Information technology -- Open Trusted Technology ProviderTM Standard (O-TTPS) -- Mitigating maliciously tainted and counterfeit products

ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018 (O-TTPS) is a set of guidelines, requirements, and recommendations that address specific threats to the integrity of hardware and software COTS ICT products throughout the product life cycle. This release of the Standard addresses threats related to maliciously tainted and counterfeit products. The provider's product life cycle includes the work it does designing and developing products, as well as the supply chain aspects of that life cycle, collectively extending through the following phases: design, sourcing, build, fulfillment, distribution, sustainment, and disposal. While this Standard cannot fully address threats that originate wholly outside any span of control of the provider ? for example, a counterfeiter producing a fake printed circuit board assembly that has no original linkage to the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) ? the practices detailed in the Standard will provide some level of mitigation. An example of such a practice would be the use of security labeling techniques in legitimate products.

Technologies de l'information -- Norme de fournisseur de technologie de confiance ouverte (O-TTPS) -- Atténuation des produits contrefaits et malicieusement contaminés

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Feb-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
13-Jan-2018
Completion Date
22-Feb-2018
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 20243-1
First edition
2018-02
Information technology — Open
Trusted Technology Provider
Standard (O-TTPS) — Mitigating
maliciously tainted and counterfeit
products —
Part 1:
Requirements and recommendations
Technologies de l'information — Norme de fournisseur de technologie
de confiance ouverte (O-TTPS) — Atténuation des produits contrefaits
et malicieusement contaminés —
Partie 1: Exigences et recommandations
Reference number
ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018(E)
ISO/IEC 2018
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ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018(E)
Contents

1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 1

1.1 Objectives ....................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Overview ......................................................................................................... 1

1.3 Conformance ................................................................................................... 3

1.4 Terminology ................................................................................................... 3

1.5 Future Directions ............................................................................................ 4

2 Business Context and Overview ............................................................................... 5

2.1 Business Environment Summary .................................................................... 5

2.1.1 Operational Scenario ....................................................................... 5

2.2 Business Rationale .......................................................................................... 7

2.2.1 Business Drivers .............................................................................. 7

2.2.2 Objectives and Benefits ................................................................... 8

2.3 Recognizing the COTS ICT Context .............................................................. 9

2.4 Overview ....................................................................................................... 10

2.4.1 O-TTPF Framework Overview ..................................................... 11

2.4.2 Standard Overview ........................................................................ 11

2.4.3 Relationship with Other Standards ................................................ 11

3 O-TTPS – Tainted and Counterfeit Risks ............................................................... 13

4 O-TTPS – Requirements for Addressing the Risks of Tainted and Counterfeit

Products ................................................................................................................... 15

4.1 Technology Development ............................................................................. 16

4.1.1 PD: Product Development/Engineering Method ........................... 16
4.1.1.1 PD_DES: Software/Firmware/Hardware

Design Process ............................................................... 16

4.1.1.2 PD_CFM: Configuration Management .......................... 17
4.1.1.3 PD_MPP: Well-defined
Development/Engineering Method Process

and Practices .................................................................. 17

4.1.1.4 PD_QAT: Quality and Test Management ...................... 17
4.1.1.5 PD_PSM: Product Sustainment Management ............... 18
4.1.2 SE: Secure Development/Engineering Method ............................. 18
4.1.2.1 SE_TAM: Threat Analysis and Mitigation .................... 18
4.1.2.2 SE_RTP: Run-time Protection Techniques .................... 19
4.1.2.3 SE_VAR: Vulnerability Analysis and

Response ........................................................................ 19

4.1.2.4 SE_PPR: Product Patching and Remediation ................ 20
4.1.2.5 SE_SEP: Secure Engineering Practices ......................... 20
4.1.2.6 SE_MTL: Monitor and Assess the Impact of
Changes in the Threat Landscape .................................. 20

4.2 Supply Chain Security .................................................................................. 21

4.2.1 SC: Supply Chain Security ............................................................ 21

4.2.1.1 SC_RSM: Risk Management ......................................... 21
Open Trusted Technology Provider Standard (O-TTPS), Version 1.1 iii
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ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018(E)
4.2.1.2 SC_PHS: Physical Security ........................................... 22
4.2.1.3 SC_ACC: Access Controls ............................................ 22
4.2.1.4 SC_ESS: Employee and Supplier Security

and Integrity ................................................................... 23

