Internet of Things (IoT) -- Requirements of IoT data exchange platform for various IoT services

ISO/IEC 30161-1:2020(E) specifies requirements for an Internet of Things (IoT) data exchange platform for various services in the technology areas of: • the middleware components of communication networks allowing the co-existence of IoT services with legacy services; • the end-points performance across the communication networks among the IoT and legacy services; • the IoT specific functions and functionalities allowing the efficient deployment of IoT services; • the IoT service communication networks’ framework and infrastructure; and • the IoT service implementation guideline for the IoT data exchange platform

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03-Dec-2020
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ISO/IEC 30161-1
Edition 1.0 2020-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Internet of things (IoT) – Data exchange platform for IoT services –
Part 1: General requirements and architecture
ISO/IEC 30161-1:2020-11(en)
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ISO/IEC 30161-1
Edition 1.0 2020-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Internet of things (IoT) – Data exchange platform for IoT services –
Part 1: General requirements and architecture
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 35.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-8997-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

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– 2 – ISO/IEC 30161-1:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................... 7

5 Overview of IoT services ................................................................................................. 7

6 Network configurations for IoT services ........................................................................... 7

6.1 Overview of network configurations for IoT ............................................................. 7

6.2 Network models for an IoT DEP .............................................................................. 9

7 Data exchange platform in IoT reference architecture ...................................................... 9

7.1 General ................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Position of an IoT DEP in IoT reference architecture ............................................... 9

7.2.1 Functions of the IoT DEP ................................................................................. 9

7.2.2 Positions of the IoT DEP ................................................................................ 10

7.3 Operation of an IoT DEP in an IoT system ............................................................ 10

8 Requirements for an IoT DEP ........................................................................................ 13

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 13

8.2 Requirements of functional blocks ......................................................................... 13

8.2.1 Definitions of functional blocks ...................................................................... 13

8.2.2 Communication access control (CAC) ............................................................ 14

8.2.3 Data control ................................................................................................... 16

8.2.4 Data translation ............................................................................................. 16

8.2.5 IoT control ..................................................................................................... 16

8.2.6 IoT management ............................................................................................ 16

8.2.7 Adaptation ..................................................................................................... 16

8.3 Communication protocols ...................................................................................... 16

8.4 Service mapping ................................................................................................... 17

9 Operations of an IoT DEP .............................................................................................. 17

Annex A (normative) Implementation guideline for an IoT DEP ............................................ 19

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

A.2 Abstraction of lower layer in IoT DEP .................................................................... 20

A.3 Abstraction of lower layer in IoT DEP .................................................................... 21

Annex B (informative) Typical communication protocols for ICN ........................................... 22

Annex C (informative) Applied use cases based on an IoT data exchange platform ............. 23

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 23

C.2 Farm product tracking use case: Actors and information exchange ....................... 23

C.3 IoT endpoint monitoring systems ........................................................................... 24

C.4 IoT-based energy management system for industrial facilities ............................... 24

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 27

Figure 1 – Overview of network configurations ........................................................................ 8

Figure 2 – Service types of the network configurations ........................................................... 8

Figure 3 – Redefined configuration types for an IoT DEP ........................................................ 9

Figure 4 – Locations of IoT DEP functions in the IoT reference models ................................. 10

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ISO/IEC 30161-1:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 3 –

Figure 5 – Cases of an IoT DEP and relationship between IoT and other services ................ 11

Figure 6 – Operations of the IoT DEP in Case A ................................................................... 11

Figure 7 – Operations of an IoT DEP in Case B .................................................................... 12

Figure 8 – Operations of an IoT DEP in Case C .................................................................... 12

Figure 9 – Operations of an IoT DEP in Case D .................................................................... 12

Figure 10 – Functional blocks in an IoT DEP ......................................................................... 13

Figure 11 – Functional blocks in an IoT DEP ......................................................................... 14

Figure 12 – Layer structures of the communication platforms ................................................ 15

Figure 13 – Independence between CAC and lower layer protocols ...................................... 15

Figure 14 – Co-existing architecture between IoT applications and others ............................ 15

Figure 15 – IoT DEP connections over communication protocols .......................................... 16

Figure 16 – Connections between IoT users and IoT services with an IoT DEP ..................... 17

