Management of terminology resources -- Terminology databases

This document specifies general, i.e. implementation- and use-case-independent terminology database design principles to enable maximum efficiency and quality in terminology work. Thus, this document supports creating, processing, and using high quality terminology. The intended audiences of this document are terminologists, translators, interpreters, technical communicators, language planners, subject field experts, and terminology management system developers. This document describes a maximum approach, i.e. terminology database design for distributed, multilingual terminology management. It can also be used for designing smaller solutions.

Gestion des ressources terminologiques -- Bases de données terminologiques

Upravljanje terminoloških virov - Terminološke baze podatkov - 1. del: Zasnova

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Nov-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
03-Oct-2019
Completion Date
12-Nov-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
01-marec-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST ISO 26162:2013
Upravljanje terminoloških virov - Terminološke baze podatkov - 1. del: Zasnova
Management of terminology resources -- Terminology databases -- Part 1: Design

Systèmes de gestion de la terminologie, de la connaissance et du contenu -- Bases de

données terminologiques -- Partie 1: Conception
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 26162-1:2019
ICS:
01.020 Terminologija (načela in Terminology (principles and
koordinacija) coordination)
01.140.20 Informacijske vede Information sciences
35.240.30 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in information,
informatiki, dokumentiranju in documentation and
založništvu publishing
SIST ISO 26162-1:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 26162-1
First edition
2019-11
Management of terminology
resources — Terminology
databases —
Part 1:
Design
Gestion des ressources terminologiques — Bases de données
terminologiques —
Partie 1: Conception
Reference number
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Concepts ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Terminology databases .................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Terminology database design ................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Terminological metamodel ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3 Data categories ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.2 Types of data categories ............................................................................................................................................ 8

4.3.3 Shared resources ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.3.4 Concept relations ..........................................................................................................................................................10

4.4 Concept entries ....................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4.1 Concept orientation ........................................................................................................................................... .........11

4.4.2 Language ..............................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4.3 Dependency and repeatability of data categories ............................................................................12

4.4.4 Data granularity .............................................................................................................................................................12

4.4.5 Data elementarity ........................................................................................................................................................13

4.4.6 Data-modeling variation ........................................................................................................................................13

4.5 Roles ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Terminology database excerpt based on the terminological

metamodel — Example ...............................................................................................................................................................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 3, Management of terminology resources.

This first edition of ISO 26162-1, together with ISO 26162-2, cancels and replaces ISO 26162:2012, which

has been technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— the document has been split into parts. The first part is focusing on the design of terminology

database design, the second part on the development of terminology management systems;

— all references to generic software design principles and specific use cases have been removed.

A list of all parts of the ISO 26162 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
Introduction

Terminologies are the totality of concepts in given subject fields represented by terms and other

designations and described by using additional terminological data. In general, these data are organized

in structured terminology databases and are usually manipulated in specific software applications

called terminology management systems. Terminology databases usually vary with regard to their

underlying data models and consist of different sets of data categories, while terminology management

systems generally differ depending on their functionality and the platform they are designed for.

The ISO 26162 series gives guidance on designing terminology databases and on essential terminology

management system features. The series can also be used to evaluate the conformance and suitability

of terminology databases and terminology management systems.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
Management of terminology resources — Terminology
databases —
Part 1:
Design
1 Scope

This document specifies general, i.e. implementation- and use-case-independent terminology database

design principles to enable maximum efficiency and quality in terminology work. Thus, this document

supports creating, processing, and using high quality terminology. The intended audiences of this

document are terminologists, translators, interpreters, technical communicators, language planners,

subject field experts, and terminology management system developers.

This document describes a maximum approach, i.e. terminology database design for distributed,

multilingual terminology management. It can also be used for designing smaller solutions.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 704, Terminology work — Principles and methods
ISO 1087, Terminology work — Vocabulary
ISO 12620, Management of terminology resources — Data category specifications

ISO 16642:2017, Computer applications in terminology — Terminological markup framework

ISO 23185, Assessment and benchmarking of terminological resources — General concepts, principles and

requirements
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1087 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Concepts
3.1.1
object
anything perceivable or conceivable

Note 1 to entry: Objects can be material (e.g. an engine, a sheet of paper, a diamond), immaterial (e.g. a conversion

ratio, a project plan) or imagined (e.g. a unicorn, a scientific hypothesis).
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)

Note 2 to entry: Objects can undergo changes which cause conceptual or designation change.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.1, modified — Note 2 to entry added.]
3.1.2
concept
unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics

Note 1 to entry: Concepts are not necessarily bound to particular natural languages. They are, however,

influenced by the social or cultural background which often leads to different categorizations.

Note 2 to entry: Due to their dynamic nature, concepts are also defined as units of thinking (see ISO 704:2009, 5.1

and DIN 2342:2011-08, 4.1).

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.7, modified — former Note 2 to entry removed and replaced by a new

Note 2 to entry.]
3.1.3
designation
designator

representation of a concept (3.1.2) by a sign which denotes it in a domain or subject

Note 1 to entry: A designation can be linguistic or non-linguistic. It can consist of various types of characters, but

also punctuation marks such as hyphens and parentheses, governed by domain-, subject-, or language-specific

conventions.

Note 2 to entry: A designation may be a term (3.1.4) including appellations, a proper name, or a symbol.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.1]
3.1.4
term
designation (3.1.3) that represents a general concept by linguistic means

EXAMPLE "laser printer", "planet", "pacemaker", "chemical compound", "¾ time", "Influenza A virus", "oil

painting".
Note 1 to entry: Terms may be partly or wholly verbal.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.2]
3.2 Terminology databases
3.2.1
terminology database
termbase
database comprising a terminological data collection (3.2.4)

[SOURCE: ISO 30042:2019, 3.28, modified — admitted term "terminology database" made preferred

term and preferred term "termbase" made admitted term.]
3.2.2
data model

graphical and/or lexical representation of data, specifying their properties, structure, and inter-

relationships
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 11179-1:2015, 3.2.7]
3.2.3
terminological metamodel

data model (3.2.2) that describes the basis for designing and implementing terminological data

collections (3.2.4)
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
3.2.4
terminological data collection
TDC

resource consisting of concept entries (3.2.7) with associated metadata and documentary information

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.21, modified — "terminological entries" replaced by "concept entries".]

3.2.5
global information

technical and administrative information applying to the entire terminological data collection (3.2.4)

EXAMPLE The title of the terminological data collection, revision history, owner or copyright information.

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.11, modified — "Note 1 to entry" replaced by "EXAMPLE"; "For example,"

removed in the example.]
3.2.6
complementary information

information supplementary to that described in concept entries (3.2.7) and shared across the

terminological data collection (3.2.4)

EXAMPLE Domain hierarchies, institution descriptions, bibliographic references, and references to text

corpora.

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.2, modified — "terminological entries" replaced by "concept entries"

within definition; "Note 1 to entry" replaced by "EXAMPLE"; "are typical examples of complementary

information" removed in the example.]
3.2.7
concept entry
terminological entry

part of a terminological data collection (3.2.4) which contains the terminological data related to one

concept (3.1.2)

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.22, modified — "concept entry" and acronym "CE" added as preferred

terms; preferred term "terminological entry" made admitted term; preferred term "TE" removed;

Note 1 to entry removed.]
3.2.8
language section
part of a concept entry (3.2.7) containing information related to one language

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.13, modified — "terminological entry" replaced by "concept entry"; Note 1

to entry removed.]
3.2.9
term section
part of a language section (3.2.8) containing information about a term (3.1.4)
[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.20, modified — "giving" replaced by "containing".]
3.2.10
term component section
TCS

part of a term section (3.2.9) containing linguistic information about the components of a term (3.1.4)

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.19, modified — "giving" replaced by "containing.]
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
3.2.11
data category

class of data items that are closely related from a formal or semantic point of view

EXAMPLE /part of speech/, /subject field/, /definition/.

