Information technology -- High efficiency coding and media delivery in heterogeneous environments

This document specifies high efficiency video coding.

Technologies de l'information -- Codage à haute efficacité et livraison des medias dans des environnements hétérogènes

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Published
Publication Date
27-Aug-2020
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
17-Jul-2020
Completion Date
16-Jul-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 23008-2
Fourth edition
2020-08
Information technology — High
efficiency coding and media delivery
in heterogeneous environments —
Part 2:
High efficiency video coding
Technologies de l'information — Codage à haute efficacité et livraison
des medias dans des environnements hétérogènes —
Partie 2: Codage vidéo à haute efficacité
Reference number
ISO/IEC 23008-2:2020(E)
ISO/IEC 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23008-2:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23008-2:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ...................................................................................................................................................................... vii

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................. viii

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................................ 1

3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................21

5 Conventions.........................................................................................................................................................23

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................... 23

5.2 Arithmetic operators ................................................................................................................................................ 23

5.3 Logical operators ....................................................................................................................................................... 23

5.4 Relational operators ................................................................................................................................................. 24

5.5 Bit-wise operators ..................................................................................................................................................... 24

5.6 Assignment operators.............................................................................................................................................. 24

5.7 Range notation ............................................................................................................................................................ 25

5.8 Mathematical functions ........................................................................................................................................... 25

5.9 Order of operation precedence ............................................................................................................................ 26

5.10 Variables, syntax elements, and tables ............................................................................................................. 27

5.11 Text description of logical operations .............................................................................................................. 28

5.12 Processes ....................................................................................................................................................................... 29

6 Bitstream and picture formats, partitionings, scanning processes, and neighbouring

relationships .......................................................................................................................................................30

6.1 Bitstream formats...................................................................................................................................................... 30

6.2 Source, decoded, and output picture formats ................................................................................................ 30

6.3 Partitioning of pictures, slices, slice segments, tiles, CTUs, and CTBs ................................................. 33

6.3.1 Partitioning of pictures into slices, slice segments, and tiles ......................................................... 33

6.3.2 Block and quadtree structures .................................................................................................................... 34

6.3.3 Spatial or component-wise partitionings ............................................................................................... 35

6.4 Availability processes .............................................................................................................................................. 36

6.4.1 Derivation process for z-scan order block availability...................................................................... 36

6.4.2 Derivation process for prediction block availability .......................................................................... 37

6.5 Scanning processes ................................................................................................................................................... 38

6.5.1 CTB raster and tile scanning conversion process ................................................................................ 38

iii
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ISO/IEC 23008-2:2020(E)

6.5.2 Z-scan order array initialization process ................................................................................................ 39

6.5.3 Up-right diagonal scan order array initialization process ............................................................... 40

6.5.4 Horizontal scan order array initialization process ............................................................................. 40

6.5.5 Vertical scan order array initialization process ................................................................................... 41

6.5.6 Traverse scan order array initialization process ................................................................................. 41

7 Syntax and semantics ...................................................................................................................................... 41

7.1 Method of specifying syntax in tabular form ................................................................................................. 41

7.2 Specification of syntax functions and descriptors ....................................................................................... 43

7.3 Syntax in tabular form ............................................................................................................................................. 45

7.3.1 NAL unit syntax ................................................................................................................................................. 45

7.3.2 Raw byte sequence payloads, trailing bits, and byte alignment syntax ..................................... 45

7.3.3 Profile, tier and level syntax ......................................................................................................................... 54

7.3.4 Scaling list data syntax .................................................................................................................................... 57

7.3.5 Supplemental enhancement information message syntax .............................................................. 58

7.3.6 Slice segment header syntax ........................................................................................................................ 59

7.3.7 Short-term reference picture set syntax ................................................................................................. 63

7.3.8 Slice segment data syntax.............................................................................................................................. 64

7.4 Semantics ...................................................................................................................................................................... 80

7.4.1 General .................................................................................................................................................................. 80

7.4.2 NAL unit semantics .......................................................................................................................................... 80

7.4.3 Raw byte sequence payloads, trailing bits, and byte alignment semantics .............................. 90

7.4.4 Profile, tier, and level semantics ............................................................................................................... 113

