Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Part 2: XYZ/sRGB encoded standard colour image data (XYZ/SCID)

ISO 12640-2:2004 specifies a set of 15 standard colour images (encoded as both 16-bit XYZ and 8-bit RGB digital data provided in electronic data files) that can be used for the evaluation of changes in image quality during coding, image processing (including transformation compression and decompression), displaying on a colour monitor or printing. They can be used for many graphic technology applications such as research, development, product evaluation, and process control.

Technologie graphique — Échange de données numériques de préimpression — Partie 2: Données d'images en couleur normalisées codées XYZ/sRGB (XYZ/SCID)

Grafična tehnologija – Izmenjava digitalnih podatkov v grafični pripravi – 2. del: Kodirani standardni podatki XYZ/sRGB za barvne slike (XYZ/SCID)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
07-Jul-2004
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
07-Sep-2007
Completion Date
08-Mar-2018

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12640-2
First edition
2004-07-15
Graphic technology — Prepress digital
data exchange —
Part 2:
XYZ/sRGB encoded standard colour
image data (XYZ/SCID)
Technologie graphique — Échange de données numériques de
préimpression —
Partie 2: Données d'images en couleur normalisées codées XYZ/sRGB
(XYZ/SCID)
Reference number
ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
ISO 2004
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
PDF disclaimer

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© ISO 2004

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Image data.............................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Data description and definition ........................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Data set definition ................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Relationship between CIE XYZ and sRGB colour data..................................................................... 3

5.3 Natural images ...................................................................................................................................... 4

5.4 Synthetic images................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Electronic data .................................................................................................................................... 12

6.1 Image data characteristics................................................................................................................. 12

6.2 File structure ....................................................................................................................................... 12

Annex A (normative) Standard colour image digital data — Guidance for use......................................... 14

Annex B (normative) Check-sum data ........................................................................................................... 16

Annex C (informative) Typical TIFF file headers used for image data ........................................................ 18

Annex D (informative) Text insertion.............................................................................................................. 22

Annex E (informative) Image evaluation and reproduction.......................................................................... 23

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 25

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 12640-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.

ISO 12640 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Prepress digital data

exchange:
 Part 1: CMYK standard colour image data (CMYK/SCID)
 Part 2: XYZ/sRGB encoded standard colour image data (XYZ/SCID)

Part 1 was published in 1997 with the number ISO 12640 and is in the process of being renumbered.

A Part 3, under the title of CIELAB standard colour image data (CIELAB/SCID), is in preparation.

iv © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
Introduction

The technical content of this International Standard was initiated by the Image Processing Technology

Standard Committee in Japan as input to, and in coordination with, ISO/TC 130, WG 2.

0.1 The need for standard XYZ/sRGB digital test images

The existing Standard Colour Image Data (CMYK/SCID, ISO 12640) is defined in terms of CMYK dot

percentages and as such is mainly applicable to printing applications. If attempts are made to apply it to other

systems such as monitors, CMY printers, etc., the following problems arise.

 The image data, being expressed in terms of CMYK dot percentages, have no simple relationship to

colorimetric values.

 The image data have a bit depth of only 8-bits, often causing inaccurate colour conversions.

 The image data are output-referred to a CMYK printing device; additional colour rendering may be

required to create image data suitable for other devices.
In order to solve these problems a set of image data has been prepared that

 is expressed as sRGB encoded ITU-R BT.709-3 RGB primary based tristimulus values, and

 is output-referred to the standard sRGB display and viewing conditions defined in IEC 61966-2-1.

Furthermore, this part of ISO 12640 also provides 16-bit CIE XYZ image data that correspond to the display

produced CIE XYZ tristimulus values for the sRGB image data, with a display white point chromaticity

equivalent to that of CIE Illuminant D .

Because they exist as consistent and high quality image data sets, images of this part of ISO 12640 are

expected to be widely used for the following:

 evaluating the colour reproduction capability of imaging systems and output devices;

 evaluating the coding technologies necessary for the storage and transmission of high-definition image

data, etc.
0.2 Characteristics of test images

The performance of any colour reproduction system will normally be evaluated both subjectively (by viewing

the final output image) and objectively (by measurement of control elements). This requirement dictates that

the test images include both natural scenes (pictures) and synthetic images (computer graphics, a business

graph, a colour chart and a colour vignette).

Because the results of subjective image evaluation are strongly affected by the image content, it was

important to ensure that the natural images were of high quality and contained diverse subject matter.

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
0.3 Development of digital test images

A survey was conducted of all TC130 member countries to identify desirable image content and to solicit

submission of suitable images for consideration. The image set that resulted consists of eight natural and

seven synthetic images. The natural images include flesh tones, images with detail in the extreme highlights

or shadows, neutral colours, brown and wood tone colours which are often difficult to reproduce, memory

colours, complicated geometric shapes, fine detail, and highlight and shadow vignettes. The synthetic images

selected were generated electronically and include computer graphics, a business graph, a colour chart and a

series of colour vignettes.

All of the images consist of pixel interleaved data with the data origin at the upper left of the image, as viewed

normally, and organized by rows. The file formats of the RGB images are compliant with TIFF 6.0 format.