Note 1 to entry: A data category can be viewed as a generalization of the notion of a field in a database.

Note 2 to entry: In running text, such as in this document, data category names are enclosed in forward slashes

(e.g. /part of speech/).
[SOURCE: ISO 12620:2019, 3.2, modified — preferred term "DC" removed".]
3.2.12
repeatability

principle whereby a data category (3.2.11) can be repeated within a database definition and whereby it

can also be combined with other data categories
3.2.13
concept orientation
principle whereby a concept entry (3.2.7) describes a single concept (3.1.2)

Note 1 to entry: When two or more different concepts are represented by the same designation (in the same

language), this designation is considered a homograph. Such concepts are documented in separate concept

entries.
3.2.14
term autonomy

principle whereby all terms (3.1.4) in a concept entry (3.2.7) are considered independent sub-units and

can be described using the same set of data categories (3.2.11)
3.2.15
data granularity
degree of data precision

EXAMPLE The set of individual data categories /part of speech/, /grammatical gender/, and /grammatical

number/ provides for greater data granularity than does the single data category /grammar/.

3.2.16
data elementarity
principle whereby a data field contains only one data element

EXAMPLE For example, including both a full form and an abbreviation of a term in the same data field would

be a violation of data elementarity.
3.2.17
data-modeling variation
variation in data models (3.2.2) describing the same information
4 Terminology database design
4.1 General

Terminology database design requires a deep understanding of terminology theory and terminology

work. In this sense, and to achieve high quality results, the following shall be used:

— established terms and definitions as specified in ISO 1087;
— principles and methods as specified in ISO 704;
— data-modeling criteria as specified in ISO 16642 and ISO 12620;
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
— usability metrics as specified in ISO 23185.

Terminology databases have a logical structure that is reflected in a fundamental hierarchical data model

(as described in 4.2) containing various levels at which data categories (see 4.3) can be anchored. This

data-modeling approach provides the necessary flexibility, since the design of a terminology database

is always subject to specific work profiles (terminology work, technical communication, translation,

etc.) and to organizational needs (freelancers, translation agencies, company or organization in-house

departments, etc.). Thus, in the very early design process, a long-term and detailed management plan

shall be defined, taking into consideration all possible user groups, as well as organizational and

technical issues in order to avoid the need for substantial, time consuming and costly changes after

concluding the design process.
4.2 Terminological metamodel

Terminology databases shall comply with the terminological metamodel (or a subset thereof) defined

in ISO 16642:2017 (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). The essence of the metamodel constitutes the principle

of concept orientation (see 4.4.1), i.e.:

— in a terminology database, an entry (concept entry = CE) describes a concept that can be further

described using:

— additional sublevels for instantiating languages and language-specific information (language

section = LS), further subdivided by:
— terms and term-specific information (term section = TS);

— individual words of a multiword term or one of the components of a single-word term, such as a

morpheme (term component section = TCS).

Furthermore, the metamodel provides high-level containers that allow for documenting:

— global information (GI) that applies to the complete terminology database (name of the terminology

database, institution or individual originating the file, copyright information, history, etc.);

— complementary information (CI) such as complete bibliographical or administrative information,

binary data, picklist values or references to text corpora that are referenced from concept entries.

The above-mentioned levels of the terminological metamodel can be schematized as shown in Figure 1.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)

Figure 1 — Terminological metamodel — Schematic view (adapted from ISO 16642:2017)

The metamodel levels, their relationships and cardinalities can also be expressed using UML (Unified

Modeling Language) as shown in Figure 2.
6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
Cardinalities
1..1 = Shall occur exactly once.
1..* = Shall occur one or more times.
0..1 = May occur zero or one time.
0..* = May occur zero or more times.
Figure 2 — Terminological metamodel — UML diagram (adapted from ISO 16642:2017)

An example of a terminology database excerpt compliant with the terminological metamodel is given in

Annex A.
4.3 Data categories
4.3.1 General

Concept entries are made up of specific units of information, such as terms, definitions and contexts, and

each class of these units of information is identified by a data category. Over recent decades terminology

practitioners have gathered, standardized, classified, and published relevant data categories that are

stored in recognized data category repositories, such as DatCatInfo (see Reference [11]). For instance,

/grammatical gender/ is a data category that would typically be used as a field name, and "feminine",

"masculine", "neuter", etc. would occur as values of this field. Of course, terminology database designers

can create and use their data categories according to their specific needs. However, care shall be taken

when creating new data categories or when adapting the names for the data categories proposed by

recognized data category repositories to avoid confusion or misinterpretation.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 7
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)

ISO 10241-1:2011 and ISO 12616:2002 include a list of common data categories used to document the

following units of information:
— terms (in any desired language);

— term-specific information (such as grammatical attributes, term types, register, status, contexts, etc.);

— language-specific information (such as definitions, notes, etc.);

— concept-specific information (such as subject fields, definitions, examples, notes, graphics, etc.);

— administrative and bibliographical information:

— identifiers of various sorts, such as to identify products or projects with which the terms are

associated;

— dates, names of people who created or modified the concept entry or parts of it;

— entry status, for example "submitted", "working", "approved";
— sources of terms, definitions, contexts, notes, etc.

Designers who need new data categories that are not included in recognized data category repositories

shall adhere to the requirements for creating, documenting, harmonizing, and maintaining data

category specifications as defined in ISO 12620.
4.3.2 Types of data categories
4.3.2.1 General

Terminology databases typically contain several different types of data categories depending on the

kind of information they contain. Data categories can be divided into three categories, namely:

— open and closed data categories;
— mandatory, optional, system-generated, and default data categories;
— read-write, read-only, and hidden data categories.

Careful selection of data category types ensures higher quality content in a terminology database.

4.3.2.2 Open and closed data categories

Open data categories can contain any text. For instance, /term/ is considered open, because the actual

term that can be recorded in the corresponding data field is unpredictable. Other examples of open data

categories are /definition/ or /context/.

In contrast, closed data categories can only contain one or more of a finite set of permissible values.

When documenting terms in the German language, for instance, /grammatical gender/ may only

take the values "masculine", "feminine", or "neuter". Apart from /grammatical gender/, typical

representatives of closed data categories are /part of speech/, /term type/, /geographical usage/,

/administrative status/ or /subject field/.

Values themselves can constitute data categories such as /masculine/, for example, with the Boolean

values "yes|no" or "true|false".

The use of picklists ensures that only predefined values can be selected, thus preventing the insertion of

inadmissible values or misspelled or variant forms. For instance, left to their own devices, users might

type "masculine", "masc.", or simply "m." for a masculine noun. Providing a uniform representation of

these values ensures consistency throughout the terminology database, which is important for ensuring

the performance of searching, filtering, data exchange, and other data management tasks.

8 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
4.3.2.3 Mandatory, optional, system-generated, and default data categories

Data categories can be either mandatory or optional. Typically, a terminology management system does

not allow users to save concept entries if a mandatory field is empty. At least one language and one term

in that language shall be required for each concept entry, unless the concept has yet to be named or it is

represented by a diagram or a node in the concept diagram.

Other typical mandatory fields include information about the subject field or part of speech, both of

which can be essential for differentiating homographs. However, designating certain data categories to

be mandatory can sometimes be problematic. For instance, it can take considerable time and effort to

find definitions and contexts. There can be even more complex conditions, such as forcing a source for a

definition or the grammatical gender in case of nouns for a specific language section.

System-generated data fields are not inserted manually by the user, they are populated by the system.

For instance, many terminology management systems automatically assign entry numbers to concept

entries, as well as creation and modification dates, and the names of the users who created or modified

the concept entry.

Part of terminology database design involves making decisions about the levels within the concept

entry that will be documented with such administrative information. It is generally insufficient to

record such administrative information only for the concept entry as a whole, because different people

can be responsible for different parts of the concept entry, especially for different language sections.

