Security and resilience -- Protective security -- Guidelines for crime prevention through environmental design

This document provides guidelines to organizations for establishing the basic elements, strategies and processes for preventing and reducing crime and the fear of crime at a new or existing built environment. It recommends the establishment of countermeasures and actions to treat crime and security risks in an effective and efficient manner by leveraging environmental design. Within this document, the term "security" is used in a broad manner to include all crime, safety and security-specific applications, so it is applicable to public and private organizations, regardless of type, size or nature. While this document provides general examples of implementation strategies and best practices, it is not intended to provide an exhaustive listing of detailed design, architectural or physical security crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) implementation strategies or restrict the potential applications to only those examples provided in this document.

Sécurité et résilience -- Sécurité préventive -- Lignes directrices pour la prévention de la criminalité par la conception environnementale

Le présent document fournit aux organismes des lignes directrices pour établir les éléments, stratégies et processus de base permettant de prévenir et de réduire le crime et la peur du crime dans un environnement bâti nouveau ou existant. Il recommande la mise en place de contre-mesures et d'actions pour traiter les risques associés au crime et ŕ la sécurité de maničre efficace et efficiente, en tirant parti de la conception environnementale. Dans le présent document, le terme «sécurité» est utilisé au sens large pour englober toutes les applications spécifiques au crime, ŕ la sűreté et ŕ la sécurité. Il s'applique donc aux organismes publics et privés, de quelque type, taille ou nature que ce soit. Bien que le présent document présente des exemples généraux de stratégies de mise en œuvre et de bonnes pratiques, il n'a pas pour vocation de fournir une liste exhaustive des stratégies de conception et de mise en œuvre de la prévention de la criminalité par la conception environnementale (CPTED) ŕ des fins de sécurité architecturale ou physique, ni de limiter les applications potentielles aux seuls exemples fournis dans le présent document.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Jan-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
07-Dec-2020
Completion Date
07-Jan-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22341
First edition
2021-01
Security and resilience — Protective
security — Guidelines for crime
prevention through environmental
design
Sécurité et résilience — Sécurité préventive — Lignes directrices pour
la prévention de la criminalité par la conception environnementale
Reference number
ISO 22341:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22341:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 22341:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Understanding environmental context of crime and security risk ..................................................................2

5 Basics of CPTED ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Key considerations of CPTED ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 CPTED strategies ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.2 CPTED strategies for planning stage .............................................................................................................. 5

5.2.3 CPTED strategies for design stage .................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.4 CPTED strategies for site and social management stage............................................................... 6

6 Process of CPTED implementation .................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Oversight body, performance target statement and project team .............................................................. 8

6.3 CPTED process .....................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.1 Step 1 — Communication and consultation ..........................................................................................10

6.3.2 Step 2 — Scope, context and criteria ...........................................................................................................10

6.3.3 Step 3 — Risk assessment ....................................................................................................................................11

6.3.4 Step 4 — Risk treatment ........................................................................................................................................12

6.3.5 Step 5 — Monitoring, review, recording and reporting ..............................................................13

6.4 General principles for CPTED process .............................................................................................................................14

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.2 Balanced CPTED concept approach .............................................................................................................14

6.4.3 Cost-effectiveness ........................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.4 Sustainability and resilience ...............................................................................................................................15

6.4.5 Green environment (ecological) approach.............................................................................................15

6.4.6 Adaptive application ..................................................................................................................................................15

6.4.7 Evidence-based approach .....................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (informative) Key considerations of CPTED .......................................................................................................................17

Annex B (informative) Fundamental CPTED concepts ....................................................................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 22341:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 292, Security and resilience.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22341:2021(E)
Introduction

This document is intended to promote a common understanding of crime prevention through

environmental design (CPTED) in the field of security, law enforcement and related risks, and their

preventive measures, through environmental design and management.

CPTED concepts have been used since the 1970s and CPTED-style security measures can be traced

to early human settlements. The term CPTED was first introduced in 1971 by C. Ray Jeffery, see

Reference [5]. CPTED concepts originated from criminology and crime opportunity theories and

studies. Since then, it has been included as part of many other crime prevention strategies that are

utilized today. These include, but are not limited to, defensible space, broken windows theory, routine

activity theory, rational choice, situational crime prevention and crime free housing.