TIFF 6.0 does not define a method for storing XYZ colourspace. The XYZ images set the TIFF Photometric

tag to 2 (RGB), which allows TIFF readers to open the TIFF file; however, the image will not be displayed

correctly. The images can be imported and manipulated as necessary by a wide variety of commonly used

imaging software packages, on platforms in general use in the industry. See Annex C for details of the TIFF

header.
vi © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange —
Part 2:
XYZ/sRGB encoded standard colour image data (XYZ/SCID)
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12640 specifies a set of 15 standard colour images (encoded as both 16-bit XYZ and 8-bit

RGB digital data provided in electronic data files) that can be used for the evaluation of changes in image

quality during coding, image processing (including transformation compression and decompression),

displaying on a colour monitor or printing. They can be used for many graphic technology applications such as

research, development, product evaluation, and process control.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 61966-2-1:1999, Multimedia systems and equipment — Colour measurement and management —

Part 2-1: Default RGB colour space - sRGB

ITU-R BT.709-3:1998, Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme

exchange

TIFF, Revision 6.0 Final, Aldus Corporation (now Adobe Systems Incorporated), June 3, 1992

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
check sum

sum of the digits in a file that can be used to check if a file has been transferred properly

NOTE Often, only the least significant bits are summed.
3.2
colour sequence
order in which the colours are stored in a data file
3.3
colour space
geometric representation of colours in space, usually of three dimensions
[CIE Publication 17.4, definition 845-03-25]
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)

NOTE This part of ISO 12640 is based on two colour spaces, XYZ and sRGB. The relationship between XYZ and

sRGB is given in 5.2.
3.4
global colour change
change to the colours in an image applied consistently to all parts of the image

NOTE This is in contrast to a local colour change where selected spatial areas of an image are changed separately

from the rest of the image area.
3.5
orientation

origin and direction of the first line of data, with respect to the image content, as viewed by the end user

NOTE The codes used to specify orientation are contained in ISO 12639.
3.6
pixel

smallest element of an image that can be uniquely processed, and is defined by its spatial coordinates and

encoded with colour values
NOTE If a pixel is the result of interpolation, then it shall be noted as such.
3.7
pixel colour value
numeric values associated with each of the pixels
3.8
pixel interleaving

colour data organized such that the XYZ or RGB colour values for one pixel of each colour space are followed

by the same sequence of colour values for the next pixel

NOTE 1 The specific order of colours is determined by the ColorSequence (3.2) tag as defined in ISO 12639.

NOTE 2 Other forms of data interleaving are line and plane.
3.9
tristimulus values

amounts of the three reference colour stimuli, in a given trichromatic system, required to match the colour of

the stimulus considered
[CIE Publication 17.4, definition 845-03-22]
4 Image data

This part of ISO 12640 consists of colour image data, encoded as 16-bit XYZ data and 8-bit sRGB data, for

8 natural images and 7 synthetic images. The image characteristics of these data are described in Clause 5

and the data structure in Clause 6. The image data itself is contained in thirty data files that are included in

this part of ISO 12640. File names correspond to the image names as described in 5.3 and 5.4.

5 Data description and definition
5.1 Data set definition

Each set of standard colour image data consists of eight natural (photographed) images and seven synthetic

images created digitally on a computer. The natural images are identified as N1 to N8, and each of them also

has a descriptive name derived from the picture content (e.g. woman with glass). The synthetic images,

2 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)

identified as S1 to S7, consist of computer graphics images, a business graph, a colour chart and a series of

colour vignettes.

The sRGB images are identified by ISO-sRGB in small type in order to distinguish them from the XYZ images

which have the designation ISO-XYZ. The co-ordinates of the text insertion are provided in Annex D.

5.2 Relationship between CIE XYZ and sRGB colour data
5.2.1 Characteristics of standard output-referred sRGB image data

In order to assure maximum interoperability among a large number of imaging devices, sRGB image data are

output-referred to the hypothetical sRGB display and viewing conditions specified in IEC 61966-2-1. Whatever

colour processing is required to produce the desired image appearance on the sRGB display in the sRGB

viewing conditions shall be performed prior to encoding sRGB image data. The sRGB image data should be

considered to convey the desired sRGB appearance. Subsequent colour rendering may be performed to

produce a somewhat different appearance as necessitated by different media capabilities and viewing

conditions, but in general such colour rendering should not automatically alter the appearance in a substantial

way, or consider that the sRGB image data is “unfinished”. Exceptions to this rule include editing and

manipulation of image data by a user, and the processing of arbitrary RGB image data which may not be

sRGB.
5.2.2 Relationship between XYZ data and sRGB data

The encoding transformations between CIE 1931 XYZ tristimulus values and sRGB digital values are

specified in IEC 61966-2-1, and are provided below. These transformations define how XYZ tristimulus values

shall be calculated from 8-bit sRGB values. The colorimetric values so determined shall be those of the

intended image colorimetry when viewed on the reference display, in the reference viewing conditions, by the