7.4.5 Scaling list data semantics .......................................................................................................................... 117

7.4.6 Supplemental enhancement information message semantics ..................................................... 120

7.4.7 Slice segment header semantics ............................................................................................................... 121

7.4.8 Short-term reference picture set semantics ........................................................................................ 130

7.4.9 Slice segment data semantics .................................................................................................................... 133

iv © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23008-2:2020(E)

8 Decoding process ........................................................................................................................................... 149

8.1 General decoding process .................................................................................................................................... 149

8.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 149

8.1.2 CVSG decoding process................................................................................................................................. 150

8.1.3 Decoding process for a coded picture with nuh_layer_id equal to 0 ......................................... 150

8.2 NAL unit decoding process .................................................................................................................................. 153

8.3 Slice decoding process ........................................................................................................................................... 153

8.3.1 Decoding process for picture order count ............................................................................................ 153

8.3.2 Decoding process for reference picture set ......................................................................................... 154

8.3.3 Decoding process for generating unavailable reference pictures .............................................. 159

8.3.4 Decoding process for reference picture lists construction ............................................................ 160

8.3.5 Decoding process for collocated picture and no backward prediction flag ........................... 161

8.4 Decoding process for coding units coded in intra prediction mode ................................................... 162

8.4.1 General decoding process for coding units coded in intra prediction mode ......................... 162

8.4.2 Derivation process for luma intra prediction mode ......................................................................... 166

8.4.3 Derivation process for chroma intra prediction mode ................................................................... 169

8.4.4 Decoding process for intra blocks ............................................................................................................ 170

8.5 Decoding process for coding units coded in inter prediction mode ................................................... 183

8.5.1 General decoding process for coding units coded in inter prediction mode ......................... 183

8.5.2 Inter prediction process ............................................................................................................................... 184

8.5.3 Decoding process for prediction units in inter prediction mode ................................................ 187

8.5.4 Decoding process for the residual signal of coding units coded in inter prediction mode220

8.6 Scaling, transformation and array construction process prior to deblocking filter process ... 224

8.6.1 Derivation process for quantization parameters .............................................................................. 224

8.6.2 Scaling and transformation process ........................................................................................................ 226

8.6.3 Scaling process for transform coefficients ........................................................................................... 228

8.6.4 Transformation process for scaled transform coefficients ........................................................... 229

8.6.5 Residual modification process for blocks using a transform bypass ........................................ 232

8.6.6 Residual modification process for transform blocks using cross-component prediction 233

8.6.7 Picture construction process prior to in-loop filter process ......................................................... 233

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ISO/IEC 23008-2:2020(E)

8.6.8 Residual modification process for blocks using adaptive colour transform .......................... 234

8.7 In-loop filter process .............................................................................................................................................. 236

8.7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 236

8.7.2 Deblocking filter process ............................................................................................................................. 237

8.7.3 Sample adaptive offset process ................................................................................................................. 255

9 Parsing process .............................................................................................................................................. 258

9.1 General ......................................................................................................................................................................... 258

9.2 Parsing process for 0-th order Exp-Golomb codes .................................................................................... 258

9.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 258

9.2.2 Mapping process for signed Exp-Golomb codes ................................................................................ 260

9.3 CABAC parsing process for slice segment data ........................................................................................... 260

9.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 260

9.3.2 Initialization process ..................................................................................................................................... 263

9.3.3 Binarization process ...................................................................................................................................... 277

9.3.4 Decoding process flow .................................................................................................................................. 287

9.3.5 Arithmetic encoding process ..................................................................................................................... 303

10 Sub-bitstream extraction process ........................................................................................................... 309

Annex A (normative) Profiles, tiers and levels .......................................................................................... 311

Annex B (normative) Byte stream format ................................................................................................... 339

Annex C (normative) Hypothetical reference decoder ........................................................................... 342

Annex D (normative) Supplemental enhancement information ........................................................ 363

Annex E (normative) Video usability information ................................................................................... 523

Annex F (normative) Common specifications for multi-layer extensions ....................................... 552

Annex G (normative) Multiview high efficiency video coding ............................................................. 708

Annex H (normative) Scalable high efficiency video coding ................................................................. 733

Annex I (normative) 3D high efficiency video coding ............................................................................. 763

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................................ 888

vi © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23008-2:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity.

ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the editorial

rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World

Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL:

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, Subcommittee SC 29, Coding of

audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information, in collaboration with ITU-T. The technically

identical text is published as Rec. ITU-T H.265.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO/IEC 23008-2:2017), which has been

technically revised. It also incorporates the amendments ISO/IEC 23008-2:2017/Amd 1:2018,

ISO/IEC 23008-2:2017/Amd 2:2018, and ISO/IEC 23008-2:2017/Amd 3:2018).
The main changes compared to the previous edition are:

 the specification of two additional profiles (the Monochrome 10 and Main 10 Still Picture profiles);

 the specification of additional supplemental enhancement information (SEI) messages and

additional colour-related video usability information codepoint identifiers;
 corrections to various minor defects.
A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 23008 series can be found on the ISO website.
vii
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ISO/IEC 23008-2:2020(E)
Introduction

As the costs for both processing power and memory have reduced, network support for coded video data

has diversified, and advances in video coding technology have progressed. The need has arisen for an

industry standard for compressed video representation with substantially increased coding efficiency

and enhanced robustness to network environments. Toward these ends, the ITU-T Video Coding Experts

Group (VCEG) and the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) formed a Joint Collaborative Team

on Video Coding (JCT-VC) in 2010 and a Joint Collaborative Team on 3D Video Coding Extension

Development (JCT-3V) in 2012 for development of a new Recommendation | International Standard. This

document was developed in the JCT-VC and the JCT-3V.
Purpose

This document was developed in response to the growing need for higher compression of moving

pictures for various applications such as videoconferencing, digital storage media, television

broadcasting, internet streaming, and communications. It is also designed to enable the use of the coded

video representation in a flexible manner for a wide variety of network environments as well as to enable

the use of multi-core parallel encoding and decoding devices. The use of this document allows motion

video to be manipulated as a form of computer data and to be stored on various storage media,

transmitted and received over existing and future networks and distributed on existing and future

broadcasting channels. Supports for higher bit depths and enhanced chroma formats, including the use

of full-resolution chroma are provided. Support for scalability enables video transmission on networks

with varying transmission conditions and other scenarios involving multiple bit rate services. Support

for multiview enables representation of video content with multiple camera views and optional auxiliary

information. Support for 3D enables joint representation of video content and depth information with

multiple camera views.
Applications

This document is designed to cover a broad range of applications for video content including but not

limited to the following:

— broadcast (cable TV on optical networks / copper, satellite, terrestrial, etc.);

— camcorders;
— content production and distribution;
— digital cinema;
— home cinema;
— internet streaming, download and play;
— medical imaging;
— mobile streaming, broadcast and communications;

— real-time conversational services (videoconferencing, videophone, telepresence, etc.);

— remote video surveillance;
— storage media (optical disks, digital video tape recorder, etc.);
— wireless display.
viii © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23008-2:2020(E)
Publication and versions of this document

This document has been jointly developed by ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) and the ISO/IEC

Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). It is published as technically-aligned twin text in both ITU-T and

ISO/IEC. As the basis text has been drafted to become both an ITU-T Recommendation and an ISO/IEC

International Standard, the term "Specification" (with capitalization to indicate that it refers to the whole

of the text) is used herein when the text refers to itself.

This is the fifth version of this document and the fourth edition published by ISO/IEC.

Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 version 1 refers to the first approved version of this document. The

first edition published by ISO/IEC as ISO/IEC 23008-2:2013 corresponded to the first version.

Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 version 2 refers to the integrated text additionally containing format

range extensions, scalability extensions, multiview extensions, additional supplement enhancement

information, and corrections to various minor defects in the prior content of the specification. The second

edition published by ISO/IEC as ISO/IEC 23008-2:2015 corresponded to the second version.

Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 version 3 refers to the integrated text additionally containing 3D

extensions, additional supplement enhancement information, and corrections to various minor defects

in the prior content of the specification.

Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 version 4 refers to the integrated text additionally containing screen

content coding extensions profiles, scalable range extensions profiles, additional high throughput

profiles, additional supplement enhancement information, additional colour representation identifiers,

and corrections to various minor defects in the prior content of the specification. The third edition

published by ISO/IEC as ISO/IEC 23008-2:2017 corresponded to the fourth version.

Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 version 5 refers to the integrated text additionally containing

additional SEI messages that include omnidirectional video specific SEI messages, a Monochrome 10

profile, a Main 10 Still Picture profile, and corrections to various minor defects in the prior content of the

specification.

Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 version 6 refers to the integrated text additionally containing

additional SEI messages for SEI manifest and SEI prefix, and corrections to various minor defects in the

prior content of the specification.

Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 version 7 (the current version) refers to the integrated text

additionally containing the fisheye video information SEI message and the annotated regions SEI

message, and corrections to various minor defects in the prior content of the specification. The fourth

edition published by ISO/IEC as ISO/IEC 23008-2:2020 corresponds to the fifth version.

Profiles, tiers, and levels

This document is designed to be generic in the sense that it serves a wide range of applications, bit rates,

resolutions, qualities, and services. Applications should cover, among other things, digital storage media,

television broadcasting, and real-time communications. In the course of creating this document, various

requirements from typical applications have been considered, necessary algorithmic elements have been

developed, and these have been integrated into a single syntax. Hence, this document will facilitate video

data interchange among different applications.

Considering the practicality of implementing the full syntax of this document, however, a limited number

of subsets of the syntax are also stipulated by means of "profiles", "tiers", and "levels". These and other

related terms are formally defined in Clause 3.
© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23008-2:2020(E)

A “profile” is a subset of the entire bitstream syntax that is specified in this document. Within the bounds

imposed by the syntax of a given profile it is still possible to require a very large variation in the

performance of encoders and decoders depending upon the values taken by syntax elements in the

bitstream such as the specified size of the decoded pictures. In many applications, it is currently neither

practical nor economical to implement a decoder capable of dealing with all hypothetical uses of the

syntax within a particular profile.

In order to deal with this problem, "tiers" and "levels" are specified within each profile. A level of a tier is

a specified set of constraints imposed on values of the syntax elements in the bitstream. These constraints

may be simple limits on values. Alternatively they may take the form of constraints on arithmetic

combinations of values (e.g. picture width multiplied by picture height multiplied by number of pictures

decoded per second). A level specified for a lower tier is more constrained than a level specified for a

higher tier.
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
DRAFT
STANDARD FDIS
23008-2
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29
Information technology — High
Secretariat: JISC
efficiency coding and media delivery
Voting begins on:
2020-05-21 in heterogeneous environments —
Voting terminates on:
Part 2:
2020-07-16
High efficiency video coding
Technologies de l'information — Codage à haute efficacité et livraison
des medias dans des environnements hétérogènes —
Partie 2: Codage vidéo à haute efficacité
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-2:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO/IEC 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-2:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-2:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ...................................................................................................................................................................... vii

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................. viii

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................................ 1

3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................21

5 Conventions.........................................................................................................................................................23

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................... 23

5.2 Arithmetic operators ................................................................................................................................................ 23

5.3 Logical operators ....................................................................................................................................................... 23

5.4 Relational operators ................................................................................................................................................. 24

5.5 Bit-wise operators ..................................................................................................................................................... 24

5.6 Assignment operators.............................................................................................................................................. 24

5.7 Range notation ............................................................................................................................................................ 25

5.8 Mathematical functions ........................................................................................................................................... 25

5.9 Order of operation precedence ............................................................................................................................ 26

5.10 Variables, syntax elements, and tables ............................................................................................................. 27

5.11 Text description of logical operations .............................................................................................................. 28

5.12 Processes ....................................................................................................................................................................... 29

6 Bitstream and picture formats, partitionings, scanning processes, and neighbouring

relationships .......................................................................................................................................................30

6.1 Bitstream formats...................................................................................................................................................... 30

6.2 Source, decoded, and output picture formats ................................................................................................ 30

6.3 Partitioning of pictures, slices, slice segments, tiles, CTUs, and CTBs ................................................. 33