CPTED has an increasingly sound theoretical foundation based on firm evidence of significant crime

and fear reduction gained from a series of formal and rigorous evaluations in the field of environmental

psychology, criminology and crime science. When well-planned and wisely implemented, CPTED

improves community safety and industrial security in a cost-effective manner.
Figure 1 illustrates the framework of CPTED for crime prevention and security.
Figure 1 — Framework of CPTED for crime prevention and security

This document starts with understanding the environmental context of crime and security risk factors,

causes of vulnerabilities and risk levels. This is followed by the basics of CPTED through its historical

background, four key considerations of CPTED (places generating crime, types and causes of the risk,

CPTED interested parties and countermeasures) and CPTED strategies. Better understanding of the

risk and CPTED considerations leads to a better selection of tailored countermeasures. The process of

CPTED begins with the establishment of an oversight body, performance target settings and organizing

a project team, risk assessment and risk treatment, evaluation of treatment, corrective actions and

feedback to the initial stage of CPTED for continual improvement. It is followed by the fundamental

principles for CPTED process, such as balanced conceptual approach, cost-effectiveness, sustainability

and resilience, green environment (ecological) approach, adaptive application and an evidence-based

approach.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 22341:2021(E)

The use of CPTED should be applied universally in an equal manner and should not be applied with any

prejudice (whether cultural, racial, religious or any other bias).
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22341:2021(E)
Security and resilience — Protective security — Guidelines
for crime prevention through environmental design
1 Scope

This document provides guidelines to organizations for establishing the basic elements, strategies

and processes for preventing and reducing crime and the fear of crime at a new or existing built

environment. It recommends the establishment of countermeasures and actions to treat crime and

security risks in an effective and efficient manner by leveraging environmental design.

Within this document, the term “security” is used in a broad manner to include all crime, safety and

security-specific applications, so it is applicable to public and private organizations, regardless of type,

size or nature.

While this document provides general examples of implementation strategies and best practices, it is

not intended to provide an exhaustive listing of detailed design, architectural or physical security crime

prevention through environmental design (CPTED) implementation strategies or restrict the potential

applications to only those examples provided in this document.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 22300, Security and resilience — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 22300 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
crime prevention through environmental design
CPTED

process for analysing and assessing crime and security risks to guide development, urban design, site

management and the use of the built environment in order to prevent and reduce crime and the fear of

crime, and to promote and improve public health, quality of life and sustainability

Note 1 to entry: Environmental design refers to the applied arts and sciences dealing with creating the human-

designed environment.
3.2
capable guardianship

willingness to supervise, detect and take action to prevent or discourage the occurrence of crime

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 22341:2021(E)
4 Understanding environmental context of crime and security risk
There are numerous ways of defining the elements of risk.
NOTE ISO 31000 defines risk as the effect of uncertainty on objectives.

In a security context and in this document, risk is composed of three elements: assets, threats and

vulnerabilities. Crime and security risks are based upon the value of the asset in relation to the threats

and vulnerabilities associated with it. This approach can be viewed as an operational implementation

of ISO 31000 with a specific focus on crime and security risks. Threats and vulnerabilities influence the

likelihood dimension, and assets influence the consequences of a risk.

Assets can be the current state of the physical built environment and items of financial value. Assets

can also be intangible with soft values.

Threats are the potential offenders or hazards and should be addressed by identifying the nature of the

threat. This can be done by:
— focusing on the most likely scenarios addressed as a narrative;
— describing the subject of the scenario;

— describing the who (the offenders), where (the place of the offence) and how (what means used).

Vulnerabilities are the opportunities for negative effects and the lack of maturity related to the

effectiveness of the associated countermeasures.

The crime and security risks are greater when a motivated offender and suitable target come together

in time and place, without appropriate countermeasures present.

To mitigate the opportunity for a crime to occur, the conventional approach is to remove one or more

of the factors expressed in the crime and security risk triangle in Figure 2. Crime events require these

three factors (at a minimum) to all be present at the same time.