standard observer.
The relationships are defined as follows:
R =R 255 (1)
sRGB 8bit
G = G 255 (2)
sRGB 8bit
B = B 255 (3)
sRGB 8bit
where
R is the code value for sRGB R in 8-bit encoding;
8bit
G is the code value for sRGB G in 8-bit encoding;
8bit
B is the code value for sRGB B in 8-bit encoding;
8bit
R' is the sRGB R image value;
sRGB
G' is the sRGB G image value;
sRGB
B' is the sRGB B image value.
sRGB
2,4
If R' u 0,040 45, then R = R'12,92 ; else R R=+()' 0,055 1,055 .
sRGB sRGB sRGB sRGB
sRGB
2,4
If G' u 0,040 45, then G = G'12,92 ; else G =()G ' + 0,055 1,055 .
sRGB sRGB sRGB sRGB
sRGB
2,4
If B' u 0,040 45, then B = B'12,92 ; else B =()B' + 0,055 1,055 .
sRGB sRGB sRGB sRGB
sRGB
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
and
X 0,,,412 4 0 357 6 0 180 5R
  
sRGB
  
Y,= 0 212 6 0,715 2 0,072 2G (4)
sRGB
  
  
Z,0 019 3 0,119 2 0,950 5
   sRGB

where R , G and B represent linear sRGB values, and the X, Y and Z values represent those that

sRGB sRGB sRGB

would be measured if the sRGB images were displayed on a hypothetical sRGB display, and the

measurements are conducted in a fashion that eliminates veiling glare and viewing flare.

The CIE Publication 131 XYZ tristimulus values resulting from Equation (4) are relative values scaled from 0,0

to 1,0 (not 0,0 to 100,0 as is sometimes done). Absolute tristimulus values are calculated from the 0,0-to-1,0

scaled relative values by multiplying by 80 (the sRGB display white point luminance).

5.2.3 XYZ image data

The XYZ image data computed in 5.2.2 are converted to 16-bits-per-channel code values (which are

contained in the XYZ image data files) by normalizing them with the corresponding value for the display white

point and multiplying by the data range represented by 16 bits. Thus:
XX=×65 535 (X ) (5)
16bit 65
YY=×65 535 (Y ) (6)
16bit 65
ZZ=×65 535 (Z ) (7)
16bit 65
where
X is the code value for X in 16-bit encoding;
16bit
Y is the code value for Y in 16-bit encoding;
16bit
Z is the code value for Z in 16-bit encoding;
16bit

X, Y and Z are any set of tristimulus values computed in 5.2.2, which are the tristimulus values of

a pixel on the display, excluding internal flare, veiling glare, and viewing flare;

X , Y and Z are the tristimulus values of the display white point.
65 65 65
5.2.4 Image data arrangement

The image data are pixel-interleaved in the order of R then G then B (8-bit), or X then Y then Z (16-bit). The

arrangement of data follows the scanning of each image from the upper left corner to the right, then moving to

the next lower horizontal line.
5.3 Natural images

The characteristics and typical usage for the natural images are provided in Table 1. The descriptive names of

these images are given following the identification code. Figure 1 shows reduced-size reproductions of the

natural images. The natural images have the following characteristics:
 Picture size 4 096 × 3 072 pixels;

NOTE 1 The natural images (4 096 × 3 072 pixels) produce a physical image size of 256 mm by 192 mm when

rendered at 16 pixels/mm.
4 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
 Interleaving pixel interleaving;
 Colour sequence RGB or XYZ;
 Colour values RGB data consisting of three 8-bit values;
XYZ data consisting of three 16-bit values;

 Image data orientation horizontal scanning starting from top left and ending at bottom right.

NOTE 2 Although the original of the image “Field fire” is a painting, it is classified as a natural image.

NOTE 3 The encoding of the data in the headers of the individual files is provided in Annex C, and is in accordance

with the formats specified in ISO 12639.

NOTE 4 The unused light end code values for N1 and N5 limit the tonal range present in these images.

NOTE 5 Clipping at light or dark end of N2, N4 and N8 may impact perceived quality for highly critical observers.

However, such clipping is present in many typical images.
Table 1 — Natural images
Image name Aspect Characteristics

N1 Woman with glass Portrait Close-up image of a woman with a glass; suitable for evaluating the

reproduction of human skin tones

N2 Flowers Landscape Useful for assessing tonal reproduction of highlight tones and contouring

in dark tones

N3 Fishing goods Portrait Low-key image of fishing goods; suitable for evaluating image sharpness

N4 Japanese goods Landscape Image obtained by photographing a collection of Japanese traditional

handicrafts, including many highly saturated colours; suitable for
evaluating colour reproduction capabilities

N5 Field fire Landscape Useful for evaluating the accuracy of colour reproduction for delicate

colours

N6 Pier Landscape Image with complicated geometric shapes; suitable for evaluating the

results of image processing

N7 Threads Landscape Image of woollen yarn, colour pencils and ribbons; suitable for evaluating

the colour gamut of devices

N8 Silver Portrait Image of silverware; suitable for evaluating the tone reproduction of greys,

as well as the reproduction of the lustrous appearance of metallic objects
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
N1 — Woman with glass N2 — Flowers
N3 — Fishing goods N4 — Japanese goods
N5 — Field fire N6 — Pier
N7 — Threads N8 — Silver
Figure 1 — Reduced-size reproductions of the natural images
6 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
5.4 Synthetic images
5.4.1 General

The synthetic images consist of computer graphics, a business graph, a colour chart and a series of colour

vignettes. Figure 2 shows reduced-size reproductions of the synthetic images. The interleaving, colour

sequence, colour values and orientation are the same as for the natural images. The image sizes are given in