6.3.1 Partitioning of pictures into slices, slice segments, and tiles ......................................................... 33

6.3.2 Block and quadtree structures .................................................................................................................... 34

6.3.3 Spatial or component-wise partitionings ............................................................................................... 35

6.4 Availability processes .............................................................................................................................................. 36

6.4.1 Derivation process for z-scan order block availability...................................................................... 36

6.4.2 Derivation process for prediction block availability .......................................................................... 37

6.5 Scanning processes ................................................................................................................................................... 38

6.5.1 CTB raster and tile scanning conversion process ................................................................................ 38

iii
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ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-2:2020(E)

6.5.2 Z-scan order array initialization process ................................................................................................ 39

6.5.3 Up-right diagonal scan order array initialization process ............................................................... 40

6.5.4 Horizontal scan order array initialization process ............................................................................. 40

6.5.5 Vertical scan order array initialization process ................................................................................... 41

6.5.6 Traverse scan order array initialization process ................................................................................. 41

7 Syntax and semantics ...................................................................................................................................... 41

7.1 Method of specifying syntax in tabular form ................................................................................................. 41

7.2 Specification of syntax functions and descriptors ....................................................................................... 43

7.3 Syntax in tabular form ............................................................................................................................................. 45

7.3.1 NAL unit syntax ................................................................................................................................................. 45

7.3.2 Raw byte sequence payloads, trailing bits, and byte alignment syntax ..................................... 45

7.3.3 Profile, tier and level syntax ......................................................................................................................... 54

7.3.4 Scaling list data syntax .................................................................................................................................... 57

7.3.5 Supplemental enhancement information message syntax .............................................................. 58

7.3.6 Slice segment header syntax ........................................................................................................................ 59

7.3.7 Short-term reference picture set syntax ................................................................................................. 63

7.3.8 Slice segment data syntax.............................................................................................................................. 64

7.4 Semantics ...................................................................................................................................................................... 80

7.4.1 General .................................................................................................................................................................. 80

7.4.2 NAL unit semantics .......................................................................................................................................... 80

7.4.3 Raw byte sequence payloads, trailing bits, and byte alignment semantics .............................. 90

7.4.4 Profile, tier, and level semantics ............................................................................................................... 113

7.4.5 Scaling list data semantics .......................................................................................................................... 117

7.4.6 Supplemental enhancement information message semantics ..................................................... 120

7.4.7 Slice segment header semantics ............................................................................................................... 121

7.4.8 Short-term reference picture set semantics ........................................................................................ 130

7.4.9 Slice segment data semantics .................................................................................................................... 133

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ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-2:2020(E)

8 Decoding process ........................................................................................................................................... 149

8.1 General decoding process .................................................................................................................................... 149

8.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 149

8.1.2 CVSG decoding process................................................................................................................................. 150

8.1.3 Decoding process for a coded picture with nuh_layer_id equal to 0 ......................................... 150

8.2 NAL unit decoding process .................................................................................................................................. 153

8.3 Slice decoding process ........................................................................................................................................... 153

8.3.1 Decoding process for picture order count ............................................................................................ 153

8.3.2 Decoding process for reference picture set ......................................................................................... 154

8.3.3 Decoding process for generating unavailable reference pictures .............................................. 159

8.3.4 Decoding process for reference picture lists construction ............................................................ 160

8.3.5 Decoding process for collocated picture and no backward prediction flag ........................... 161

8.4 Decoding process for coding units coded in intra prediction mode ................................................... 162

8.4.1 General decoding process for coding units coded in intra prediction mode ......................... 162

8.4.2 Derivation process for luma intra prediction mode ......................................................................... 166

8.4.3 Derivation process for chroma intra prediction mode ................................................................... 169

8.4.4 Decoding process for intra blocks ............................................................................................................ 170

8.5 Decoding process for coding units coded in inter prediction mode ................................................... 183

8.5.1 General decoding process for coding units coded in inter prediction mode ......................... 183

8.5.2 Inter prediction process ............................................................................................................................... 184

8.5.3 Decoding process for prediction units in inter prediction mode ................................................ 187