Figure 17 – Connections between IoT users and IoT services without an IoT DEP ................ 17

Figure 18 – Operation of information control using an IoT DEP ............................................. 18

Figure A.1 – Configuration of entity including an IoT DEP without adaptation ........................ 19

Figure A.2 – Configuration of entity including an IoT DEP with adaptation ............................ 19

Figure A.3 – Implementation on support of multiple access protocols in an IoT DEP ............. 20

Figure A.4 – Implementation on support of multiple socket interfaces in an IoT DEP ............. 20

Figure A.5 – Implementation on support of multiple socket interfaces in an IoT DEP

with adaptation function ........................................................................................................ 21

Figure B.1 – Types of ICN technologies ................................................................................ 22

Figure C.1 – Diagram of farm product tracking system .......................................................... 23

Figure C.2 – Diagram of farm product tracking system .......................................................... 24

Figure C.3 – Diagram of IoT-based energy management system for industrial facilities ......... 25

Figure C.4 – Extracted key blocks of Figure C.3 ................................................................... 25

Table 1 – Relationship between functional blocks and cases of an IoT DEP .......................... 13

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– 4 – ISO/IEC 30161-1:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) –
DATA EXCHANGE PLATFORM FOR IOT SERVICES –
Part 1: General requirements and architecture
FOREWORD

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participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees established by the

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patent rights. IEC and ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard ISO/IEC 30161 was prepared by subcommittee 41: Internet of Things

and related technologies, of ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1: Information technology.

The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
JTC1-SC41/178/FDIS JTC1-SC41/187/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

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of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

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ISO/IEC 30161-1:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

IoT implements various services in many fields, such as "Remote Management of Large

Equipment in a Plant", "Warehouse Goods Monitoring", "IoT Endpoint (Sensors and Actuators)

Monitoring Systems", etc. The IoT architecture can be categorized into vertical and horizontal

approaches. For small deployments in limited areas, the vertical approach is possible. However,

for large scale deployments, the horizontal approach is required, and then introducing the

concept of a common platform is helpful for implementing various services. In the horizontal

approach, information processing and networking are positioned as the platform. And also, the

types of IoT services are increasing in different application fields. To make IoT services more

creative and productive, data exchange between various IoT services needs to be supported

and a common platform for data exchange is the simplest way. This document has been

developed in accordance with a detailed study of a platform that supports various IoT use cases.

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– 6 – ISO/IEC 30161-1:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) –
DATA EXCHANGE PLATFORM FOR IOT SERVICES –
Part 1: General requirements and architecture
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements for an Internet of Things (IoT) data exchange platform

for various services in the technology areas of:

• the middleware components of communication networks allowing the co-existence of IoT

services with legacy services;

• the end-points performance across the communication networks among the IoT and legacy

services;

• the IoT specific functions and functionalities allowing the efficient deployment of IoT

services;
• the IoT service communication networks’ framework and infrastructure; and
• the IoT service implementation guideline for the IoT data exchange platform.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.
ISO/IEC 30141:2018, Internet of Things (loT) – Reference architecture
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
IoT data exchange platform
IoT DEP

set of functional blocks that provide an abstraction of IoT data blocks and exchange of IoT data

with other entities

Note 1 to entry: For example, in a huge number of sensors across various networks, IoT DEP reduces traffic

volumes and exchanges IoT data with other entities. Functional blocks of IoT DEP are implemented at endpoints and

nodal points in IoT networks. These functional blocks cooperate as a platform.
3.2
nodal point

point that investigates routing information specified in communication protocols and relays data

blocks according to such information
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ISO/IEC 30161-1:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 7 –
4 Abbreviated terms
CAC communication access control
CCN content centric network
DNS domain name service
ICN information centric network
IoT Internet of Things
IoT DEP IoT data exchange platform
IP internet protocol
MQTT Message Queuing Telemetry Transport
OSI open systems interconnection
QoS quality of service
TCP transmission control protocol
UDP user datagram protocol
5 Overview of IoT services

Considering IoT use cases across sectors, it can be assumed that data blocks from/to sensors

and actuators, referred to as "IoT data", are transferred across networks. To reduce traffic

volume and comply with various user requirements on QoS, it is reasonable that an IoT DEP

should be deployed. The IoT DEP is positioned in the application layer of the OSI reference

model. However, IoT data is transferred over abstracted lower layers including the current

Internet. An IoT DEP shall be implemented in accordance with the networking view of IoT

reference architecture defined in ISO/IEC 30141:2018.