Table 2.
Table 2 — Synthetic images
Height, Width,
ID Image name Aspect
pixels pixels
S1 Teapot Landscape 360 480
S2 Japanese doll Landscape 1 536 2 048
S3 Cat Landscape 1 536 2 048
S4 Sports Portrait 2 048 1 536
S5 Business graph Landscape 1 536 2 048
S6 Colour chart Landscape 1 332 2 736
S7 Colour vignettes Landscape 2 608 4 256

Images S1 to S5 were originally defined as 8-bit sRGB data by the way that they were produced. The 16-bit

XYZ data representing them were prepared by applying the sRGB-to-XYZ transform described in 5.2.2 to 8-bit

sRGB data. Images S6 and S7 were defined by first determining equal intervals in CIE L*. For each set of

intervals selected for the various parts of the images, the appropriate L* values (with a* and b* both set equal

to 0) were converted to 16-bit XYZ data, and then to 8-bit sRGB using appropriate normalization and the

XYZ-to-sRGB transform specified in IEC 61966-2-1.

NOTE Images S1 and S2 contain some clipped highlight areas which will be reproduced without detail.

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
S1 — Teapot S2 — Japanese doll
S3 — Cat S4 — Sports
S5 — Business graph S6 — Colour chart
S7 — Colour vignettes
Figure 2 — Reduced-size reproductions of the synthetic images
8 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
5.4.2 Computer graphics

Computer graphics are artificially generated pictures. Thus they are characterized by the fact that, in contrast

to natural images, they include large, noise-free, constant-hue areas, and gradation areas in which the hue

and/or lightness changes very smoothly.

S1 and S2 are both three-dimensional computer graphics pictures with shadows, while S3 and S4 are both

two-dimensional computer graphics pictures without shadows.

The four computer graphics pictures have been produced for monitor display, and have a bit depth resolution

of 8 bits for each of the sRGB channels.
 S1, Teapot:

Image S1 is a three-dimensional computer graphic obtained by mapping a watercolour painting onto a

widely used three-dimensional data set named UTAH Teapot. In general, a curved surface is

approximated with polygonal surfaces. However, by the use of a ray tracing method based on Bezier

clipping, the objects are displayed highly accurately. Further, the delicate tones characterizing

watercolours are expressed in terms of the Bezier function and are deemed to have been reproduced

sufficiently well.
 S2, Japanese doll:

Image S2 was produced by mapping the data of an actual photograph of a three-dimensional object onto

a three-dimensional computer graphic. A computer graphics artist two-dimensionally arranged various

data sets, including a primitive, standard three-dimensional data, two-dimensional data, a two-

dimensional computer graphics sketch, etc.

The design intent is to visualize a scene of the new multi-media world by placing side-by-side the mask of

Fukusuke and modern goods such as a personal computer, compact disc, etc. The former represents one

of the traditional characters in Japan, while the latter represent digital appliances.

 S3, Cat:

Image S3 is an example of two-dimensional computer graphics, and has been produced from a digital

image obtained by sampling a photograph. The image data were subjected to domain separation; each

domain was modified, taking into account the characteristics of the human eye and the hue, as well as

the shape of the domain, according to the preference of the computer graphics artist. The image is

characterized by including a wide gamut of colour information.
 S4, Sports:

This image was produced by first sampling an original photograph of a skier, and then subjecting the

digital data to hue and shape processing according to the preference of the computer graphics artist.

The design intent of this image is to express vivacity (sprightliness) by fusing sporting animal spirits with

the fine arts. The image characteristically contains painting-like elements having a broad range of colour

information and well-balanced hues.
5.4.3 Business graph

Image S5 is a business-graph consisting of a bar chart, pie charts, gradation bars and letters. The bar chart

includes seven bars against a neutral background, and each bar consists of five segments, i.e., a primary

colour segment, thinner, middle- and highlight-tone segments of the same colour, a darkened primary colour

segment and a darkened middle-tone colour segment. One of the pie charts is coloured with seven primary

colours, and the other with seven less saturated primary colours, both against a white background. The

business-graph contains two gradation bars, one starting from yellow and ending with orange, and the other

changing from grass green to deep blue.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
5.4.4 Colour chart
5.4.4.1 Layout

Image S6 is a colour chart that consists of colour patches that are all specified to be within the colour space

defined by the ITU-R BT.709-3 RGB primaries, without the use of negative tristimulus values. By using these

patches, the fidelity of colour reproduction of an image output device to the colorimetry of the original image

file may be evaluated objectively by measurement. Image S6 (XYZ) is encoded in 16-bit XYZ, and

image S6 (sRGB) is encoded in 8-bit sRGB. The chart has two sections:
 section containing 6 (i.e. 216) tertiary colour patches;
 primary, secondary and grey (tertiary) colour section (77 patches in total).

NOTE The sRGB and XYZ image data encoded can be converted to display-produced image colorimetry using the

transforms specified in 5.2.2 and 5.2.3. However, display-produced colorimetric values do not include any internal flare,

veiling glare, or viewing flare, and therefore do not exactly represent the colorimetry which would be observed if a

hypothetical sRGB display were viewed. When comparing the fidelity of a colour reproduction to that of an original, it is

generally more appropriate to compare viewer-observed colorimetric values.