8.5.4 Decoding process for the residual signal of coding units coded in inter prediction mode220

8.6 Scaling, transformation and array construction process prior to deblocking filter process ... 224

8.6.1 Derivation process for quantization parameters .............................................................................. 224

8.6.2 Scaling and transformation process ........................................................................................................ 226

8.6.3 Scaling process for transform coefficients ........................................................................................... 228

8.6.4 Transformation process for scaled transform coefficients ........................................................... 229

8.6.5 Residual modification process for blocks using a transform bypass ........................................ 232

8.6.6 Residual modification process for transform blocks using cross-component prediction 233

8.6.7 Picture construction process prior to in-loop filter process ......................................................... 233

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ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-2:2020(E)

8.6.8 Residual modification process for blocks using adaptive colour transform .......................... 234

8.7 In-loop filter process .............................................................................................................................................. 236

8.7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 236

8.7.2 Deblocking filter process ............................................................................................................................. 237

8.7.3 Sample adaptive offset process ................................................................................................................. 255

9 Parsing process .............................................................................................................................................. 258

9.1 General ......................................................................................................................................................................... 258

9.2 Parsing process for 0-th order Exp-Golomb codes .................................................................................... 258

9.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 258

9.2.2 Mapping process for signed Exp-Golomb codes ................................................................................ 260

9.3 CABAC parsing process for slice segment data ........................................................................................... 260

9.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 260

9.3.2 Initialization process ..................................................................................................................................... 263

9.3.3 Binarization process ...................................................................................................................................... 277

9.3.4 Decoding process flow .................................................................................................................................. 287

9.3.5 Arithmetic encoding process ..................................................................................................................... 303

10 Sub-bitstream extraction process ........................................................................................................... 309

Annex A (normative) Profiles, tiers and levels .......................................................................................... 311

Annex B (normative) Byte stream format ................................................................................................... 339

Annex C (normative) Hypothetical reference decoder ........................................................................... 342

Annex D (normative) Supplemental enhancement information ........................................................ 363

Annex E (normative) Video usability information ................................................................................... 523

Annex F (normative) Common specifications for multi-layer extensions ....................................... 552

Annex G (normative) Multiview high efficiency video coding ............................................................. 708

Annex H (normative) Scalable high efficiency video coding ................................................................. 733

Annex I (normative) 3D high efficiency video coding ............................................................................. 763

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................................ 888

vi © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-2:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity.

ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the editorial

rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World

Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL:

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, Subcommittee SC 29, Coding of

audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information, in collaboration with ITU-T. The technically

identical text is published as Rec. ITU-T H.265.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO/IEC 23008-2:2017), which has been

technically revised. It also incorporates the amendments ISO/IEC 23008-2:2017/Amd 1:2018,

ISO/IEC 23008-2:2017/Amd 2:2018, and ISO/IEC 23008-2:2017/Amd 3:2018).
The main changes compared to the previous edition are:

 the specification of two additional profiles (the Monochrome 10 and Main 10 Still Picture profiles);

 the specification of additional supplemental enhancement information (SEI) messages and

additional colour-related video usability information codepoint identifiers;
 corrections to various minor defects.
A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 23008 series can be found on the ISO website.
vii
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ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-2:2020(E)
Introduction

As the costs for both processing power and memory have reduced, network support for coded video data

has diversified, and advances in video coding technology have progressed. The need has arisen for an

industry standard for compressed video representation with substantially increased coding efficiency

and enhanced robustness to network environments. Toward these ends, the ITU-T Video Coding Experts

Group (VCEG) and the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) formed a Joint Collaborative Team

on Video Coding (JCT-VC) in 2010 and a Joint Collaborative Team on 3D Video Coding Extension