It is also possible to set default values for certain data categories. For instance, if a user is going to

document terms associated with a single project or source text, it can be convenient to allow the user to

pre-set the values for the corresponding data categories /project subset/ or /source/ so that all concept

entries created automatically contain those values.
4.3.2.4 Read-write, read-only, and hidden data categories

In a terminology database, it shall be possible to set different access levels for users, depending on

the user's needs and role. A field that is visible and can be modified is a "read-write" field. A field that

is visible but cannot be modified is a "r
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
01-marec-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST ISO 26162:2013
Upravljanje terminoloških virov - Terminološke baze podatkov - 1. del: Zasnova
Management of terminology resources -- Terminology databases -- Part 1: Design

Systèmes de gestion de la terminologie, de la connaissance et du contenu -- Bases de

données terminologiques -- Partie 1: Conception
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 26162-1:2019
ICS:
01.020 Terminologija (načela in Terminology (principles and
koordinacija) coordination)
35.240.30 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in information,
informatiki, dokumentiranju in documentation and
založništvu publishing
SIST ISO 26162-1:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 26162-1
First edition
2019-11
Management of terminology
resources — Terminology
databases —
Part 1:
Design
Gestion des ressources terminologiques — Bases de données
terminologiques —
Partie 1: Conception
Reference number
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Concepts ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Terminology databases .................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Terminology database design ................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Terminological metamodel ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3 Data categories ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.2 Types of data categories ............................................................................................................................................ 8

4.3.3 Shared resources ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.3.4 Concept relations ..........................................................................................................................................................10

4.4 Concept entries ....................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4.1 Concept orientation ........................................................................................................................................... .........11

4.4.2 Language ..............................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4.3 Dependency and repeatability of data categories ............................................................................12

4.4.4 Data granularity .............................................................................................................................................................12

4.4.5 Data elementarity ........................................................................................................................................................13

4.4.6 Data-modeling variation ........................................................................................................................................13

4.5 Roles ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Terminology database excerpt based on the terminological

metamodel — Example ...............................................................................................................................................................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 3, Management of terminology resources.

This first edition of ISO 26162-1, together with ISO 26162-2, cancels and replaces ISO 26162:2012, which

has been technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— the document has been split into parts. The first part is focusing on the design of terminology

database design, the second part on the development of terminology management systems;

— all references to generic software design principles and specific use cases have been removed.

A list of all parts of the ISO 26162 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
Introduction

Terminologies are the totality of concepts in given subject fields represented by terms and other

designations and described by using additional terminological data. In general, these data are organized

in structured terminology databases and are usually manipulated in specific software applications

called terminology management systems. Terminology databases usually vary with regard to their

underlying data models and consist of different sets of data categories, while terminology management

systems generally differ depending on their functionality and the platform they are designed for.

The ISO 26162 series gives guidance on designing terminology databases and on essential terminology

management system features. The series can also be used to evaluate the conformance and suitability

of terminology databases and terminology management systems.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
Management of terminology resources — Terminology
databases —
Part 1:
Design
1 Scope

This document specifies general, i.e. implementation- and use-case-independent terminology database

design principles to enable maximum efficiency and quality in terminology work. Thus, this document

supports creating, processing, and using high quality terminology. The intended audiences of this

document are terminologists, translators, interpreters, technical communicators, language planners,

subject field experts, and terminology management system developers.

This document describes a maximum approach, i.e. terminology database design for distributed,

multilingual terminology management. It can also be used for designing smaller solutions.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 704, Terminology work — Principles and methods
ISO 1087, Terminology work — Vocabulary
ISO 12620, Management of terminology resources — Data category specifications

ISO 16642:2017, Computer applications in terminology — Terminological markup framework

ISO 23185, Assessment and benchmarking of terminological resources — General concepts, principles and

requirements
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1087 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Concepts
3.1.1
object
anything perceivable or conceivable

Note 1 to entry: Objects can be material (e.g. an engine, a sheet of paper, a diamond), immaterial (e.g. a conversion

ratio, a project plan) or imagined (e.g. a unicorn, a scientific hypothesis).
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Note 2 to entry: Objects can undergo changes which cause conceptual or designation change.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.1, modified — Note 2 to entry added.]
3.1.2
concept
unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics

Note 1 to entry: Concepts are not necessarily bound to particular natural languages. They are, however,

influenced by the social or cultural background which often leads to different categorizations.

Note 2 to entry: Due to their dynamic nature, concepts are also defined as units of thinking (see ISO 704:2009, 5.1

and DIN 2342:2011-08, 4.1).

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.7, modified — former Note 2 to entry removed and replaced by a new

Note 2 to entry.]
3.1.3
designation
designator

representation of a concept (3.1.2) by a sign which denotes it in a domain or subject

Note 1 to entry: A designation can be linguistic or non-linguistic. It can consist of various types of characters, but

also punctuation marks such as hyphens and parentheses, governed by domain-, subject-, or language-specific

conventions.

Note 2 to entry: A designation may be a term (3.1.4) including appellations, a proper name, or a symbol.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.1]
3.1.4
term
designation (3.1.3) that represents a general concept by linguistic means

EXAMPLE "laser printer", "planet", "pacemaker", "chemical compound", "¾ time", "Influenza A virus", "oil

painting".
Note 1 to entry: Terms may be partly or wholly verbal.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.2]
3.2 Terminology databases
3.2.1
terminology database
termbase
database comprising a terminological data collection (3.2.4)

[SOURCE: ISO 30042:2019, 3.28, modified — admitted term "terminology database" made preferred

term and preferred term "termbase" made admitted term.]
3.2.2
data model

graphical and/or lexical representation of data, specifying their properties, structure, and inter-

relationships
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 11179-1:2015, 3.2.7]
3.2.3
terminological metamodel

data model (3.2.2) that describes the basis for designing and implementing terminological data

collections (3.2.4)
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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3.2.4
terminological data collection
TDC

resource consisting of concept entries (3.2.7) with associated metadata and documentary information

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.21, modified — "terminological entries" replaced by "concept entries".]

3.2.5
global information

technical and administrative information applying to the entire terminological data collection (3.2.4)

EXAMPLE The title of the terminological data collection, revision history, owner or copyright information.

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.11, modified — "Note 1 to entry" replaced by "EXAMPLE"; "For example,"

removed in the example.]
3.2.6
complementary information

information supplementary to that described in concept entries (3.2.7) and shared across the

terminological data collection (3.2.4)

EXAMPLE Domain hierarchies, institution descriptions, bibliographic references, and references to text

corpora.

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.2, modified — "terminological entries" replaced by "concept entries"

within definition; "Note 1 to entry" replaced by "EXAMPLE"; "are typical examples of complementary

information" removed in the example.]
3.2.7
concept entry
terminological entry

part of a terminological data collection (3.2.4) which contains the terminological data related to one

concept (3.1.2)

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.22, modified — "concept entry" and acronym "CE" added as preferred

terms; preferred term "terminological entry" made admitted term; preferred term "TE" removed;

Note 1 to entry removed.]
3.2.8
language section
part of a concept entry (3.2.7) containing information related to one language

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.13, modified — "terminological entry" replaced by "concept entry"; Note 1

to entry removed.]
3.2.9
term section
part of a language section (3.2.8) containing information about a term (3.1.4)
[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.20, modified — "giving" replaced by "containing".]
3.2.10
term component section
TCS

part of a term section (3.2.9) containing linguistic information about the components of a term (3.1.4)

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.19, modified — "giving" replaced by "containing.]
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3.2.11
data category

class of data items that are closely related from a formal or semantic point of view

EXAMPLE /part of speech/, /subject field/, /definition/.

Note 1 to entry: A data category can be viewed as a generalization of the notion of a field in a database.