The fidelity of measured-reproduction colorimetry to original-image colorimetry (display produced or viewer observed)

should not generally be considered as indicative of the quality of the reproduction. To produce optimal quality, it is

frequently necessary to adjust the colorimetry of a reproduction to be different from that directly associated with the image

data in order to account for differences between the sRGB-viewing conditions and the reproduc

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 12640-2:2005
01-januar-2005

*UDILþQDWHKQRORJLMD±,]PHQMDYDGLJLWDOQLKSRGDWNRYYJUDILþQLSULSUDYL±GHO

.RGLUDQLVWDQGDUGQLSRGDWNL;<=V5*%]DEDUYQHVOLNH ;<=6&,'
Graphic technology - Prepress digital data exchange - Part 2: XYZ/sRGB encoded
standard colour image data (XYZ/SCID)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:
ICS:
35.240.30 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in information,
informatiki, dokumentiranju in documentation and
založništvu publishing
37.100.99 'UXJLVWDQGDUGLY]YH]L] Other standards related to
JUDILþQRWHKQRORJLMR graphic technology
SIST ISO 12640-2:2005 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12640-2
First edition
2004-07-15
Graphic technology — Prepress digital
data exchange —
Part 2:
XYZ/sRGB encoded standard colour
image data (XYZ/SCID)
Technologie graphique — Échange de données numériques de
préimpression —
Partie 2: Données d'images en couleur normalisées codées XYZ/sRGB
(XYZ/SCID)
Reference number
ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
ISO 2004
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
PDF disclaimer

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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Image data.............................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Data description and definition ........................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Data set definition ................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Relationship between CIE XYZ and sRGB colour data..................................................................... 3

5.3 Natural images ...................................................................................................................................... 4

5.4 Synthetic images................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Electronic data .................................................................................................................................... 12

6.1 Image data characteristics................................................................................................................. 12

6.2 File structure ....................................................................................................................................... 12

Annex A (normative) Standard colour image digital data — Guidance for use......................................... 14

Annex B (normative) Check-sum data ........................................................................................................... 16

Annex C (informative) Typical TIFF file headers used for image data ........................................................ 18

Annex D (informative) Text insertion.............................................................................................................. 22

Annex E (informative) Image evaluation and reproduction.......................................................................... 23

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 25

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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 12640-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.

ISO 12640 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Prepress digital data

exchange:
 Part 1: CMYK standard colour image data (CMYK/SCID)
 Part 2: XYZ/sRGB encoded standard colour image data (XYZ/SCID)

Part 1 was published in 1997 with the number ISO 12640 and is in the process of being renumbered.

A Part 3, under the title of CIELAB standard colour image data (CIELAB/SCID), is in preparation.

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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
Introduction

The technical content of this International Standard was initiated by the Image Processing Technology

Standard Committee in Japan as input to, and in coordination with, ISO/TC 130, WG 2.

0.1 The need for standard XYZ/sRGB digital test images

The existing Standard Colour Image Data (CMYK/SCID, ISO 12640) is defined in terms of CMYK dot

percentages and as such is mainly applicable to printing applications. If attempts are made to apply it to other

systems such as monitors, CMY printers, etc., the following problems arise.

 The image data, being expressed in terms of CMYK dot percentages, have no simple relationship to

colorimetric values.

 The image data have a bit depth of only 8-bits, often causing inaccurate colour conversions.

 The image data are output-referred to a CMYK printing device; additional colour rendering may be

required to create image data suitable for other devices.
In order to solve these problems a set of image data has been prepared that

 is expressed as sRGB encoded ITU-R BT.709-3 RGB primary based tristimulus values, and

 is output-referred to the standard sRGB display and viewing conditions defined in IEC 61966-2-1.

Furthermore, this part of ISO 12640 also provides 16-bit CIE XYZ image data that correspond to the display

produced CIE XYZ tristimulus values for the sRGB image data, with a display white point chromaticity

equivalent to that of CIE Illuminant D .

Because they exist as consistent and high quality image data sets, images of this part of ISO 12640 are

expected to be widely used for the following:

 evaluating the colour reproduction capability of imaging systems and output devices;

 evaluating the coding technologies necessary for the storage and transmission of high-definition image

data, etc.
0.2 Characteristics of test images

The performance of any colour reproduction system will normally be evaluated both subjectively (by viewing

the final output image) and objectively (by measurement of control elements). This requirement dictates that

the test images include both natural scenes (pictures) and synthetic images (computer graphics, a business

graph, a colour chart and a colour vignette).

Because the results of subjective image evaluation are strongly affected by the image content, it was

important to ensure that the natural images were of high quality and contained diverse subject matter.

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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
0.3 Development of digital test images

A survey was conducted of all TC130 member countries to identify desirable image content and to solicit

submission of suitable images for consideration. The image set that resulted consists of eight natural and

seven synthetic images. The natural images include flesh tones, images with detail in the extreme highlights

or shadows, neutral colours, brown and wood tone colours which are often difficult to reproduce, memory

colours, complicated geometric shapes, fine detail, and highlight and shadow vignettes. The synthetic images

selected were generated electronically and include computer graphics, a business graph, a colour chart and a

series of colour vignettes.