4.2.1.5 SC_BPS: Business Partner Security .............................. 23
4.2.1.6 SC_STR: Supply Chain Security Training .................... 24
4.2.1.7 SC_ISS: Information Systems Security ......................... 24
4.2.1.8 SC_TTC: Trusted Technology Components .................. 24
4.2.1.9 SC_STH: Secure Transmission and Handling ............... 25
4.2.1.10 SC_OSH: Open Source Handling .................................. 25
4.2.1.11 SC_CTM: Counterfeit Mitigation .................................. 26
4.2.1.12 SC_MAL: Malware Detection ....................................... 26
List of Tables

Table 1: O-TTPS Constituents and their Roles ................................................................... 6

Table 2: Threat Mapping ................................................................................................... 14

List of Figures

Figure 1: Constituents ......................................................................................................... 6

Figure 2: Product Life Cycle – Categories and Activities ................................................. 15

iv Open Group Standard (2014)
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ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018(E)
FOREWORD

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non‐governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint

technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does

not constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the

following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by The Open Group and was adopted, under the PAS procedure, by

Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, in parallel with its approval by

national bodies of ISO and IEC.

This first edition of ISO/IEC 20243‐1 cancels and replaces ISO/IEC 20243:2015 of which it

constitutes a minor revision to change the reference number from 20243 to 20243‐1..

A list of all parts in the ISO 20243 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018(E)
Preface
The Open Group

The Open Group is a global consortium that enables the achievement of business objectives

through IT standards. With more than 400 member organizations, The Open Group has a diverse

membership that spans all sectors of the IT community – customers, systems and solutions

suppliers, tool vendors, integrators, and consultants, as well as academics and researchers – to:

 Capture, understand, and address current and emerging requirements, and establish

policies and share best practices

 Facilitate interoperability, develop consensus, and evolve and integrate specifications and

open source technologies

 Offer a comprehensive set of services to enhance the operational efficiency of consortia

Further information on The Open Group is available at www.opengroup.org.

The Open Group publishes a wide range of technical documentation, most of which is focused on

development of Open Group Standards and Guides, but which also includes white papers,

technical studies, certification and testing documentation, and business titles. Full details and a

catalog are available at www.opengroup.org/bookstore.

Readers should note that updates – in the form of Corrigenda – may apply to any publication. This

information is published at www.opengroup.org/corrigenda.
This Document

The Open Group Trusted Technology Forum (OTTF or Forum) is a global initiative that invites

industry, government, and other interested participants to work together to evolve this Standard

and other OTTF deliverables.

This Standard is the Open Trusted Technology Provider Standard (O-TTPS). The Standard has

been developed by the OTTF and approved by The Open Group, through The Open Group

Company Review process. There are two distinct elements that should be understood with respect

to this Standard: The O-TTPF (Framework) and the O-TTPS (Standard).

The O-TTPF (Framework): The Framework is an evolving compendium of organizational

guidelines and best practices relating to the integrity of Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS)

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) products and the security of the supply chain

throughout the entire product life cycle. An early version of the Framework was published as a

White Paper in February 2011 (see Referenced Documents). The Framework serves as the basis

for this Standard, future updates, and additional standards. The content of the Framework is the

result of industry collaboration and research as to those commonly used commercially reasonable

practices that increase product integrity and supply chain security. The members of the OTTF will

continue to collaborate with industry and governments and update the Framework as the threat

landscape changes and industry practices evolve.
vi Open Group Standard (2014)
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ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018(E)

The O-TTPS (Standard): The O-TTPS is an open standard containing a set of guidelines that

when properly adhered to have been shown to enhance the security of the global supply chain and

the integrity of COTS ICT products. This part 1 of the Standard provides a set of guidelines,

requirements, and recommendations that help assure against maliciously tainted and counterfeit

products throughout the COTS ICT product life cycle encompassing the following phases: design,

sourcing, build, fulfillment, distribution, sustainment, and disposal.

Part 2 of the O-TTPS Standard, Assessment Procedures for the O-TTPS and ISO/IEC 20243,,

provides assessment procedures that may be used to demonstrate conformance with the

requirements provided in Section 4 of this part of the Standard.

Using the guidelines documented in the Framework as a basis, the OTTF is taking a phased

approach and staging O-TTPS releases over time. This staging will consist of standards that focus

on mitigating specific COTS ICT risks from emerging threats. As threats change or market needs

evolve, the OTTF intends to update the O-TTPS (Standard) by releasing addenda to address

specific threats or market needs.

