Information technology — Reference Architecture for Service Oriented Architecture (SOA RA) — Part 1: Terminology and concepts for SOA

ISO/IEC 18384-1:2016 establishes vocabulary, guidelines, and general technical principles underlying service oriented architecture (SOA), including principles relating to functional design, performance, development, deployment, and management.

Technologie de l'information — Architecture de référence pour l'architecture orientée service (SOA RA) — Partie 1: Terminologie et concepts pour SOA

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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 18384-1
First edition
2016-06-01
Information technology — Reference
Architecture for Service Oriented
Architecture (SOA RA) —
Part 1:
Terminology and concepts for SOA
Technologie de l’information — Architecture de référence pour
l’architecture orientée service (SOA RA) —
Partie 1: Terminologie et concepts pour SOA
Reference number
ISO/IEC 18384-1:2016(E)
ISO/IEC 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18384-1:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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ii © ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18384-1:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

4 Notations....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.2 UML ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.3 Entity Relationship .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.4 Cycles ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.5 Flows ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5 Conventions ............................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6 Conformance ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7 SOA Concepts .........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.1 Introduction to SOA .........................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2 Concepts ....................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2.1 Roles ........................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2.2 Services .................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.2.3 Semantics ............................................................................................................................................................................15

7.2.4 Tasks and Activities ....................................................................................................................................................15

7.2.5 Compositions and Processes ..............................................................................................................................15

7.2.6 Service Registration and Discovery ..............................................................................................................18

7.2.7 Service Description, Interfaces, Policies and Contracts ..............................................................19

7.2.8 Service and SOA solution lifecycle .................................................................................................................23

7.2.9 Loosely coupled .............................................................................................................................................................27

7.3 Cross Cutting Concerns .................................................................................................................................................................27

7.3.1 Defining Cross Cutting .............................................................................................................................................27

7.3.2 Integration ..........................................................................................................................................................................27

7.3.3 Cross Domain interaction ......................................................................................................................................27

7.3.4 Service Integration ......................................................................................................................................................28

7.3.5 Management and Security ....................................................................................................................................29

7.3.6 SOA Solution Governance ......................................................................................................................................32

8 SOA Architectural Principles .................................................................................................................................................................33

8.1 Architectural Principles defined ...........................................................................................................................................33

8.2 Interoperable — Syntactic, semantic ................................................................................................................................33

8.3 Described ..................................................................................................................................................................................................34

8.4 Reusable .....................................................................................................................................................................................................35

8.5 Discoverable ...........................................................................................................................................................................................36

8.6 Late Bind-able .......................................................................................................................................................................................37

8.7 Composable ............................................................................................................................................................................................37

8.8 Self-Contained ......................................................................................................................................................................................38

8.9 Loosely coupled ...................................................................................................................................................................................38

8.10 Manageable .............................................................................................................................................................................................39

Annex A (informative) SOA Governance Framework ........................................................................................................................40

Annex B (informative) Management and Security Concerns ....................................................................................................44

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................50

© ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 18384-1:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, Subcommittee

SC 38, Cloud Computing and Distributed Platforms.

ISO/IEC 18384 consists of the following parts, under the general title Reference Architecture for Service

Oriented Architecture (SOA RA):
— Part 1: Terminology and Concepts for SOA
— Part 2: Reference Architecture for SOA Solutions
— Part 3: Service Oriented Architecture Ontology
iv © ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18384-1:2016(E)
Introduction

Service oriented architecture (SOA) is an architectural style in which business and IT systems are

designed in terms of services available at an interface and the outcomes of these services. A service is a

logical representation of a set of activities that has specified outcomes, is self-contained, and it may be

composed of other services but consumers of the service need not be aware of any internal structure.

SOA takes “service” as its basic element to constitute and integrate information systems so that they are

suitable for a variety of solution requirements. SOA enables interactions between businesses without

needing to specify aspects of any particular business domain. Using the SOA architectural style can

improve the efficiency of developing information systems, and integrating and reusing IT resources.

In addition, using the SOA architectural style can help realize agile and rapid response of information

systems to ever-changing business needs.