Note 2 to entry: In running text, such as in this document, data category names are enclosed in forward slashes

(e.g. /part of speech/).
[SOURCE: ISO 12620:2019, 3.2, modified — preferred term "DC" removed".]
3.2.12
repeatability

principle whereby a data category (3.2.11) can be repeated within a database definition and whereby it

can also be combined with other data categories
3.2.13
concept orientation
principle whereby a concept entry (3.2.7) describes a single concept (3.1.2)

Note 1 to entry: When two or more different concepts are represented by the same designation (in the same

language), this designation is considered a homograph. Such concepts are documented in separate concept

entries.
3.2.14
term autonomy

principle whereby all terms (3.1.4) in a concept entry (3.2.7) are considered independent sub-units and

can be described using the same set of data categories (3.2.11)
3.2.15
data granularity
degree of data precision

EXAMPLE The set of individual data categories /part of speech/, /grammatical gender/, and /grammatical

number/ provides for greater data granularity than does the single data category /grammar/.

3.2.16
data elementarity
principle whereby a data field contains only one data element

EXAMPLE For example, including both a full form and an abbreviation of a term in the same data field would

be a violation of data elementarity.
3.2.17
data-modeling variation
variation in data models (3.2.2) describing the same information
4 Terminology database design
4.1 General

Terminology database design requires a deep understanding of terminology theory and terminology

work. In this sense, and to achieve high quality results, the following shall be used:

— established terms and definitions as specified in ISO 1087;
— principles and methods as specified in ISO 704;
— data-modeling criteria as specified in ISO 16642 and ISO 12620;
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— usability metrics as specified in ISO 23185.

Terminology databases have a logical structure that is reflected in a fundamental hierarchical data model

(as described in 4.2) containing various levels at which data categories (see 4.3) can be anchored. This

data-modeling approach provides the necessary flexibility, since the design of a terminology database

is always subject to specific work profiles (terminology work, technical communication, translation,

etc.) and to organizational needs (freelancers, translation agencies, company or organization in-house

departments, etc.). Thus, in the very early design process, a long-term and detailed management plan

shall be defined, taking into consideration all possible user groups, as well as organizational and

technical issues in order to avoid the need for substantial, time consuming and costly changes after

concluding the design process.
4.2 Terminological metamodel

Terminology databases shall comply with the terminological metamodel (or a subset thereof) defined

in ISO 16642:2017 (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). The essence of the metamodel constitutes the principle

of concept orientation (see 4.4.1), i.e.:

— in a terminology database, an entry (concept entry = CE) describes a concept that can be further

described using:

— additional sublevels for instantiating languages and language-specific information (language

section = LS), further subdivided by:
— terms and term-specific information (term section = TS);

— individual words of a multiword term or one of the components of a single-word term, such as a

morpheme (term component section = TCS).

Furthermore, the metamodel provides high-level containers that allow for documenting:

— global information (GI) that applies to the complete terminology database (name of the terminology

database, institution or individual originating the file, copyright information, history, etc.);

— complementary information (CI) such as complete bibliographical or administrative information,

binary data, picklist values or references to text corpora that are referenced from concept entries.

The above-mentioned levels of the terminological metamodel can be schematized as shown in Figure 1.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST ISO 26162-1:2021
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)

Figure 1 — Terminological metamodel — Schematic view (adapted from ISO 16642:2017)

The metamodel levels, their relationships and cardinalities can also be expressed using UML (Unified

Modeling Language) as shown in Figure 2.
6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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Cardinalities
1..1 = Shall occur exactly once.
1..* = Shall occur one or more times.
0..1 = May occur zero or one time.
0..* = May occur zero or more times.
Figure 2 — Terminological metamodel — UML diagram (adapted from ISO 16642:2017)

An example of a terminology database excerpt compliant with the terminological metamodel is given in

Annex A.
4.3 Data categories
4.3.1 General

Concept entries are made up of specific units of information, such as terms, definitions and contexts, and

each class of these units of information is identified by a data category. Over recent decades terminology

practitioners have gathered, standardized, classified, and published relevant data categories that are

stored in recognized data category repositories, such as DatCatInfo (see Reference [11]). For instance,

/grammatical gender/ is a data category that would typically be used as a field name, and "feminine",

"masculine", "neuter", etc. would occur as values of this field. Of course, terminology database designers

can create and use their data categories according to their specific needs. However, care shall be taken

when creating new data categories or when adapting the names for the data categories proposed by

recognized data category repositories to avoid confusion or misinterpretation.
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ISO 10241-1:2011 and ISO 12616:2002 include a list of common data categories used to document the

following units of information:
— terms (in any desired language);

— term-specific information (such as grammatical attributes, term types, register, status, contexts, etc.);

— language-specific information (such as definitions, notes, etc.);

— concept-specific information (such as subject fields, definitions, examples, notes, graphics, etc.);

— administrative and bibliographical information:

— identifiers of various sorts, such as to identify products or projects with which the terms are

associated;

— dates, names of people who created or modified the concept entry or parts of it;

— entry status, for example "submitted", "working", "approved";
— sources of terms, definitions, contexts, notes, etc.

Designers who need new data categories that are not included in recognized data category repositories

shall adhere to the requirements for creating, documenting, harmonizing, and maintaining data

category specifications as defined in ISO 12620.
4.3.2 Types of data categories
4.3.2.1 General

Terminology databases typically contain several different types of data categories depending on the

kind of information they contain. Data categories can be divided into three categories, namely:

— open and closed data categories;
— mandatory, optional, system-generated, and default data categories;
— read-write, read-only, and hidden data categories.

Careful selection of data category types ensures higher quality content in a terminology database.

4.3.2.2 Open and closed data categories

Open data categories can contain any text. For instance, /term/ is considered open, because the actual

term that can be recorded in the corresponding data field is unpredictable. Other examples of open data

categories are /definition/ or /context/.

In contrast, closed data categories can only contain one or more of a finite set of permissible values.

When documenting terms in the German language, for instance, /grammatical gender/ may only

take the values "masculine", "feminine", or "neuter". Apart from /grammatical gender/, typical

representatives of closed data categories are /part of speech/, /term type/, /geographical usage/,

/administrative status/ or /subject field/.

Values themselves can constitute data categories such as /masculine/, for example, with the Boolean

values "yes|no" or "true|false".

The use of picklists ensures that only predefined values can be selected, thus preventing the insertion of

inadmissible values or misspelled or variant forms. For instance, left to their own devices, users might

type "masculine", "masc.", or simply "m." for a masculine noun. Providing a uniform representation of

these values ensures consistency throughout the terminology database, which is important for ensuring

the performance of searching, filtering, data exchange, and other data management tasks.

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4.3.2.3 Mandatory, optional, system-generated, and default data categories

Data categories can be either mandatory or optional. Typically, a terminology management system does

not allow users to save concept entries if a mandatory field is empty. At least one language and one term

in that language shall be required for each concept entry, unless the concept has yet to be named or it is

represented by a diagram or a node in the concept diagram.

Other typical mandatory fields include information about the subject field or part of speech, both of

which can be essential for differentiating homographs. However, designating certain data categories to

be mandatory can sometimes be problematic. For instance, it can take considerable time and effort to

find definitions and contexts. There can be even more complex conditions, such as forcing a source for a

definition or the grammatical gender in case of nouns for a specific language section.

System-generated data fields are not inserted manually by the user, they are populated by the system.

For instance, many terminology management systems automatically assign entry numbers to concept

entries, as well as creation and modification dates, and the names of the users who created or modified

the concept entry.

Part of terminology database design involves making decisions about the levels within the concept

entry that will be documented with such administrative information. It is generally insufficient to

record such administrative information only for the concept entry as a whole, because different people

can be responsible for different parts of the concept entry, especially for different language sections.