The Standard is aimed at enhancing the integrity of COTS ICT products and helping customers to

manage sourcing risk. The authors of this Standard recognize the value that it can bring to

governments and commercial customers worldwide, particularly those who adopt procurement

and sourcing strategies that reward those vendors who follow the O-TTPS best practice

requirements and recommendations.

Note: Any reference to “providers” is intended to refer to COTS ICT providers. The use of the

word “component” is intended to refer to either hardware or software components.
Intended Audience

This Standard is intended for organizations interested in helping the industry evolve to meet the

threats in the delivery of trustworthy COTS ICT products. It is intended to provide enough context

and information on business drivers to enable its audience to understand the value in adopting the

guidelines, requirements, and recommendations specified within. It also allows providers,

suppliers, and integrators to begin planning how to implement the Standard in their organizations.

Additionally, acquirers and customers can begin recommending the adoption of the Standard to

their providers and integrators.
Open Trusted Technology Provider Standard (O-TTPS), Version 1.1 vii
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ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018(E)
Trademarks
® ® ® ® ®

ArchiMate , DirecNet , Jericho Forum , Making Standards Work , OpenPegasus , The Open

® ® ®

Group , TOGAF , and UNIX are registered trademarks and Boundaryless Information Flow™,

Build with Integrity Buy with Confidence™, Dependability Through Assuredness™, FACE™,

Open Platform 3.0™, Open Trusted Technology Provider™, and The Open Group Certification

Mark™ are trademarks of The Open Group.

All other brands, company, and product names are used for identification purposes only and may

be trademarks that are the sole property of their respective owners.
viii Open Group Standard (2014)
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ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018(E)
Acknowledgements

The Open Group acknowledges the contribution of the following people and organizations in the

development of this Standard (presented in alphabetical order).

In particular, we would like to provide a special thank you and acknowledgement to the Chair and

Vice Chair of the OTTF: Andras Szakal, IBM (Chair) and Edna Conway, Cisco Systems (Vice

Chair).
The contributing members of The Open Group Trusted Technology Forum (OTTF):
Contributors Organization
Jon Amis Dell, Inc.
Paul Aschwald Hewlett-Packard Company
Nadya Bartol (formerly of) Booz Allen Hamilton
James Bean Juniper Networks
Kristen Baldwin US DoD AT&L
Terry Blevins MITRE
Joshua Brickman CA Technologies
Stan Brown CA Technologies
Ben Calloni Lockheed Martin
Suresh Cheruserri (formerly of) Tata Consultancy Services
YouHong (Robert) Chu Kingdee Software
Erv Comer Motorola Solutions
Erin Connor Electronic Warfare Associates (EWA) – Canada Ltd.
Tammy Compton (formerly of) SAIC
Edna Conway Cisco Systems Inc.
OTTF Vice-Chair
Don Davidson DOD-CIO
Mary Ann Davidson Oracle Corporation
Charles Dekle (formerly of) US DoD AT&L
Terrie Diaz Cisco Systems Inc.
Robert Dix Juniper Networks
Holly Dunlap Raytheon Company
Bob Ellison SEI
Marcus Fedeli (formerly of) NASA
Luke Forsyth CA Technologies
Susan Fultz Hewlett-Packard Company
Open Trusted Technology Provider Standard (O-TTPS), Version 1.1 ix
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ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018(E)
Contributors Organization
Steve Goldberg (formerly of) Motorola Solutions
Tim Hahn IBM Corporation
Wes Higaki Apex Assurance Group
Ken Hong Fong (formerly of) US DoD AT&L
Helmut Kurth atsec information security
Mike Lai Microsoft Corporation
David Ling Hewlett-Packard Company
Steve Lipner Microsoft Corporation
O-TTPF Work Stream Co-Chair
Dr. David McQueeney IBM Corporation
Jim Mann Hewlett-Packard Company
Al Marshall NASA
Michele Moss Booz-Allen Hamilton
Shawn Mullen IBM Corporation
Fiona Pattinson atsec information security
Brendan Peter CA Technologies
Glenn Pittaway Microsoft Corporation
Andy Purdy Huawei Technologies
Dan Reddy EMC Corporation
Karen Richter IDA
Jim Robinson Hewlett-Packard Company
Hart Rossman (formerly of) SAIC
Mark Schiller (formerly of) Hewlett-Packard Company
Thomas Stickels MITRE
Andras R. Szakal IBM Corporation
OTTF Chair and O-TTPF Work Stream Co-Chair
Steve Whitlock The Boeing Company
Jim Whitmore IBM Corporation
Robert Williamson SAIC
Eric Winterton Booz Allen Hamilton
Joanne Woytek NASA
Chee Wai Foong Cisco Systems Inc.
The individuals providing early contributions to this work:
x Open Group Standard (2014)
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ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018(E)
Contributor Name
Randy Barr Qualys
Rance DeLong LynuxWorks
Chris Fagan (formerly of) Microsoft Corporation
Rob Hoffman High Assurance Systems, Inc.
Dave McDermitt (formerly of) SAIC
Terry Morgan (formerly of) Cisco Systems Inc.
Paul Nicholas Microsoft Corporation
Kerri Patterson (formerly of) Cisco Systems Inc.
Steve Venema The Boeing Company
Larry Wagoner NSA
The Open Group staff:
Name Role
James Andrews The Open Group Conformance Quality Manager
Joe Bergmann Open Group Government Relations, Director, RT&ES
James de Raeve VP Certification
Cathy Fox Technical Editor
Jim Hietala VP Security
Andrew Josey Director, Standards
Sally Long Director, The Open Group Trusted Technology Forum (OTTF)
Dave Lounsbury Chief Technical Officer
Open Trusted Technology Provider Standard (O-TTPS), Version 1.1 xi
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ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018(E)
Referenced Documents
The following documents are referenced in this Standard:

 2007 Defense Science Board Task Force on Mission Impact of Foreign Influence on DoD

Software, September 2007; findings and recommendations located at:
www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/ADA486949.pdf.
 Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC) Code of Conduct; refer to:
www.eicc.info.

 ISO/IEC 15408: Information Technology – Security Techniques – Evaluation Criteria for

IT Security (Common Criteria).
 ISO/IEC 27000:2009: Information Technology – Security Techniques – Information
Security Management Systems – Overview and Vocabulary.

 ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2: Rules for the Structure and Drafting of International

Standards.
 NIST 800-12: An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook.

 White Paper: Open Trusted Technology Provider Framework (O-TTPF), W113, published

by The Open Group, February 2011; refer to:
www.opengroup.org/bookstore/catalog/w113.htm.
xii Open Group Standard (2014)
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ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018(E)
1 Introduction

This chapter introduces this part of the Standard – the Open Trusted Technology Provider Standard

(O-TTPS) – and the normative terminology that should be understood in relation to specific

requirements and recommendations found in Chapter 4 of this document.
1.1 Objectives

This part of the Open Trusted Technology Provider Standard (O-TTPS) is a set of guidelines,

requirements, and recommendations that, when practically applied, create a business benefit in

terms of reduced risk of acquiring maliciously tainted or counterfeit products for the technology

acquirer. Documenting best practices that have been taken from the experience of mature industry

providers, rigorously reviewed through a consensus process, and established as requirements and

recommendations in this Standard, can provide significant advantage in establishing a basis to

reduce risk. A commitment by technology providers, large and small, suppliers of hardware and

software components, and integrators to adopt this Standard is a commitment to using specific

methodologies to assure the integrity of their hardware or software Commercial Off-the-Shelf

(COTS) Information and Communication Technology (ICT) products. This Standard is detailed

and prescriptive enough to be useful in raising the bar for all providers and lends itself to a

certification process to provide assurance that it is being followed in a meaningful and repeatable

manner.
1.2 Overview

This part of the Standard (O-TTPS) is a set of guidelines, requirements, and recommendations that

address specific threats to the integrity of hardware and software COTS ICT products throughout

the product life cycle. This release of the Standard addresses threats related to maliciously tainted

and counterfeit products.

The provider’s product life cycle includes the work it does designing and developing products, as

well as the supply chain aspects of that life cycle, collectively extending through the following

phases: design, sourcing, build, fulfillment, distribution, sustainment, and disposal. While this

Standard cannot fully address threats that originate wholly outside any span of control of the

provider – for example, a counterfeiter producing a fake printed circuit board assembly that has

no original linkage to the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) – the practices detailed in the

Standard will provide some level of mitigation. An example of such a practice would be the use

of security labeling techniques in legitimate products.

The two major threats that acquirers face today in their COTS ICT procurements, as addressed in

this Standard, are defined as:

1. Maliciously tainted product – the product is produced by the provider and is acquired

through a provider’s authorized channel, but has been tampered with maliciously.
Open Trusted Technology Provider Standard (O-TTPS), Version 1.1 1
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ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018(E)

2. Counterfeit product – the product is produced other than by, or for, the provider, or is

supplied to the provider by other than a provider’s authorized channel and is presented as

being legitimate even though it is not.