The IoT DEP should not impact communications other than IoT data and permit co-existence of

communications of IoT data and other data. Therefore, this document promotes an approach

that isolates communications of IoT data from other communications. It excludes specifications

of cloud computing and edge computing, which deal with distributed operations for every layer

in the reference model.
Overviews and analyses of the IoT use cases have motivated this document and are
summarized in Annex C. These use cases are collected in ISO/IEC TR 22417 [1] .
6 Network configurations for IoT services
6.1 Overview of network configurations for IoT

An overview of network configurations for IoT is shown in Figure 1. Networks provide connection

among IoT users, IoT gateway, and IoT devices specified in ISO/IEC 30141:2018. Moreover,

IoT devices – for example specified in ISO/IEC 30118-1 to ISO/IEC 30118-6
[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7] – are included.

Each network can have several nodal points. In ISO/IEC 30141:2018, sub-systems (Operations

& Management sub-system, Application & Service sub-system, and Resource Access &

Interchange sub-system) in entity-based reference models take on the role of nodal points.

These sub-systems correspond to the Operations & Management Domain, Application &

Service Domain, and Resource Access & Interchange Domain in a domain-based reference

model.
___________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
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– 8 – ISO/IEC 30161-1:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020
Figure 1 – Overview of network configurations

Detailed network configurations based on Figure 1 are shown in Figure 2. As shown in Figure 2,

configurations consist of five service types. Service type 1 provides local services for limited

areas. Service types 2 to 5 provide wide area services. In some cases of wide area services,

IoT gateway can be deployed for connections between IoT users and IoT devices. However, in

other cases, IoT users can be connected to IoT devices without IoT gateway. In network types

based on ISO/IEC 30141:2018, a proximity network provides connections for the limited areas.

For the wide area services, the user network, service network, and access network are deployed.

In these, the user network takes the role of network for IoT specific applications and is operated

by IoT user. The service network and access network accommodate generic applications,

including IoT-specific applications and legacy applications (e.g. telephony, video distribution,

and Internet access). The service network includes switching functions among locations. The

access network provides multiplexing functions of traffic flow from every specific area.

Figure 2 – Service types of the network configurations
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ISO/IEC 30161-1:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 9 –
6.2 Network models for an IoT DEP

An IoT DEP transfers a huge number of data blocks from/to sensors and actuators effectively.

It should be applied to any service including local area services and wide area services for IoT.

It should be operated across any network, including proximity networks, access networks,

service networks, and user networks specified in ISO/IEC 30141:2018, even if applications

other than IoT are deployed in these networks.

Although network configurations are categorized into five types (Figure 2), these five types are

aggregated into three types from an IoT DEP point (Figure 3). As shown in Figure 3,

configuration type 1, types 2 and 3, and types 4 and 5 are redefined as configuration types X,

Y, and Z, respectively.
Figure 3 – Redefined configuration types for an IoT DEP
7 Data exchange platform in IoT reference architecture
7.1 General

IoT DEP takes the role of the interworking of information in IoT systems. Cloud computing

related technologies, including interfaces of connections to the cloud, are not specified in this

document.

An IoT DEP is distributed to entities specified in ISO/IEC 30141:2018. Therefore, it works as a

platform by combining distributed parts.
7.2 Position of an IoT DEP in IoT reference architecture
7.2.1 Functions of the IoT DEP

An IoT DEP transfers data to IoT applications effectively as a part of network functions. IoT

DEP shall not include data processing and computation in cloud computing.
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– 10 – ISO/IEC 30161-1:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020
An IoT DEP shall provide the following functions.

– In order to ensure effective IoT application services, an IoT DEP shall operate independent

of communication media and protocols. It shall connect among IoT users and IoT devices

via IoT gateway or directly. For example, when a huge volume of data from sensors is

transferred across wide area networks using Internet technologies, an IoT DEP provides the

communication with small overheads such as small processing delay and/or a small traffic

volume by reducing processing on complicated IP related protocols.