It is also possible to set default values for certain data categories. For instance, if a user is going to

document terms associated with a single project or source text, it can be convenient to allow the user to

pre-set the values for the corresponding data categories /project subset/ or /source/ so that all concept

entries created automatically contain those values.
4.3.2.4 Read-write, read-only, and hidden data categories

In a terminology database, it shall be possible to set different access levels for users, depending on

the user's needs and role. A field that is visible and can be modified is a "read-write" field. A field that

is visible but cannot be modified is a "read-only" field. Fields that are not needed by som

...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 26162-1
First edition
2019-11
Management of terminology
resources — Terminology
databases —
Part 1:
Design
Gestion des ressources terminologiques — Bases de données
terminologiques —
Partie 1: Conception
Reference number
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Concepts ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Terminology databases .................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Terminology database design ................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Terminological metamodel ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3 Data categories ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.2 Types of data categories ............................................................................................................................................ 8

4.3.3 Shared resources ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.3.4 Concept relations ..........................................................................................................................................................10

4.4 Concept entries ....................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4.1 Concept orientation ........................................................................................................................................... .........11

4.4.2 Language ..............................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4.3 Dependency and repeatability of data categories ............................................................................12

4.4.4 Data granularity .............................................................................................................................................................12

4.4.5 Data elementarity ........................................................................................................................................................13

4.4.6 Data-modeling variation ........................................................................................................................................13

4.5 Roles ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Terminology database excerpt based on the terminological

metamodel — Example ...............................................................................................................................................................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 3, Management of terminology resources.

This first edition of ISO 26162-1, together with ISO 26162-2, cancels and replaces ISO 26162:2012, which

has been technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— the document has been split into parts. The first part is focusing on the design of terminology

database design, the second part on the development of terminology management systems;

— all references to generic software design principles and specific use cases have been removed.

A list of all parts of the ISO 26162 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
Introduction

Terminologies are the totality of concepts in given subject fields represented by terms and other

designations and described by using additional terminological data. In general, these data are organized

in structured terminology databases and are usually manipulated in specific software applications

called terminology management systems. Terminology databases usually vary with regard to their

underlying data models and consist of different sets of data categories, while terminology management

systems generally differ depending on their functionality and the platform they are designed for.

The ISO 26162 series gives guidance on designing terminology databases and on essential terminology

management system features. The series can also be used to evaluate the conformance and suitability

of terminology databases and terminology management systems.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 26162-1:2019(E)
Management of terminology resources — Terminology
databases —
Part 1:
Design
1 Scope

This document specifies general, i.e. implementation- and use-case-independent terminology database

design principles to enable maximum efficiency and quality in terminology work. Thus, this document

supports creating, processing, and using high quality terminology. The intended audiences of this

document are terminologists, translators, interpreters, technical communicators, language planners,

subject field experts, and terminology management system developers.

This document describes a maximum approach, i.e. terminology database design for distributed,

multilingual terminology management. It can also be used for designing smaller solutions.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 704, Terminology work — Principles and methods
ISO 1087, Terminology work — Vocabulary
ISO 12620, Management of terminology resources — Data category specifications

ISO 16642:2017, Computer applications in terminology — Terminological markup framework

ISO 23185, Assessment and benchmarking of terminological resources — General concepts, principles and

requirements
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1087 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Concepts
3.1.1
object
anything perceivable or conceivable

Note 1 to entry: Objects can be material (e.g. an engine, a sheet of paper, a diamond), immaterial (e.g. a conversion

ratio, a project plan) or imagined (e.g. a unicorn, a scientific hypothesis).
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 26162-1:2019(E)

Note 2 to entry: Objects can undergo changes which cause conceptual or designation change.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.1, modified — Note 2 to entry added.]
3.1.2
concept
unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics

Note 1 to entry: Concepts are not necessarily bound to particular natural languages. They are, however,

influenced by the social or cultural background which often leads to different categorizations.

Note 2 to entry: Due to their dynamic nature, concepts are also defined as units of thinking (see ISO 704:2009, 5.1

and DIN 2342:2011-08, 4.1).

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.7, modified — former Note 2 to entry removed and replaced by a new

Note 2 to entry.]
3.1.3
designation
designator

representation of a concept (3.1.2) by a sign which denotes it in a domain or subject

Note 1 to entry: A designation can be linguistic or non-linguistic. It can consist of various types of characters, but

also punctuation marks such as hyphens and parentheses, governed by domain-, subject-, or language-specific

conventions.

Note 2 to entry: A designation may be a term (3.1.4) including appellations, a proper name, or a symbol.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.1]
3.1.4
term
designation (3.1.3) that represents a general concept by linguistic means

EXAMPLE "laser printer", "planet", "pacemaker", "chemical compound", "¾ time", "Influenza A virus", "oil

painting".
Note 1 to entry: Terms may be partly or wholly verbal.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.2]
3.2 Terminology databases
3.2.1
terminology database
termbase
database comprising a terminological data collection (3.2.4)

[SOURCE: ISO 30042:2019, 3.28, modified — admitted term "terminology database" made preferred

term and preferred term "termbase" made admitted term.]
3.2.2
data model

graphical and/or lexical representation of data, specifying their properties, structure, and inter-

relationships
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 11179-1:2015, 3.2.7]
3.2.3
terminological metamodel

data model (3.2.2) that describes the basis for designing and implementing terminological data

collections (3.2.4)
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3.2.4
terminological data collection
TDC

resource consisting of concept entries (3.2.7) with associated metadata and documentary information

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.21, modified — "terminological entries" replaced by "concept entries".]

3.2.5
global information

technical and administrative information applying to the entire terminological data collection (3.2.4)

EXAMPLE The title of the terminological data collection, revision history, owner or copyright information.

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.11, modified — "Note 1 to entry" replaced by "EXAMPLE"; "For example,"

removed in the example.]
3.2.6
complementary information

information supplementary to that described in concept entries (3.2.7) and shared across the

terminological data collection (3.2.4)

EXAMPLE Domain hierarchies, institution descriptions, bibliographic references, and references to text

corpora.

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.2, modified — "terminological entries" replaced by "concept entries"

within definition; "Note 1 to entry" replaced by "EXAMPLE"; "are typical examples of complementary

information" removed in the example.]
3.2.7
concept entry
terminological entry

part of a terminological data collection (3.2.4) which contains the terminological data related to one

concept (3.1.2)

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.22, modified — "concept entry" and acronym "CE" added as preferred

terms; preferred term "terminological entry" made admitted term; preferred term "TE" removed;

Note 1 to entry removed.]
3.2.8
language section
part of a concept entry (3.2.7) containing information related to one language

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.13, modified — "terminological entry" replaced by "concept entry"; Note 1

to entry removed.]
3.2.9
term section
part of a language section (3.2.8) containing information about a term (3.1.4)
[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.20, modified — "giving" replaced by "containing".]
3.2.10
term component section
TCS

part of a term section (3.2.9) containing linguistic information about the components of a term (3.1.4)

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.19, modified — "giving" replaced by "containing.]
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3.2.11
data category

class of data items that are closely related from a formal or semantic point of view

EXAMPLE /part of speech/, /subject field/, /definition/.

Note 1 to entry: A data category can be viewed as a generalization of the notion of a field in a database.

Note 2 to entry: In running text, such as in this document, data category names are enclosed in forward slashes

(e.g. /part of speech/).
[SOURCE: ISO 12620:2019, 3.2, modified — preferred term "DC" removed".]
3.2.12
repeatability

principle whereby a data category (3.2.11) can be repeated within a database definition and whereby it

can also be combined with other data categories
3.2.13
concept orientation
principle whereby a concept entry (3.2.7) describes a single concept (3.1.2)

Note 1 to entry: When two or more different concepts are represented by the same designation (in the same

language), this designation is considered a homograph. Such concepts are documented in separate concept

entries.
3.2.14
term autonomy

principle whereby all terms (3.1.4) in a concept entry (3.2.7) are considered independent sub-units and

can be described using the same set of data categories (3.2.11)
3.2.15
data granularity
degree of data precision

EXAMPLE The set of individual data categories /part of speech/, /grammatical gender/, and /grammatical

number/ provides for greater data granularity than does the single data category /grammar/.