Note: All instances, within this standard, of the use of the words: taint, tainted, tainting, refer

to maliciously taint, maliciously tainted, and maliciously tainting, respectively.

Trusted Technology Providers manage their product life cycle, including their extended supply

chains, through the application of defined, monitored, and validated best practices. The product’s

integrity is strengthened when providers and suppliers follow the requirements and

recommendations specified in this Standard. The industry consensus reflected here and in the

Open Trusted Technology Provider Framework (O-TTPF) draws from the following areas that are

integral to product integrity: product development/engineering, secure development/engineering,

and supply chain security. Additionally, product integrity and supply chain security are enhanced

by following practices among suppliers, trading partners, providers, and, when appropriate,

acquiring customers to preserve the product’s intended configuration.

This Standard is focused on the security of the supply chain versus the business management

aspects of the supply chain. This Standard takes a comprehensive view about what providers

should do in order to be considered a Trusted Technology Provider that “builds with integrity”.

This includes practices that providers incorporate in their own internal product life cycle

processes, that portion of product development that is “in-house” and over which they have more

direct operational control. Additionally, it includes the provider’s supply chain security practices

that need to be followed when incorporating third-party hardware or software components, or

when depending on external manufacturing and delivery or supportive services.

The Standard makes a distinction between provider and supplier. Suppliers are those upstream

vendors who supply components or solutions (software or hardware) to providers or integrators.

Providers are those vendors who supply COTS ICT products directly to the downstream integrator

or acquirer.

Ideally, the guidelines, requirements, and recommendations included in this Standard will be

widely adopted by providers and their suppliers regardless of size and will provide benefits

throughout the industry.

For this version of the Standard, the following elements are considered out of scope:

 This Standard does not focus on guidelines, requirements, and recommendations for the

acquirer. The Forum is considering addressing this area in subsequent versions of the

Standard. In the meantime, an acquirer does have a role to play in assuring that the

products and components they procure are built with integrity. One of the ways that the

acquirer can do that is to require their providers, suppliers, and integrators to be Trusted

Technology Providers. Another way is to not knowingly support the “grey market”,

realizing that if an acquirer elects to receive hardware or software support from grey

market suppliers, it is at their own risk and generally outside of the influence of the

legitimate provider.

 This Standard is not meant to be comprehensive as to all practices that a provider should

follow when building software or hardware. For a more comprehensive set of foundational

2 Open Group Standard (2014)
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ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018(E)

best practices that a provider could implement to produce good quality products, readers

can refer to the O-TTPF White Paper.

 This version of the Standard does not apply to the operation or hosting infrastructure of

on-line services, but can apply to COTS ICT products in as far as they are utilized by

those services.

This Standard complements existing standards covering product security functionality and product

information assurance, such as ISO/IEC 15408 (Common Criteria).
1.3 Conformance

The Open Group has developed conformance criteria, assessment procedures and created an

Certification Policy and Program for the Open Trusted Technology Provider Standard (O-TTPS)

as a useful tool for all constituents with an interest in supply chain security. Without the associated

conformance criteria and an Certification Program, there is no assurance that an organization has

implemented practices according to the O-TTPS.

The conformance criteria and assessment procedures are available in Part 2 of the O-TTPS,

Assessment Procedures for the O-TTPS and ISO/IEC 20243.

Certification provides formal recognition of conformance to the O-TTPS, which allows:

 Providers and practitioners to make and substantiate clear claims of conformance to the

Standard

 Acquirers to specify and successfully procure from providers who conform to the

Standard
1.4 Terminology

This section provides a set of terms and their definitions, which should be used when describing

and interpreting the Standard requirements and recommendations specified in Chapter 4 of this

Standard. These terms are aligned with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (Annex H).

Shall Indicates an absolute, mandatory requirement of the Standard that has to be

implemented in order to conform to the Standard and from which no
deviation is permitted. Do not use “must” as an alternative for “shall”. (This
will avoid any confusion between the requirements of a document and
external statutory obligations.)

Shall not Indicates an absolute preclusion of the Standard, and if implemented would

represent a non-conformity with the Standard. Do not use “may not” instead
of “shall not” to express a prohibition.

Should Indicates a recommendation among several possibilities that is particularly

suitable, without mentioning or excluding others, or that a certain course of
action is preferred but not necessarily required.
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ISO/IEC 20243-1:2018(E)

Should not Indicates a practice explicitly recommended not to be implemented, or t

...

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