– An IoT DEP shall dynamically control the required functions for IoT applications. For

example, it controls traffic flows for IoT applications and shall provide a requested QoS.

– An IoT DEP shall manage the validation of communication paths and IoT devices.
Figure 4 – Locations of IoT DEP functions in the IoT reference models
7.2.2 Positions of the IoT DEP

IoT DEP functions are implemented in IoT user, Resource Access & Interchange sub-system,

IoT gateway, and IoT devices that are specified in the entity-based model of
ISO/IEC 30141:2018. The relationship between the reference model specified in

ISO/IEC 30141:2018 and an IoT DEP is shown in Figure 4. In ISO/IEC 30141:2018, two

reference models – entity-based and domain-based – are specified. In Figure 4, locations of

the IoT DEP functions are shown, explaining the relationship between both reference models

in ISO/IEC 30141:2018.
7.3 Operation of an IoT DEP in an IoT system

Functions of IoT DEP are described in 7.2.1. In Cases C and D, IoT applications provided by

an IoT DEP co-exist with legacy applications. Figure 5 shows a logical configuration; however,

IoT gateway and Resource Access & Interchange sub-system accommodating IoT DEP

functions can be shared with nodal points for legacy applications, from an implementation point

of view.
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ISO/IEC 30161-1:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 11 –
Figure 5 – Cases of an IoT DEP and relationship between IoT and other services
The operations of IoT DEP in each case are described as follows.

– Case A: An IoT DEP shall divide serial data streams from the IoT user to data blocks. Then,

it shall transfer these blocks to connected network interfaces, as shown in Figure 6. The

connected network interfaces support generic services (e.g. legacy applications on the

Internet). An IoT DEP shall isolate communication paths for IoT applications from other

paths to provide required QoS in IoT applications. In this operation, some virtualization

technologies should be applied.
Figure 6 – Operations of the IoT DEP in Case A

– Case B: An IoT DEP takes on the role of a nodal point. In ISO/IEC 30141:2018, network

types are categorized into proximity networks, access networks, service networks, and user

networks. An IoT DEP shall be applied to all these networks except proximity networks. As

shown in Figure 7, IoT applications shall be provided via an IoT DEP between network

interfaces. On the other hand, other applications are provided between network interfaces

without IoT DEP. In an IoT DEP, paths of IoT applications are controlled to isolate the paths

of other applications and to comply with requested QoS requirements in IoT applications.

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– 12 – ISO/IEC 30161-1:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020
Figure 7 – Operations of an IoT DEP in Case B

– Case C: An IoT DEP is integrated into an IoT gateway. In ISO/IEC 30141:2018, IoT gateway

connects between proximity and access networks. An IoT DEP transfers IoT applications

between proximity and access networks, as shown in Figure 8. In an IoT DEP, paths of IoT

applications are controlled to isolate paths of other applications and to comply with

requested QoS requirements in IoT applications, as with Case B.
Figure 8 – Operations of an IoT DEP in Case C

– Case D: An IoT DEP is integrated with IoT devices, which accommodate physical entities

such as sensors and actuators. It shall assemble data blocks based on signals from physical

entities. It shall transfer these data blocks to a proximity network, as shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9 – Operations of an IoT DEP in Case D
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ISO/IEC 30161-1:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 13 –
8 Requirements for an IoT DEP
8.1 General

The IoT DEP shall comply with the requirements described in Clause 8. In Clause 7, four

applied cases of an IoT DEP are specified. Requirements described in Clause 8 are applied to

all cases unless otherwise specifically noted. Architecture for implementation in each case on

IoT DEP shall be in accordance with Annex A.
8.2 Requirements of functional blocks
8.2.1 Definitions of functional blocks

Figure 10 shows the functional blocks of an IoT DEP. Each block shall be applied according to

Table 1.
Figure 10 – Functional blocks in an IoT DEP

Table 1 lists all the functional blocks in an IoT DEP. This table clarifies the relationship between

functional blocks and applied cases. For example, Case A does not require data control and

data translation because an IoT DEP in Case A is located at the edges of the services. Case D

does not require data control because an IoT DEP in Case D is located at the connecting point

with the devices. However, this case shall include data translation because an IoT DEP

...

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