
open-loop control

controller that influences a system’s behaviour without a feedback loop, for example based on maps

3.11
principal logic closed-loop controller
controller that influences a system’s behaviour with a feedback loop

Note 1 to entry: For principal logic, the controller is implemented in a simplified form, for example, with a PID

controller, to demonstrate the control logic.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 11010-1:2022(E)
3.12
full-function controller

controller that is implemented with complete functionality, but with operation restricted to the

function control algorithm under test
Note 1 to entry: The controller is realized as either MiL (3.7) or SiL (3.8).
3.13
ECU-in-the-loop

test method whereby the controller is integrated as a UuT into the simulation model (3.1) as a real ECU

(Figure 1)

Note 1 to entry: In this document it refers primarily to the controller. The controller is typically implemented in

hardware-in-the-loop (HiL).
3.14
full-function virtual ECU
vECU

controller that is implemented as a UuT with the whole ECU software with application and base

software (Figure 1)

Note 1 to entry: The controller is realized virtually via emulation in SiL mode. Full-function architecture means

software modules such as AUTOSAR connect the virtual ECU to the vehicle's communication network.

3.15
electric brake booster

brake booster that has the ability to amplify the braking force applied by the driver through electrical

actuation and autonomously build up pressure without driver actuation
[20]

Note 1 to entry: Electric brake boosters consist of a control unit, electric actuator and transmission device .

4 Model designation numbers
4.1 General

Each model class may consist of a physical system, including hydraulics and pneumatics, and a controller.

This segmentation can be extended to sensor and actuator.
4.2 Physical system

The model of a physical system shall have a model designation number from Table 1, according to the

definitions in Clause 3. The force element characteristic ranges from level 0 – no model – to level 3 –

second order model and within the sub-designation levels 1.x to 3.x. If a model requires a deeper sub-

categorization, the dot notation and a second digit starting from 1 shall be used.

NOTE The model designation numbers are valid for all vehicle sub-systems from 5.1 except the suspension

model, since its designation numbers 1 and 2 lack body masses. Nevertheless, the suspension model designation

numbers are adapted reasonably.
Table 1 — Model characteristic and designation number of a physical system
Force element characteristic Model designation number
None 0
Steady state model 1
First order model 2
Second order model 3
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 11010-1:2022(E)
4.3 Controller

The controller model shall have a model designation number from Table 2 according to the definitions

in Clause 3. The model characteristics range from level 0 – no model – to level 4 – ECU-in-the-loop (HiL).

For level 2 and 3, a deeper subcategorization “3.x” is used.

The subcategorization “.x” of level 2 and 3 defines the range of subsets of the target software (see

Figure 1), being included in the test bench. This depends on the scope of investigation, mostly in the

context of model-based testing. While level 1 and 2.1 controller models contain a simplified principal

logic, level 2.2 models map the target function (MiL) – that is the original control structure function

and application. Model level 2.3 (SiL) is based on the compiled target code of the application software

(see Figure 1). A level 3.1 model is restricted to the application software (e.g. implementation of control

functions and application parameter) as well as the base software such as a virtual ECU (vECU). A

level 3.2 model additionally includes the emulation of the processor and the software is compiled for

the target processor. Model 4 is the typical HiL as ECU-in-the-loop with hardware-specific software,

communication and diagnosis.
Table 2 — Model characteristic and designation number of controllers
Model designation num-
Description
ber
None 0
Open-loop control 1
Principal logic closed-loop controller 2.1
Target function: model-in-the-loop (MiL) – application software model only 2.2
Target software: software-in-the-loop (SiL) – application software only 2.3

Target software: full-function virtual ECU (vECU) – application + base software 3.1

Target software: processor-in-the-loop (PiL) 3.2
Target ECU: ECU-in-the-loop (HiL) 4
Figure 1 — Subsets of a controller

Figure 1 illustrates a typical software architecture of a real or virtual control unit in reference to

Table 2 with the levels: application software, base software and interfaces to actuators, sensors and

network.

NOTE The performance of a closed-loop controller can be significantly influenced by the time latency of

sensor signals.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 11010-1:2022(E)

Compared to the model designation number of the physical system (see 4.2), the designation number of

the controller is not mainly influenced by the driving manoeuvre, but by the scope of the investigation.