3.2.16
data elementarity
principle whereby a data field contains only one data element

EXAMPLE For example, including both a full form and an abbreviation of a term in the same data field would

be a violation of data elementarity.
3.2.17
data-modeling variation
variation in data models (3.2.2) describing the same information
4 Terminology database design
4.1 General

Terminology database design requires a deep understanding of terminology theory and terminology

work. In this sense, and to achieve high quality results, the following shall be used:

— established terms and definitions as specified in ISO 1087;
— principles and methods as specified in ISO 704;
— data-modeling criteria as specified in ISO 16642 and ISO 12620;
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— usability metrics as specified in ISO 23185.

Terminology databases have a logical structure that is reflected in a fundamental hierarchical data model

(as described in 4.2) containing various levels at which data categories (see 4.3) can be anchored. This

data-modeling approach provides the necessary flexibility, since the design of a terminology database

is always subject to specific work profiles (terminology work, technical communication, translation,

etc.) and to organizational needs (freelancers, translation agencies, company or organization in-house

departments, etc.). Thus, in the very early design process, a long-term and detailed management plan

shall be defined, taking into consideration all possible user groups, as well as organizational and

technical issues in order to avoid the need for substantial, time consuming and costly changes after

concluding the design process.
4.2 Terminological metamodel

Terminology databases shall comply with the terminological metamodel (or a subset thereof) defined

in ISO 16642:2017 (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). The essence of the metamodel constitutes the principle

of concept orientation (see 4.4.1), i.e.:

— in a terminology database, an entry (concept entry = CE) describes a concept that can be further

described using:

— additional sublevels for instantiating languages and language-specific information (language

section = LS), further subdivided by:
— terms and term-specific information (term section = TS);

— individual words of a multiword term or one of the components of a single-word term, such as a

morpheme (term component section = TCS).

Furthermore, the metamodel provides high-level containers that allow for documenting:

— global information (GI) that applies to the complete terminology database (name of the terminology

database, institution or individual originating the file, copyright information, history, etc.);

— complementary information (CI) such as complete bibliographical or administrative information,

binary data, picklist values or references to text corpora that are referenced from concept entries.

The above-mentioned levels of the terminological metamodel can be schematized as shown in Figure 1.

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Figure 1 — Terminological metamodel — Schematic view (adapted from ISO 16642:2017)

The metamodel levels, their relationships and cardinalities can also be expressed using UML (Unified

Modeling Language) as shown in Figure 2.
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Cardinalities
1..1 = Shall occur exactly once.
1..* = Shall occur one or more times.
0..1 = May occur zero or one time.
0..* = May occur zero or more times.
Figure 2 — Terminological metamodel — UML diagram (adapted from ISO 16642:2017)

An example of a terminology database excerpt compliant with the terminological metamodel is given in

Annex A.
4.3 Data categories
4.3.1 General

Concept entries are made up of specific units of information, such as terms, definitions and contexts, and

each class of these units of information is identified by a data category. Over recent decades terminology

practitioners have gathered, standardized, classified, and published relevant data categories that are

stored in recognized data category repositories, such as DatCatInfo (see Reference [11]). For instance,

/grammatical gender/ is a data category that would typically be used as a field name, and "feminine",

"masculine", "neuter", etc. would occur as values of this field. Of course, terminology database designers

can create and use their data categories according to their specific needs. However, care shall be taken

when creating new data categories or when adapting the names for the data categories proposed by

recognized data category repositories to avoid confusion or misinterpretation.
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ISO 10241-1:2011 and ISO 12616:2002 include a list of common data categories used to document the

following units of information:
— terms (in any desired language);

— term-specific information (such as grammatical attributes, term types, register, status, contexts, etc.);

— language-specific information (such as definitions, notes, etc.);

— concept-specific information (such as subject fields, definitions, examples, notes, graphics, etc.);

— administrative and bibliographical information:

— identifiers of various sorts, such as to identify products or projects with which the terms are

associated;

— dates, names of people who created or modified the concept entry or parts of it;

— entry status, for example "submitted", "working", "approved";
— sources of terms, definitions, contexts, notes, etc.

Designers who need new data categories that are not included in recognized data category repositories

shall adhere to the requirements for creating, documenting, harmonizing, and maintaining data

category specifications as defined in ISO 12620.
4.3.2 Types of data categories
4.3.2.1 General

Terminology databases typically contain several different types of data categories depending on the

kind of information they contain. Data categories can be divided into three categories, namely:

— open and closed data categories;
— mandatory, optional, system-generated, and default data categories;
— read-write, read-only, and hidden data categories.

Careful selection of data category types ensures higher quality content in a terminology database.

4.3.2.2 Open and closed data categories

Open data categories can contain any text. For instance, /term/ is considered open, because the actual

term that can be recorded in the corresponding data field is unpredictable. Other examples of open data

categories are /definition/ or /context/.

In contrast, closed data categories can only contain one or more of a finite set of permissible values.

When documenting terms in the German language, for instance, /grammatical gender/ may only

take the values "masculine", "feminine", or "neuter". Apart from /grammatical gender/, typical

representatives of closed data categories are /part of speech/, /term type/, /geographical usage/,

/administrative status/ or /subject field/.

Values themselves can constitute data categories such as /masculine/, for example, with the Boolean

values "yes|no" or "true|false".

The use of picklists ensures that only predefined values can be selected, thus preventing the insertion of

inadmissible values or misspelled or variant forms. For instance, left to their own devices, users might

type "masculine", "masc.", or simply "m." for a masculine noun. Providing a uniform representation of

these values ensures consistency throughout the terminology database, which is important for ensuring

the performance of searching, filtering, data exchange, and other data management tasks.

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4.3.2.3 Mandatory, optional, system-generated, and default data categories

Data categories can be either mandatory or optional. Typically, a terminology management system does

not allow users to save concept entries if a mandatory field is empty. At least one language and one term

in that language shall be required for each concept entry, unless the concept has yet to be named or it is

represented by a diagram or a node in the concept diagram.

Other typical mandatory fields include information about the subject field or part of speech, both of

which can be essential for differentiating homographs. However, designating certain data categories to

be mandatory can sometimes be problematic. For instance, it can take considerable time and effort to

find definitions and contexts. There can be even more complex conditions, such as forcing a source for a

definition or the grammatical gender in case of nouns for a specific language section.

System-generated data fields are not inserted manually by the user, they are populated by the system.

For instance, many terminology management systems automatically assign entry numbers to concept

entries, as well as creation and modification dates, and the names of the users who created or modified

the concept entry.

Part of terminology database design involves making decisions about the levels within the concept

entry that will be documented with such administrative information. It is generally insufficient to

record such administrative information only for the concept entry as a whole, because different people

can be responsible for different parts of the concept entry, especially for different language sections.

It is also possible to set default values for certain data categories. For instance, if a user is going to

document terms associated with a single project or source text, it can be convenient to allow the user to

pre-set the values for the corresponding data categories /project subset/ or /source/ so that all concept

entries created automatically contain those values.
4.3.2.4 Read-write, read-only, and hidden data categories

In a terminology database, it shall be possible to set different access levels for users, depending on

the user's needs and role. A field that is visible and can be modified is a "read-write" field. A field that

is visible but cannot be modified is a "read-only" field. Fields that are not needed by some users are

usually hidden.