This International Standard describes a single set of SOA technical principles, specific norms,

and standards for the world-wide market to help remove confusion about SOA and improve the

standardization and quality of solutions.

This International Standard defines the terminology, technical principles, reference architecture, and

the ontology for SOA. The targeted audience of this International Standard includes, but is not limited

to, standards organizations, architects, architecture methodologists, system and software designers,

business people, SOA service providers, SOA solution and service developers, and SOA service

consumers who are interested in adopting and developing SOA. For example, this part of ISO/IEC 18384

can be used to introduce SOA concepts and to guide to the developing and managing SOA solutions.

This International Standard contains three parts:

a) ISO/IEC 18384-1 which defines the terminology, basic technical principles and concepts for SOA;

b) ISO/IEC 18384-2 which defines the detailed SOA reference architecture layers, including a

metamodel, capabilities, architectural building blocks, as well as types of services in SOA solutions;

c) ISO/IEC 18384-3 which defines the core concepts of SOA and their relationships in the Ontology.

Users of this part of ISO/IEC 18384 will find it useful to read this part of ISO/IEC 18384 for an

understanding of SOA basics. This part of ISO/IEC 18384 should be read before reading or applying

ISO/IEC 18384-2. For those new to SOA, ISO/IEC 18384-2:2016, Clause 4 provides a high level

understanding of the reference architecture for SOA solutions. The remaining clauses provide

comprehensive details of the architectural building blocks and trade-offs needed for a SOA solution.

ISO/IEC 18384-3 contains the SOA Ontology, which is a formalism of the core concepts and terminology

of SOA, with mappings to both UML and OWL. The SOA Ontology can be used independent of or in

conjunction with ISO/IEC 18384-1 and ISO/IEC 18384-2.

This part of ISO/IEC 18384 presents and explains basic SOA concepts. It gives definitions for terms

that are used in ISO/IEC 18384 with specific meanings that may differ or be more precise than the

definitions of those terms found in major English language dictionaries. The terms defined here are

used in a unique fashion for SOA. Terms used in their normal English sense are not redefined.

© ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 18384-1:2016(E)
Information technology — Reference Architecture for
Service Oriented Architecture (SOA RA) —
Part 1:
Terminology and concepts for SOA
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 18384 establishes vocabulary, guidelines, and general technical principles

underlying service oriented architecture (SOA), including principles relating to functional design,

performance, development, deployment, and management.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
actor

person or system component that interacts with the system as a whole and that provides stimulus

which invokes actions
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 16500-8:1999, 3.1]
2.2
architecture

fundamental concepts or properties of a system in its environment embodied in its elements,

relationships, and in the principles of its design and evolution
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010:2011, 3.2]
2.3
choreography

type of composition (2.5) whose elements (2.8) interact in a non-directed fashion with each autonomous

part knowing and following an observable predefined pattern of behaviour for the entire (global)

composition

Note 1 to entry: Choreography does not require complete or perfect knowledge of the pattern of behaviour.

Note 2 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, 8.3.
2.4
collaboration

type of composition (2.5) whose elements (2.8) interact in a non-directed fashion, each according to

their own plans and purposes without a predefined pattern of behaviour
Note 1 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, 8.3.
2.5
composition
result of assembling a collection of elements (2.8) for a particular purpose
Note 1 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, 8.2.
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ISO/IEC 18384-1:2016(E)
2.6
endpoint
location at which information is received to invoke and configure interaction
2.7
effect
outcome of an interaction with a service (2.20)

Note 1 to entry: The effect is how a service delivers results to its consumer, through the element (2.8) that

performs it.
Note 2 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, 7.10.
2.8
element
unit at a given level of abstraction and with a clearly defined boundary
Note 1 to entry: An element can be any type of entity (2.9).
Note 2 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, 5.1.
2.9
entity

individual element (2.8) in a system with an identity which can act as a service provider (2.50) or service

consumer (2.29)

Note 1 to entry: Examples of entities are organizations, enterprises and individuals, software, and hardware.