In predevelopment stage, a simple principal logic might be sufficient to evaluate the overall vehicle

behaviour; for functional development and safeguarding, the original function should be used. Some

exemplary types of investigation concerning the choice of the controller designation number are given

in Table 3.
Table 3 — Examples for the selection of controller designation number
Type of investigation Controller designation number
Preliminary design physical system 0/1/2.1
Functional development (preliminary design) 2.2/2.3
Homologation 2.3/3.1/4
Safeguarding of software implementation 2.3/3.1
Safeguarding of function including operation system 3.1/3.2/4
Systematic functional safeguarding in spite of a lack of a virtual
controller model
5 Model classes
5.1 General

The vehicle model is structured in the following model classes according to Figure 2: vehicle / body

(VH), powertrain (PT), brake (BR), steering (ST), suspension (SU), aerodynamics (AE) and tyre (TY)

and the road with road surface (RS) and road wind (RA). Some model classes consist only of a physical

system XXM, others as combination of a physical system XXM and a control system XXC. The models

refer to common vehicle systems as currently used in passenger cars. The user can create model

prototypes of future systems accordingly.

Independently of the above-mentioned structure of the models, a controller is not necessarily mapped to

a single ECU. An ECU will likely host more than one single controller. In addition, a controller algorithm

might be distributed over multiple ECU. This is of importance especially for higher model designation

numbers, where base software or other properties of the ECUs shall be considered.

NOTE It is possible that there are differing allocations and interfaces defined in Clause 5. In this document,

the axial rotation of wheels is calculated in the powertrain (PTM) and is passed to the tyre (TYM) and brake

(BRM).
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 11010-1:2022(E)
Key
signalbus (bidirectional)
actor
sensor
forces
kinematics
Figure 2 — Top-level model architecture

The control systems XXC are specific for their components XXM. Sometimes a “central controller”

coordinates the component-specific controller. For ADAS a sensor-based environment detection and

trajectory planning is necessary as well as a trajectory control. Trajectory control generates target

values for the component-specific controllers: in longitudinal direction for the powertrain (PTC)

and brake (BRC) and in the lateral direction for the steering (STC). Due to the fact that the “central

controller” is very specific to the manufacturer it is not classified in this document.

NOTE The “central controller” can be partitioned into separate control unit(s) or added to the control unit of

the specific controller(s).

The capital letters in parenthesis are the model classes’ abbreviations. The selected designation number

of a model class shall be written in the following syntax:
M
C

The actual names and numbers shall replace the placeholders in angled brackets. For the

the specified abbreviation shall be used. The syntax resembles that in the following examples:

STM2
PTM2 PTC4
BRM2.1 BRC3.1
NOTE This can be extended to sensor and actuator via the syntax:
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 11010-1:2022(E)
S
A
5.2 Vehicle/body

The model class vehicle (VH), with the architecture in Figure 3, is actually targeted to describe the

modelling of the vehicle body. However, depending on the designation number, it is possible that the

vehicle body is not isolated from the whole vehicle model. The higher the designation number, the better

the vehicle body can be isolated.

The model class vehicle (VH) shall have a designation number of the physical system (VHM) in

accordance with Table 4.

The designation numbers for class vehicle does not follow exactly the classification as described in

Table 1. Here the principle “best practice” applies. Thus, the models are clustered into three groups:

VHM1: one body model;

VHM2: multi-body model split sprung mass, unsprung mass, rigid bodies and look-up table for

suspension;
VHM3: multi-body model split sprung mass, unsprung mass, multi-body suspension.