For instance, it can be desirable for a lead terminologist to have read-write access to all fields, especially

to the concept entry status field, to set the corresponding value ("proposed", "under review", "approved",

"deprecated", etc.). In general, this person is also responsible for assigning authorization levels to other

users. Users editing concept entries for specific languages should only have read-write access to the

fields in their language sections. Product developers, technical communicators, translators, and service

and marketing staff can have read-write access to fields necessary to allow them to provide feedback

to the lead terminologists, and read-only rights to the remaining fields. It is also frequently desirable to

hide administrative fields such as "date" and "responsibility" to ensure that users have a less cluttered

view of the data.
4.3.3 Shared resources

Some data point to resources that reside outside the concept entry, such as figures, audio, video,

websites, full sets of bibliographical and personal data, references to text corpora, or other concept

entries. These resources are called shared resources, because any one resource can be referenced from

many concept entries.
For example, a field for figures is typically available at the concept lev
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST ISO/FDIS 26162-1:2019
01-oktober-2019
Upravljanje terminoloških virov - Terminološke baze podatkov - 1. del: Zasnova
Management of terminology resources -- Terminology databases -- Part 1: Design

Systèmes de gestion de la terminologie, de la connaissance et du contenu -- Bases de

données terminologiques -- Partie 1: Conception
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/FDIS 26162-1:2019
ICS:
01.020 Terminologija (načela in Terminology (principles and
koordinacija) coordination)
35.240.30 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in information,
informatiki, dokumentiranju in documentation and
založništvu publishing
oSIST ISO/FDIS 26162-1:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST ISO/FDIS 26162-1:2019
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oSIST ISO/FDIS 26162-1:2019
FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 26162-1
ISO/TC 37/SC 3
Management of terminology
Secretariat: DIN
resources — Terminology
Voting begins on:
2019-08-07 databases —
Voting terminates on:
Part 1:
2019-10-02
Design
Gestion des ressources terminologiques — Bases de données
terminologiques —
Partie 1: Conception
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 26162-1:2019(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2019
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oSIST ISO/FDIS 26162-1:2019
ISO/FDIS 26162-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 26162-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Concepts ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Terminology databases .................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Terminology database design ................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Terminological metamodel ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3 Data categories ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.2 Types of data categories ............................................................................................................................................ 8

4.3.3 Shared resources ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.3.4 Concept relations ..........................................................................................................................................................10

4.4 Concept entries ....................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4.1 Concept orientation ........................................................................................................................................... .........11

4.4.2 Language ..............................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4.3 Dependency and repeatability of data categories ............................................................................12

4.4.4 Data granularity .............................................................................................................................................................12

4.4.5 Data elementarity ........................................................................................................................................................13

4.4.6 Data-modeling variation ........................................................................................................................................13

4.5 Roles ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Terminology database excerpt based on the terminological

metamodel — Example ...............................................................................................................................................................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 3, Management of terminology resources.

This first edition of ISO 26162-1, together with ISO 26162-2, cancels and replaces ISO 26162:2012, which

has been technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— the document has been split into parts. The first part is focusing on the design of terminology

database design, the second part on the development of terminology management systems;

— all references to generic software design principles and specific use cases have been removed.

A list of all parts of the ISO 26162 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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Introduction

Terminologies are the totality of concepts in given subject fields represented by terms and other

designations and described by using additional terminological data. In general, these data are organized

in structured terminology databases and are usually manipulated in specific software applications

called terminology management systems. Terminology databases usually vary with regard to their

underlying data models and consist of different sets of data categories, while terminology management

systems generally differ depending on their functionality and the platform they are designed for.

The ISO 26162 series gives guidance on designing terminology databases and on essential terminology

management system features. The series can also be used to evaluate the conformance and suitability

of terminology databases and terminology management systems.
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 26162-1:2019(E)
Management of terminology resources — Terminology
databases —
Part 1:
Design
1 Scope

This document specifies general, i.e. implementation- and use-case-independent terminology database

design principles to enable maximum efficiency and quality in terminology work. Thus, this document

supports creating, processing, and using high quality terminology. The intended audiences of this

document are terminologists, translators, interpreters, technical communicators, language planners,

subject field experts, and terminology management system developers.

This document describes a maximum approach, i.e. terminology database design for distributed,

multilingual terminology management. It can also be used for designing smaller solutions.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 704, Terminology work — Principles and methods
ISO 1087, Terminology work — Vocabulary
ISO 12620, Management of terminology resources — Data category specifications

ISO 16642:2017, Computer applications in terminology — Terminological markup framework

ISO 23185, Assessment and benchmarking of terminological resources — General concepts, principles and

requirements
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1087 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Concepts
3.1.1
object
anything perceivable or conceivable

Note 1 to entry: Objects can be material (e.g. an engine, a sheet of paper, a diamond), immaterial (e.g. a conversion

ratio, a project plan) or imagined (e.g. a unicorn, a scientific hypothesis).
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Note 2 to entry: Objects can undergo changes which cause conceptual or designation change.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:— , 3.1.1, modified — Note 2 to entry added.]
3.1.2
concept
unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics

Note 1 to entry: Concepts are not necessarily bound to particular natural languages. They are, however,

influenced by the social or cultural background which often leads to different categorizations.

Note 2 to entry: Due to their dynamic nature, concepts are also defined as units of thinking (see ISO 704:2009, 5.1

and DIN 2342:2011-08, 4.1).

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:— , 3.2.7, modified — former Note 2 to entry removed and replaced by a new Note 2

to entry.]
3.1.3
designation
designator

representation of a concept (3.1.2) by a sign which denotes it in a domain or subject

Note 1 to entry: A designation can be linguistic or non-linguistic. It can consist of various types of characters, but

also punctuation marks such as hyphens and parentheses, governed by domain-, subject-, or language-specific

conventions.

Note 2 to entry: A designation may be a term (3.1.4) including appellations, a proper name, or a symbol.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:— , 3.4.1]
3.1.4
term
designation (3.1.3) that represents a general concept by linguistic means

EXAMPLE "laser printer", "planet", "pacemaker", "chemical compound", "¾ time", "Influenza A virus", "oil

painting".
Note 1 to entry: Terms may be partly or wholly verbal.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:— , 3.4.2]
3.2 Terminology databases
3.2.1
terminology database
termbase
database comprising a terminological data collection (3.2.4)

[SOURCE: ISO 30042:2019, 3.28, modified — admitted term "terminology database" made preferred

term and preferred term "termbase" made admitted term.]
3.2.2
data model

graphical and/or lexical representation of data, specifying their properties, structure, and inter-

relationships
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 11179-1:2015, 3.2.7]
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/FDIS 1087:2019.
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3.2.3
terminological metamodel

data model (3.2.2) that describes the basis for designing and implementing terminological data

collections (3.2.4)
3.2.4
terminological data collection
TDC

resource consisting of concept entries (3.2.7) with associated metadata and documentary information

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.21, modified — "terminological entries" replaced by "concept entries".]

3.2.5
global information

technical and administrative information applying to the entire terminological data collection (3.2.4)

EXAMPLE The title of the terminological data collection, revision history, owner or copyright information.

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.11, modified — "Note 1 to entry" replaced by "EXAMPLE"; "For example,"

removed in the example.]
3.2.6
complementary information

information supplementary to that described in concept entries (3.2.7) and shared across the

terminological data collection (3.2.4)

EXAMPLE Domain hierarchies, institution descriptions, bibliographic references, and references to text

corpora.

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.2, modified — "terminological entries" replaced by "concept entries"

within definition; "Note 1 to entry" replaced by "EXAMPLE", "are typical examples of complementary

information" removed in the example.]
3.2.7
concept entry
terminological entry

part of a terminological data collection (3.2.4) which contains the terminological data related to one

concept (3.1.2)

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.22, modified — "concept entry" and acronym "CE" added as preferred

terms; preferred term "terminological entry" made admitted term; preferred term "TE" removed;

Note 1 to entry removed.]
3.2.8
language section
part of a concept entry (3.2.7) containing information related to one language

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.13, modified — "terminological entry" replaced by "concept entry"; Note 1

to entry removed.]
3.2.9
term section
part of a language section (3.2.8) containing information about a term (3.1.4)
[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.20, modified — "giving" replaced by "containing".]
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ISO/FDIS 26162-1:2019(E)
3.2.10
term component section
TCS

part of a term section (3.2.9) containing linguistic information about the components of a term (3.1.4)

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.19, modified — "giving" replaced by "containing.]
3.2.11
data category

class of data items that are closely related from a formal or semantic point of view

EXAMPLE /part of speech/, /subject field/, /definition/.