Development (JCT-3V) in 2012 for development of a new Recommendation | International Standard. This

document was developed in the JCT-VC and the JCT-3V.
Purpose

This document was developed in response to the growing need for higher compression of moving

pictures for various applications such as videoconferencing, digital storage media, television

broadcasting, internet streaming, and communications. It is also designed to enable the use of the coded

video representation in a flexible manner for a wide variety of network environments as well as to enable

the use of multi-core parallel encoding and decoding devices. The use of this document allows motion

video to be manipulated as a form of computer data and to be stored on various storage media,

transmitted and received over existing and future networks and distributed on existing and future

broadcasting channels. Supports for higher bit depths and enhanced chroma formats, including the use

of full-resolution chroma are provided. Support for scalability enables video transmission on networks

with varying transmission conditions and other scenarios involving multiple bit rate services. Support

for multiview enables representation of video content with multiple camera views and optional auxiliary

information. Support for 3D enables joint representation of video content and depth information with

multiple camera views.
Applications

This document is designed to cover a broad range of applications for video content including but not

limited to the following:

— broadcast (cable TV on optical networks / copper, satellite, terrestrial, etc.);

— camcorders;
— content production and distribution;
— digital cinema;
— home cinema;
— internet streaming, download and play;
— medical imaging;
— mobile streaming, broadcast and communications;

— real-time conversational services (videoconferencing, videophone, telepresence, etc.);

— remote video surveillance;
— storage media (optical disks, digital video tape recorder, etc.);
— wireless display.
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ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-2:2020(E)
Publication and versions of this document

This document has been jointly developed by ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) and the ISO/IEC

Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). It is published as technically-aligned twin text in both ITU-T and

ISO/IEC. As the basis text has been drafted to become both an ITU-T Recommendation and an ISO/IEC

International Standard, the term "Specification" (with capitalization to indicate that it refers to the whole

of the text) is used herein when the text refers to itself.

This is the fifth version of this document and the fourth edition published by ISO/IEC.

Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 version 1 refers to the first approved version of this document. The

first edition published by ISO/IEC as ISO/IEC 23008-2:2013 corresponded to the first version.

Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 version 2 refers to the integrated text additionally containing format

range extensions, scalability extensions, multiview extensions, additional supplement enhancement

information, and corrections to various minor defects in the prior content of the specification. The second

edition published by ISO/IEC as ISO/IEC 23008-2:2015 corresponded to the second version.

Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 version 3 refers to the integrated text additionally containing 3D

extensions, additional supplement enhancement information, and corrections to various minor defects

in the prior content of the specification.

Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 version 4 refers to the integrated text additionally containing screen

content coding extensions profiles, scalable range extensions profiles, additional high throughput

profiles, additional supplement enhancement information, additional colour representation identifiers,

and corrections to various minor defects in the prior content of the specification. The third edition

published by ISO/IEC as ISO/IEC 23008-2:2017 corresponded to the fourth version.

Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 version 5 refers to the integrated text additionally containing

additional SEI messages that include omnidirectional video specific SEI messages, a Monochrome 10

profile, a Main 10 Still Picture profile, and corrections to various minor defects in the prior content of the

specification.

Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 version 6 refers to the integrated text additionally containing

additional SEI messages for SEI manifest and SEI prefix, and corrections to various minor defects in the

prior content of the specification.

Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 version 7 (the current version) refers to the integrated text

additionally containing the fisheye video information SEI message and the annotated regions SEI

message, and corrections to various minor defects in the prior content of the specification. The fourth

edition published by ISO/IEC as ISO/IEC 23008-2:2020 corresponds to the fifth version.

Profiles, tiers, and levels

This document is designed to be generic in the sense that it serves a wide range of applications, bit rates,

resolutions, qualities, and services. Applications should cover, among other things, digital storage media,

television broadcasting, and real-time communications. In the course of creating this document, various

requirements from typical applications have been considered, necessary algorithmic elements have been

developed, and these have been integrated into a single syntax. Hence, this document will facilitate video

data interchange among different applications.

Considering the practicality of implementing the full syntax of this document, however, a limited number

of subsets of the syntax are also stipulated by means of "profiles", "tiers", and "levels". These and other

related terms are formally defined in Clause 3.
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ISO/IEC FDIS 23008-2:2020(E)

A “profile” is a subset of the entire bitstream syntax that is specified in this document. Within the bounds

imposed by the syntax of a given profile it is still possible to require a very large variation in the

performance of encoders and decoders depending upon the values taken by syntax elements in the

bitstream such as the specified size of the decoded pictures. In many applications, it is currently neither

practical nor economical to implement a
...

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