All of the images consist of pixel interleaved data with the data origin at the upper left of the image, as viewed

normally, and organized by rows. The file formats of the RGB images are compliant with TIFF 6.0 format.

TIFF 6.0 does not define a method for storing XYZ colourspace. The XYZ images set the TIFF Photometric

tag to 2 (RGB), which allows TIFF readers to open the TIFF file; however, the image will not be displayed

correctly. The images can be imported and manipulated as necessary by a wide variety of commonly used

imaging software packages, on platforms in general use in the industry. See Annex C for details of the TIFF

header.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange —
Part 2:
XYZ/sRGB encoded standard colour image data (XYZ/SCID)
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12640 specifies a set of 15 standard colour images (encoded as both 16-bit XYZ and 8-bit

RGB digital data provided in electronic data files) that can be used for the evaluation of changes in image

quality during coding, image processing (including transformation compression and decompression),

displaying on a colour monitor or printing. They can be used for many graphic technology applications such as

research, development, product evaluation, and process control.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 61966-2-1:1999, Multimedia systems and equipment — Colour measurement and management —

Part 2-1: Default RGB colour space - sRGB

ITU-R BT.709-3:1998, Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme

exchange

TIFF, Revision 6.0 Final, Aldus Corporation (now Adobe Systems Incorporated), June 3, 1992

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
check sum

sum of the digits in a file that can be used to check if a file has been transferred properly

NOTE Often, only the least significant bits are summed.
3.2
colour sequence
order in which the colours are stored in a data file
3.3
colour space
geometric representation of colours in space, usually of three dimensions
[CIE Publication 17.4, definition 845-03-25]
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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)

NOTE This part of ISO 12640 is based on two colour spaces, XYZ and sRGB. The relationship between XYZ and

sRGB is given in 5.2.
3.4
global colour change
change to the colours in an image applied consistently to all parts of the image

NOTE This is in contrast to a local colour change where selected spatial areas of an image are changed separately

from the rest of the image area.
3.5
orientation

origin and direction of the first line of data, with respect to the image content, as viewed by the end user

NOTE The codes used to specify orientation are contained in ISO 12639.
3.6
pixel

smallest element of an image that can be uniquely processed, and is defined by its spatial coordinates and

encoded with colour values
NOTE If a pixel is the result of interpolation, then it shall be noted as such.
3.7
pixel colour value
numeric values associated with each of the pixels
3.8
pixel interleaving

colour data organized such that the XYZ or RGB colour values for one pixel of each colour space are followed

by the same sequence of colour values for the next pixel

NOTE 1 The specific order of colours is determined by the ColorSequence (3.2) tag as defined in ISO 12639.

NOTE 2 Other forms of data interleaving are line and plane.
3.9
tristimulus values

amounts of the three reference colour stimuli, in a given trichromatic system, required to match the colour of

the stimulus considered
[CIE Publication 17.4, definition 845-03-22]
4 Image data

This part of ISO 12640 consists of colour image data, encoded as 16-bit XYZ data and 8-bit sRGB data, for

8 natural images and 7 synthetic images. The image characteristics of these data are described in Clause 5

and the data structure in Clause 6. The image data itself is contained in thirty data files that are included in

this part of ISO 12640. File names correspond to the image names as described in 5.3 and 5.4.

5 Data description and definition
5.1 Data set definition

Each set of standard colour image data consists of eight natural (photographed) images and seven synthetic

images created digitally on a computer. The natural images are identified as N1 to N8, and each of them also

has a descriptive name derived from the picture content (e.g. woman with glass). The synthetic images,

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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)

identified as S1 to S7, consist of computer graphics images, a business graph, a colour chart and a series of

colour vignettes.

The sRGB images are identified by ISO-sRGB in small type in order to distinguish them from the XYZ images

which have the designation ISO-XYZ. The co-ordinates of the text insertion are provided in Annex D.

5.2 Relationship between CIE XYZ and sRGB colour data
5.2.1 Characteristics of standard output-referred sRGB image data

In order to assure maximum interoperability among a large number of imaging devices, sRGB image data are

output-referred to the hypothetical sRGB display and viewing conditions specified in IEC 61966-2-1. Whatever

colour processing is required to produce the desired image appearance on the sRGB display in the sRGB

viewing conditions shall be performed prior to encoding sRGB image data. The sRGB image data should be

considered to convey the desired sRGB appearance. Subsequent colour rendering may be performed to

produce a somewhat different appearance as necessitated by different media capabilities and viewing

conditions, but in general such colour rendering should not automatically alter the appearance in a substantial

way, or consider that the sRGB image data is “unfinished”. Exceptions to this rule include editing and

manipulation of image data by a user, and the processing of arbitrary RGB image data which may not be

sRGB.
5.2.2 Relationship between XYZ data and sRGB data

The encoding transformations between CIE 1931 XYZ tristimulus values and sRGB digital values are

specified in IEC 61966-2-1, and are provided below. These transformations define how XYZ tristimulus values

shall be calculated from 8-bit sRGB values. The colorimetric values so determined shall be those of the

intended image colorimetry when viewed on the reference display, in the reference viewing conditions, by the