Note 1 to entry: A data category can be viewed as a generalization of the notion of a field in a database.

Note 2 to entry: In running text, such as in this document, data category names are enclosed in forward slashes

(e.g. /part of speech/).
[SOURCE: ISO 12620:2019, 3.2, modified — preferred term "DC" removed".]
3.2.12
repeatability

principle whereby a data category (3.2.11) can be repeated within a database definition and whereby it

can also be combined with other data categories
3.2.13
concept orientation
principle whereby a concept entry (3.2.7) describes a single concept (3.1.2)

Note 1 to entry: When two or more different concepts are represented by the same designation (in the same

language), this designation is considered a homograph. Such concepts are documented in separate concept

entries.
3.2.14
term autonomy

principle whereby all terms (3.1.4) in a concept entry (3.2.7) are considered independent sub-units and

can be described using the same set of data categories (3.2.11)
3.2.15
data granularity
degree of data precision

EXAMPLE The set of individual data categories /part of speech/, /grammatical gender/, and /grammatical

number/ provides for greater data granularity than does the single data category /grammar/.

3.2.16
data elementarity
principle whereby a data field contains only one data element

EXAMPLE For example, including both a full form and an abbreviation of a term in the same data field would

be a violation of data elementarity.
3.2.17
data-modeling variation
variation in data models (3.2.2) describing the same information
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4 Terminology database design
4.1 General

Terminology database design requires a deep understanding of terminology theory and terminology

work. In this sense, and to achieve high quality results, the following shall be used:

— established terms and definitions as specified in ISO 1087;
— principles and methods as specified in ISO 704;
— data-modeling criteria as specified in ISO 16642 and ISO 12620;
— usability metrics as specified in ISO 23185.

Terminology databases have a logical structure that is reflected in a fundamental hierarchical data model

(as described in 4.2) containing various levels at which data categories (see 4.3) can be anchored. This

data-modeling approach provides the necessary flexibility, since the design of a terminology database

is always subject to specific work profiles (terminology work, technical communication, translation,

etc.) and to organizational needs (freelancers, translation agencies, company or organization in-house

departments, etc.). Thus, in the very early design process, a long-term and detailed management plan

shall be defined, taking into consideration all possible user groups, as well as organizational and

technical issues in order to avoid the need for substantial, time consuming and costly changes after

concluding the design process.
4.2 Terminological metamodel

Terminology databases shall comply with the terminological metamodel (or a subset thereof) defined

in ISO 16642:2017 (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). The essence of the metamodel constitutes the principle

of concept orientation (see 4.4.1), i.e.:

— in a terminology database, an entry (concept entry = CE) describes a concept that can be further

described using:

— additional sublevels for instantiating languages and language-specific information (language

section = LS), further subdivided by:
— terms and term-specific information (term section = TS);

— individual words of a multiword term or one of the components of a single-word term, such as a

morpheme (term component section = TCS).

Furthermore, the metamodel provides high-level containers that allow for documenting:

— global information (GI) that applies to the complete terminology database (name of the terminology

database, institution or individual originating the file, copyright information, history, etc.);

— complementary information (CI) such as complete bibliographical or administrative information,

binary data, picklist values or references to text corpora that are referenced from concept entries.

The above-mentioned levels of the terminological metamodel can be schematized as shown in Figure 1.

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Figure 1 — Terminological metamodel — Schematic view (adapted from ISO 16642:2017)

The metamodel levels, their relationships and cardinalities can also be expressed using UML (Unified

Modeling Language) as shown in Figure 2.
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Cardinalities
1..1 = Shall occur exactly once.
1..* = Shall occur one or more times.
0..1 = May occur zero or one time.
0..* = May occur zero or more times.
Figure 2 — Terminological metamodel — UML diagram (adapted from ISO 16642:2017)

An example of a terminology database excerpt compliant with the terminological metamodel is given in

Annex A.
4.3 Data categories
4.3.1 General

Concept entries are made up of specific units of information, such as terms, definitions and contexts, and

each class of these units of information is identified by a data category. Over recent decades terminology

practitioners have gathered, standardized, classified, and published relevant data categories that are

stored in recognized data category repositories, such as DatCatInfo (see Reference [11]). For instance,

/grammatical gender/ is a data category that would typically be used as a field name, and "feminine",

"masculine", "neuter", etc. would occur as values of this field. Of course, terminology database designers

can create and use their data categories according to their specific needs. However, care shall be taken

when creating new data categories or when adapting the names for the data categories proposed by

recognized data category repositories to avoid confusion or misinterpretation.
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ISO 10241-1:2011 and ISO 12616:2002 include a list of common data categories used to document the

following units of information:
— terms (in any desired language);

— term-specific information (such as grammatical attributes, term types, register, status, contexts, etc.);

— language-specific information (such as definitions, notes, etc.);

— concept-specific information (such as subject fields, definitions, examples, notes, graphics, etc.);

— administrative and bibliographical information:

— identifiers of various sorts, such as to identify products or projects with which the terms are

associated;

— dates, names of people who created or modified the concept entry or parts of it;

— entry status, for example "submitted", "working", "approved";
— sources of terms, definitions, contexts, notes, etc.

Designers who need new data categories that are not included in recognized data category repositories

shall adhere to the requirements for creating, documenting, harmonizing, and maintaining data

category specifications as defined in ISO 12620.
4.3.2 Types of data categories
4.3.2.1 General

Terminology databases typically contain several different types of data categories depending on the

kind of information they contain. Data categories can be divided into three categories, namely:

— open and closed data categories;
— mandatory, optional, system-generated, and default data categories;
— read-write, read-only, and hidden data categories.

Careful selection of data category types ensures higher quality content in a terminology database.

4.3.2.2 Open and closed data categories

Open data categories can contain any text. For instance, /term/ is considered open, because the actual

term that can be recorded in the corresponding data field is unpredictable. Other examples of open data

categories are /definition/ or /context/.

In contrast, closed data categories can only contain one or more of a finite set of permissible values.

When documenting terms in the German language, for instance, /grammatical gender/ may only

take the values "masculine", "feminine", or "neuter". Apart from /grammatical gender/, typical

representatives of closed data categories are /part of speech/, /term type/, /geographical usage/, /

administrative status/ or /subject field/.

Values themselves can constitute data categories such as /masculine/, for example, with the Boolean

values "yes|no" or "true|false".

The use of picklists ensures that only predefined values can be selected, thus preventing the insertion of

inadmissible values or misspelled or variant forms. For instance, left to their own devices, users might

type "masculine", "masc.", or simply "m." for a masculine noun. Providing a uniform representation of

these values ensures consistency throughout the terminology database, which is important for ensuring

the performance of searching, filtering, data exchange, and other data management tasks.

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4.3.2.3 Mandatory, optional, system-generated, and default data categories

Data categories can be either mandatory or optional. Typically, a terminology management system does

not allow users to save concept entries if a mandatory field is empty. At least one language and one term

in that language shall be required for each concept entry, unless the concept has yet to be named or it is

represented by a diagram or a node in the concept diagram.

Other typical mandatory fields include information about the subject field or part of speech, both of

which can be essential for differentiating homographs. However, designating certain data categories to

be mandatory can sometimes be problematic. For instance, it can take considerable time and effort to

find definitions and contexts. There can be even more complex conditions, such as forcing a source for a

definition or the grammatical gender in case of nouns for a specific language section.

System-generated data fields are not inserted manually by the user, they are populated by the system.

For instance, many terminology management systems automatically assign entry numbers to concept

entries, as well as creation and modification dates, and the names of the users who created or modified

the concept entry.

Part of terminology database design involves making decisions about the levels within the concept

entry that will be documented with such administrative information. It is generally insufficient to

record such administrative information only for the concept entry as a whole, because different people

can be responsible for diff
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