In the group VHM1 the tyre is combined with the vehicle, while in the groups VHM2 and VHM3, the

vehicle body can be isolated from suspension and tyre. As an example, the widely used single-track

model belongs to VHM1, and VHM3 has the 3D-vehicle body model with local stiffness/stiffness matrix

within its scope.
Figure 3 — Vehicle architecture
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 11010-1:2022(E)
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
Table 4 — Vehicle system
Common modelling methods / typical Minimal model Minimal model
Model type Model description Description Effects
application area input output
VHM0 None
Single mass, one dimen- Forces (braking,

VHM1.1 Single mass 1-DoF Starting, braking (ODE) differential equation (1-DoF) ax

sional accelerating)
Lateral dynamics model (ODE) differential equation / function test for
VHM1.2 Single track model Understeer/oversteer Steering angle ay, yaw
with constant velocity controller
Load transfer due to
VHM1.2+ lateral load trans-

Single track model with lateral vehicle lateral acceler- VHM1.2+ load dependent tyre forces due to

VHM1.3 fer due to ay, load depend- VHM1.2 VHM1.2, roll
load transfer ation tyre character- roll
ent tyre model required
istics
VHM1.2+ longitudinal Load transfer due to

Single track model with longitu- load transfer due to ax, vehicle longitudinal VHM1.2+ load dependent tyre forces due to

VHM1.4 VHM1.1+ VHM1.2 VHM1.1+ VHM1.2

dinal dynamics load dependent tyre model acceleration tyre char- pitch/ function test with controller (e.g. ACC)

required acteristics
MBD mechanics

3D-model with rigid bodies and 3D-model with rigid bodies 3D-model with suspension + tyres/ function Forces moments / Motion of bodies and

VHM2.1 (split sprung mass,

look-up table suspension including wheel bounce and performance test of controller aero hard points

unsprung masses)
MBD mechanics

3D-model with rigid bodies and 3D-model with rigid bodies 3D-model with suspension + tyres/ function Forces moments / Motion of bodies and

VHM3.1 (split sprung mass,

MBD suspension including wheel bounce and performance test of controller aero hard points

unsprung masses)
VHM3.1. and global stiff-
3D-model with flexible elements VHM3.1+ global stiffnesses lumped in concen-
VHM3.2 nesses (torsional stiffness, VHM3.1 VHM3.1 VHM3.1
(global stiffnesses) trated spring-damper elements
bending)

3D-model with flex bodies (local VHM3.2 + local defor- VHM3.2 + parts flexible modelled or full flex-

VHM3.3 VHM3.2 + local stiffnesses VHM3.2 VHM3.2
stiffnesses) mation body (stiffness matrix)
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 11010-1:2022(E)
5.3 Aerodynamics

The model class aerodynamics (AE), with the architecture in Figure 4, shall have a model designation

number of the physical system (AEM) in accordance with Table 5. The modelling of aerodynamic effects

is divided into three subgroups. Aerodynamic effects in the vehicle models discussed in this document

are modelled by forces and sometimes by moments. The first effect considered is in general the drag

force, see AEM1.1. The next level includes vertical forces described by the sublevel AEM1.2. Sublevel

AEM1.3 is included in order to take sidewind effects into account in the model.
Figure 4 — Aerodynamics architecture
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 11010-1:2022(E)
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
Table 5 — Aerodynamics system
Common modelling methods /

Model type Model description Description Effects Minimal model input Minimal model output

typical application area
AEM0 No aerodynamics
Only longitudinal drag Force from constant factor or
AEM1.1 Drag Drag-forces Vehicle velocity Long force
forces are considered. curve
Vertical forces which

Additionally, front and rear influence limit Force from constant factor or Long and vertical forces,

AEM1.2 AEM1.1 + vertical Vehicle velocity
lift forces are considered. under-/oversteer curve pitch moment
balance.
Forces and moments (or a pair
All three dimensions are AEM1.2 + yaw, roll mo-

AEM1.3 AEM1.2 + sidewind Sidewind sensitivity of forces) from constant factor Vehicle and air velocity

considered. ment
or fields
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
ISO 11010-1:2022(E)
5.4 Brake

The model class brake (BR) with the architecture in Figure 5 contains the brake controller (BRC)

and the physical system (BRM) is specified as hydraulic service-brake system. The hydraulic service-

brake system allows the driver to reduce speed or to stop the vehicle completely. Therefore, the driver

activates the braking effect by pressing on the brake pedal. A vacuum booster amplifies the force. It is

transmitted to the wheel brake cylinders via the tandem master brake cylinder to two independent

hydraulic circuits.

For active systems like ABS, TCS or ESC, a hydraulic unit is attached between master brake cylinder

and brake pipes. This hydraulic unit contains valves and a pump,
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.