2.10
event
something that occurs to which an element (2.8) may choose to respond
Note 1 to entry: Any element can generate (emit) or respond to an event.
Note 2 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, Clause 10.
2.11
execution context

set of technical and business elements (2.8) needed by those with needs and capabilities to permit

service providers (2.50) and service consumers (2.29) instantiation and communication

Note 1 to entry: The execution context of a service interaction (2.37) is the set of infrastructure elements, process

entities, policy assertions, and agreements that are identified as part of an instantiated service interaction, and

thus forms a path between those with needs and those with capabilities.
Note 2 to entry: See Reference [8].
2.12
human actor
actor (2.1) restricted to a person or an organizational entity (2.9)
Note 1 to entry: This classification is not exhaustive.
Note 2 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, 6.2.
2.13
human task
task (2.60) which is done by a human actor (2.12)
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ISO/IEC 18384-1:2016(E)
2.14
interface

shared boundary between two functional units, defined by various characteristics pertaining to the

functions, physical interconnections, signal exchanges, and other characteristics, as appropriate

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382:2015, 2121308]
2.15
loose coupling

principle where dependencies between elements (2.8) of a SOA solution (2.56) are intentionally reduced

2.16
orchestration

type of composition (2.5) where one particular element (2.8) is used by the composition to oversee and

direct the other elements

Note 1 to entry: The element that directs an orchestration is not part of the orchestration (Composition

instance) itself.
Note 2 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, 8.3.
2.17
policy

statement that an entity (2.9) intends to follow or intends that another entity should follow

Note 1 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, Clause 9).
2.18
process

type of composition (2.5) whose elements (2.8) are composed into a sequence or flow of activities and

interactions with the objective of carrying out certain work

Note 1 to entry: A process may also be a collaboration (2.4), choreography (2.3), or orchestration (2.16).

Note 2 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, 8.6.
2.19
real-world effect
change relevant to and experienced by specific stakeholders
Note 1 to entry: See Reference [8].
2.20
service

logical representation of a set of activities that has specified outcomes, is self-contained, may be

composed of other services, and is a “black box” to consumers of the service

Note 1 to entry: The word “activity” in the “service” definition is used in the general English language sense of

the word, not in the process-specific sense of that same word [i.e. activities are not necessarily process (2.18)

activities].
Note 2 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, 7.2.
2.21
service broker

element (2.8) that enables the communication with services (2.20), either at a business level or at the

implementation level, i.e. with intermediaries

Note 1 to entry: The intermediaries provide any number of functions, such as unified service registration (2.51)

and publishing, service discovery (2.34), routing, location-transparent service access, for service providers (2.50)

and service consumers (2.29).
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ISO/IEC 18384-1:2016(E)
2.22
service bus

design and runtime pattern for enabling service (2.20) interactions, such as communication, access,

consumption, transformation, intermediaries, and message routing

Note 1 to entry: A service bus can range from a logical collection of such functions to the functions collected into

a single commercial product. Service bus is widely used in an organizational context and often equates to the

enterprise service bus (ESB).
2.23
service candidate

service (2.20) identified during the SOA lifecycle (2.58) that meets broad service requirements, and from

which one or more are selected for further development as part of an overall SOA solution (2.56)

2.24
service catalogue
service registry/repository (reg/rep)

logical collection of service descriptions (2.31) and related artefacts that supports publication,

registration, search, management, and retrieval of those artefacts
2.25
service choreography
choreography (2.3) whose elements (2.8) are services (2.20)
Note 1 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, Clause 8.
2.26
service collaboration
collaboration (2.4) whose elements (2.8) are services (2.20)
Note 1 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, Clause 8.
2.27
service component
element (2.8) that implements services (2.20)
2.28
service composition
service assembly

composition (2.5) that provides (in the operational sense) higher level services (2.20) that are only an

assembly of other services (2.20)

Note 1 to entry: A composition can support different composition patterns, such as collaboration (2.4),

choreography (2.3), orchestration (2.16).
Note 2 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, Clause 8).
2.29
service consumer
entity (2.9) that uses services (2.20)

Note 1 to entry: Consumers may interact with services operationally or contractually (legal responsibility).

Note 2 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, 7.4.
2.30
service contract

terms, conditions, and interaction rules that interacting service consumers (2.29) and service providers

(2.50) agree to (directly or indirectly)

Note 1 to entry: A service contract is binding on all participants in the interaction, including the service (2.20)

itself and the element (2.8) that provides it for the particular interaction in question.