standard observer.
The relationships are defined as follows:
R =R 255 (1)
sRGB 8bit
G = G 255 (2)
sRGB 8bit
B = B 255 (3)
sRGB 8bit
where
R is the code value for sRGB R in 8-bit encoding;
8bit
G is the code value for sRGB G in 8-bit encoding;
8bit
B is the code value for sRGB B in 8-bit encoding;
8bit
R' is the sRGB R image value;
sRGB
G' is the sRGB G image value;
sRGB
B' is the sRGB B image value.
sRGB
2,4
If R' u 0,040 45, then R = R'12,92 ; else R R=+()' 0,055 1,055 .
sRGB sRGB sRGB sRGB
sRGB
2,4
If G' u 0,040 45, then G = G'12,92 ; else G =()G ' + 0,055 1,055 .
sRGB sRGB sRGB sRGB
sRGB
2,4
If B' u 0,040 45, then B = B'12,92 ; else B =()B' + 0,055 1,055 .
sRGB sRGB sRGB sRGB
sRGB
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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
and
X 0,,,412 4 0 357 6 0 180 5R
  
sRGB
  
Y,= 0 212 6 0,715 2 0,072 2G (4)
sRGB
  
  
Z,0 019 3 0,119 2 0,950 5
   sRGB

where R , G and B represent linear sRGB values, and the X, Y and Z values represent those that

sRGB sRGB sRGB

would be measured if the sRGB images were displayed on a hypothetical sRGB display, and the

measurements are conducted in a fashion that eliminates veiling glare and viewing flare.

The CIE Publication 131 XYZ tristimulus values resulting from Equation (4) are relative values scaled from 0,0

to 1,0 (not 0,0 to 100,0 as is sometimes done). Absolute tristimulus values are calculated from the 0,0-to-1,0

scaled relative values by multiplying by 80 (the sRGB display white point luminance).

5.2.3 XYZ image data

The XYZ image data computed in 5.2.2 are converted to 16-bits-per-channel code values (which are

contained in the XYZ image data files) by normalizing them with the corresponding value for the display white

point and multiplying by the data range represented by 16 bits. Thus:
XX=×65 535 (X ) (5)
16bit 65
YY=×65 535 (Y ) (6)
16bit 65
ZZ=×65 535 (Z ) (7)
16bit 65
where
X is the code value for X in 16-bit encoding;
16bit
Y is the code value for Y in 16-bit encoding;
16bit
Z is the code value for Z in 16-bit encoding;
16bit

X, Y and Z are any set of tristimulus values computed in 5.2.2, which are the tristimulus values of

a pixel on the display, excluding internal flare, veiling glare, and viewing flare;

X , Y and Z are the tristimulus values of the display white point.
65 65 65
5.2.4 Image data arrangement

The image data are pixel-interleaved in the order of R then G then B (8-bit), or X then Y then Z (16-bit). The

arrangement of data follows the scanning of each image from the upper left corner to the right, then moving to

the next lower horizontal line.
5.3 Natural images

The characteristics and typical usage for the natural images are provided in Table 1. The descriptive names of

these images are given following the identification code. Figure 1 shows reduced-size reproductions of the

natural images. The natural images have the following characteristics:
 Picture size 4 096 × 3 072 pixels;

NOTE 1 The natural images (4 096 × 3 072 pixels) produce a physical image size of 256 mm by 192 mm when

rendered at 16 pixels/mm.
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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
 Interleaving pixel interleaving;
 Colour sequence RGB or XYZ;
 Colour values RGB data consisting of three 8-bit values;
XYZ data consisting of three 16-bit values;

 Image data orientation horizontal scanning starting from top left and ending at bottom right.

NOTE 2 Although the original of the image “Field fire” is a painting, it is classified as a natural image.

NOTE 3 The encoding of the data in the headers of the individual files is provided in Annex C, and is in accordance

with the formats specified in ISO 12639.

NOTE 4 The unused light end code values for N1 and N5 limit the tonal range present in these images.

NOTE 5 Clipping at light or dark end of N2, N4 and N8 may impact perceived quality for highly critical observers.

However, such clipping is present in many typical images.
Table 1 — Natural images
Image name Aspect Characteristics

N1 Woman with glass Portrait Close-up image of a woman with a glass; suitable for evaluating the

reproduction of human skin tones

N2 Flowers Landscape Useful for assessing tonal reproduction of highlight tones and contouring

in dark tones

N3 Fishing goods Portrait Low-key image of fishing goods; suitable for evaluating image sharpness

N4 Japanese goods Landscape Image obtained by photographing a collection of Japanese traditional

handicrafts, including many highly saturated colours; suitable for
evaluating colour reproduction capabilities

N5 Field fire Landscape Useful for evaluating the accuracy of colour reproduction for delicate

colours

N6 Pier Landscape Image with complicated geometric shapes; suitable for evaluating the

results of image processing

N7 Threads Landscape Image of woollen yarn, colour pencils and ribbons; suitable for evaluating

the colour gamut of devices

N8 Silver Portrait Image of silverware; suitable for evaluating the tone reproduction of greys,

as well as the reproduction of the lustrous appearance of metallic objects
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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
N1 — Woman with glass N2 — Flowers
N3 — Fishing goods N4 — Japanese goods
N5 — Field fire N6 — Pier
N7 — Threads N8 — Silver
Figure 1 — Reduced-size reproductions of the natural images
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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
5.4 Synthetic images
5.4.1 General