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ISO/IEC 18384-1:2016(E)
Note 2 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, 7.6.
2.31
service description
information needed in order to use, or consider using, a service (2.20)

Note 1 to entry: The service description usually includes the service interfaces (2.38), contracts, and policies.

Note 2 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, Clause 7.
2.32
service deployment

activities by which implementations of services (2.20) are made able to run in a specific hardware and

software environment and usable by service consumers (2.29)
2.33
service development

activities by which needs and constraints are identified and services (2.20) are designed as part of a

SOA solution (2.56) in order to address those needs within the constraints
2.34
service discovery

activities by which a service consumer (2.29) can find services (2.20) which meet their specific functional

and/or non-functional requirements
2.35
service governance

strategy and control mechanism that applies across the service lifecycle (2.41) and service portfolio, which

includes the establishment of chains of responsibility, driving monitoring of compliance with policies by

providing appropriate processes (2.18) and measurements as part of SOA solution governance (2.57)

Note 1 to entry: Aspects of the service lifecycle that need to be governed include: addressing service modifications,

version updates, notice of termination, decomposition subdivision, agency capacity, decomposition capacity, and

ability to meet individual demands.
2.36
service implementation

activities performing technical development and the physical implementation of the service (2.20) that

is part of a service lifecycle (2.41), and results in the creation of a service component (2.27)

2.37
service interaction

activity involved in making use of a capability offered, usually across an ownership boundary, in order

to achieve a particular desired real-world effect (2.19)
Note 1 to entry: See Reference [8].
2.38
service interface

interface (2.14) by which other elements (2.8) can interact and exchange information with the service

where the form of the request and the outcome of the request is in the service description (2.31)

Note 1 to entry: See ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016, 7.13.
2.39
service interoperability

ability of service providers (2.50) and service consumers (2.29) to communicate, invoke services (2.20)

and exchange information at both the syntactic and semantic level leading to effects as defined by the

service description (2.31)
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ISO/IEC 18384-1:2016(E)
2.40
service level agreement
SLA

type of service contract (2.30) that defines measureable conditions of interactions between a service

provider (2.50) and a service consumer (2.29)

Note 1 to entry: A service level agreement may specify: the set of services (2.20) the service provider will deliver,

a sufficient, specific definition of each service, the responsibilities of the service provider and the service

consumer, the set of metrics to determine whether the service provider is delivering the service as promised, an

auditing mechanism to monitor the service, the remedies available to the service consumer and service provider

if the terms of the SLA are not met, and how the SLA will change over time.
2.41
service lifecycle

set of phases for realizing a service (2.20) that can go through from conception and identification to

instantiation and retirement
2.42
service management
monitoring, controlling, maintaining, optimizing, and operating services (2.20)
2.43
service modeling

set of activities to develop a series of service candidates (2.23) for functions or actions on a SOA solution

(2.56) using service oriented analysis (2.47) processes
2.44
service monitoring

tracking state and operational conditions related to the execution, performance, and real-world effects

(2.19) of services (2.20)
2.45
service orchestration
orchestration (2.16) where the orchestrated elements (2.8) are services (2.20)
2.46
service orientation

approach to designing systems in terms of services (2.20) and service-based development

2.47
service oriented analysis

preparatory information gathering steps that are completed in support of a service modeling (2.43) sub-

process that results in the creation of a set of services (2.20)

Note 1 to entry: It provides guidance to the subsequent phases of the SOA lifecycle and might be carried out just

once for each business process (2.18) or iteratively.
2.48
service oriented architecture
SOA

architectural style that supports service orientation (2.46) and is a paradigm for building business

solutions

Note 1 to entry: Services (2.20) realized in this style utilize activities that comprise business processes (2.18), have

descriptions to provide context, may be implemented via service composition (2.28), have environment-specific

implementations which are described in the context that constrains or enables them, require governance, and

place requirements on the infrastructure to achieve interoperability and location transparency using standards

to the greatest extent possible.
Note 2 to entry: Se
...

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