The synthetic images consist of computer graphics, a business graph, a colour chart and a series of colour

vignettes. Figure 2 shows reduced-size reproductions of the synthetic images. The interleaving, colour

sequence, colour values and orientation are the same as for the natural images. The image sizes are given in

Table 2.
Table 2 — Synthetic images
Height, Width,
ID Image name Aspect
pixels pixels
S1 Teapot Landscape 360 480
S2 Japanese doll Landscape 1 536 2 048
S3 Cat Landscape 1 536 2 048
S4 Sports Portrait 2 048 1 536
S5 Business graph Landscape 1 536 2 048
S6 Colour chart Landscape 1 332 2 736
S7 Colour vignettes Landscape 2 608 4 256

Images S1 to S5 were originally defined as 8-bit sRGB data by the way that they were produced. The 16-bit

XYZ data representing them were prepared by applying the sRGB-to-XYZ transform described in 5.2.2 to 8-bit

sRGB data. Images S6 and S7 were defined by first determining equal intervals in CIE L*. For each set of

intervals selected for the various parts of the images, the appropriate L* values (with a* and b* both set equal

to 0) were converted to 16-bit XYZ data, and then to 8-bit sRGB using appropriate normalization and the

XYZ-to-sRGB transform specified in IEC 61966-2-1.

NOTE Images S1 and S2 contain some clipped highlight areas which will be reproduced without detail.

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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
S1 — Teapot S2 — Japanese doll
S3 — Cat S4 — Sports
S5 — Business graph S6 — Colour chart
S7 — Colour vignettes
Figure 2 — Reduced-size reproductions of the synthetic images
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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
5.4.2 Computer graphics

Computer graphics are artificially generated pictures. Thus they are characterized by the fact that, in contrast

to natural images, they include large, noise-free, constant-hue areas, and gradation areas in which the hue

and/or lightness changes very smoothly.

S1 and S2 are both three-dimensional computer graphics pictures with shadows, while S3 and S4 are both

two-dimensional computer graphics pictures without shadows.

The four computer graphics pictures have been produced for monitor display, and have a bit depth resolution

of 8 bits for each of the sRGB channels.
 S1, Teapot:

Image S1 is a three-dimensional computer graphic obtained by mapping a watercolour painting onto a

widely used three-dimensional data set named UTAH Teapot. In general, a curved surface is

approximated with polygonal surfaces. However, by the use of a ray tracing method based on Bezier

clipping, the objects are displayed highly accurately. Further, the delicate tones characterizing

watercolours are expressed in terms of the Bezier function and are deemed to have been reproduced

sufficiently well.
 S2, Japanese doll:

Image S2 was produced by mapping the data of an actual photograph of a three-dimensional object onto

a three-dimensional computer graphic. A computer graphics artist two-dimensionally arranged various

data sets, including a primitive, standard three-dimensional data, two-dimensional data, a two-

dimensional computer graphics sketch, etc.

The design intent is to visualize a scene of the new multi-media world by placing side-by-side the mask of

Fukusuke and modern goods such as a personal computer, compact disc, etc. The former represents one

of the traditional characters in Japan, while the latter represent digital appliances.

 S3, Cat:

Image S3 is an example of two-dimensional computer graphics, and has been produced from a digital

image obtained by sampling a photograph. The image data were subjected to domain separation; each

domain was modified, taking into account the characteristics of the human eye and the hue, as well as

the shape of the domain, according to the preference of the computer graphics artist. The image is

characterized by including a wide gamut of colour information.
 S4, Sports:

This image was produced by first sampling an original photograph of a skier, and then subjecting the

digital data to hue and shape processing according to the preference of the computer graphics artist.

The design intent of this image is to express vivacity (sprightliness) by fusing sporting animal spirits with

the fine arts. The image characteristically contains painting-like elements having a broad range of colour

information and well-balanced hues.
5.4.3 Business graph

Image S5 is a business-graph consisting of a bar chart, pie charts, gradation bars and letters. The bar chart

includes seven bars against a neutral background, and each bar consists of five segments, i.e., a primary

colour segment, thinner, middle- and highlight-tone segments of the same colour, a darkened primary colour

segment and a darkened middle-tone colour segment. One of the pie charts is coloured with seven primary

colours, and the other with seven less saturated primary colours, both against a white background. The

business-graph contains two gradation bars, one starting from yellow and ending with orange, and the other

changing from grass green to deep blue.
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ISO 12640-2:2004(E)
5.4.4 Colour chart
5.4.4.1 Layout

Image S6 is a colour chart that consists of colour patches that are all specified to be within the colour space

defined by the ITU-R BT.709-3 RGB primaries, without the use of negative tristimulus values. By using these

patches, the fidelity of colour reproduction of an image output device to the colorimetry of the original image

file may be evaluated objectively by measurement. Image S6 (XYZ) is encoded in 16-bit XYZ, and

image S6 (sRGB) is encoded in 8-bit sRGB. The chart has two sections:
 section containing 6 (i.e. 216) tertiary colour patches;
 primary, secondary and grey (tertiary) colour section (77 patches in total).

NOTE The sRGB and XYZ image data encoded can be converted to display-produced image colorimetry using the

transforms specified in 5.2.2 and 5.2.3. However, display-produced
...

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