Figure 2 — Crime and security risk triangle for crime opportunities in the built environment

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22341:2021(E)
5 Basics of CPTED
5.1 Key considerations of CPTED
The organization should:

— base its crime prevention and security strategies on understanding crime opportunities;

— identify the following four considerations at the beginning stage of a project:

— where: the exact location and the type of area;
— what: the crime problems occurring in the area now or in the future;
— who: the interested parties involved in the area;

— how: the treatment of crime and security risks (e.g. countermeasures) in an effective and

efficient manner.
NOTE Annex A provides additional information on the key considerations of CPTED.
5.2 CPTED strategies
5.2.1 General
The organization should:
— understand that there are two different CPTED concepts:
— physical CPTED (or first generation CPTED) concept;
— social CPTED (or second generation CPTED) concept;
— consider physical CPTED strategies as well as social CPTED strategies.
The organization should consider the six strategies for physical CPTED:
— natural surveillance;
— natural access control;
— territorial reinforcement;
— image and management/maintenance;
— activity support;
— site hardening/target hardening.
The organization should consider the four strategies for social CPTED:
— social cohesion;
— social connectivity;
— community culture;
— threshold capacity.

NOTE Annex B provides additional information about physical and social CPTED concepts and strategies.

The organization should consider three stages in order to use the physical and social CPTED strategies:

planning (see 5.2.2), design (see 5.2.3), and site and social management (see 5.2.4).

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 22341:2021(E)

Environmental planning and design stages are most relevant for proposed new areas and

neighbourhoods. Management stages are more relevant in existing areas. Planning and design

adaptations are relevant in existing areas to a certain degree, but the feasible adaptations are modest

and small in existing areas compared to the designs for new areas.
The organization should:

— implement the CPTED strategies in order to coordinate its actions and measures;

— consider local context, cultural tradition and past experience for the actions and measures;

— select the measures in anticipation of their expected effectiveness in certain types of environments

and against the prevailing types of crime.

Table 1 provides detailed information with examples on the CPTED strategies by stage.

Table 1 — CPTED strategies and examples by stage
Stage Strategies Examples
Avoiding Minimizing isolated areas; avoiding blind spots of buildings and
blind/entrapment spots planted areas
Socio-demographic
Considering social structure of areas
character

Vitality of public spaces Adequate density and activity; proper land use; human scale

Well-connected/
Connected streets; proper mixed uses; good street pattern
integrated plan
Green spaces
Planning
Controlled green spaces and parks
(urban greenery)
Proper placement
of lighting and security Good placement of street lighting and security cameras
cameras
Anti-terrorism planning for target: a temporary or permanent
site or building that is sensitive to terrorism (e.g. fan zone,
Anti-terrorist planning
multi-activity hall type arena, courthouse, government
building, headquarters of an iconic company)
Landscape; planting; lighting illumination/colour rendering/
Visibility
uniformity; large glass windows
Entry barriers, walls and fences, gates certified by relevant
Access control
performance standards
Soft target building/street hardening through security
equipment (e.g. vehicle security barriers, windows and
Site/target hardening
doors, locks, mesh and grilles) certified by relevant security
Design
performance standards
Clear demarcation of space; sense of ownership/responsibility;
Territoriality
buffer zone
Attractive design Positive area image; attractive lighting and public art
Vandal-resistant street furniture; convenient maintenance;
Robust materials integrity of devices used for networks (e.g. data, sensors,
energy, water, gas, high pressure steam, air intakes)
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22341:2021(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Stage Strategies Examples
Clean streets and alleys; emptied garbage bins; greenery and
Maintenance
vegetation on public land
Security cameras for vulnerable spots; police/security guards
Surveillance
targeted patrols
Public rules enforcement No drinking zone signs; substantial enforcement
Site and social
management
Swift repairs One day fixing policy

Treating vulnerable Providing shelters for homeless people, alcohol/drug addicts,

groups youths
Active communications with the public; preventive messages
Publicity activities
and rules of conduct for the public
5.2.2 CPTED strategies for planning stage
The organization should:

— choose the scale, function and blending of functions to provide an incentive for liveability, social

control, involvement and sense of ownership for CPTED strategies in the planning stage;

— implement planning stage strategies to prevent the existing urban environment from being harmed

and, in the case of an emerging threat such as a vehicle bomb threat flexibly adopt this strategy;

— create strategies for the conditions for the formation of social networks and making a new

development part of the existing surrounding urban environment as much as possible;

— minimize isolated places and avoid blind/entrapment spots of buildings and planted areas that have

low visibility from nearby.
The organization should:

— consider the social structure, such as socio-economic and demographic characters of a site in order

to reflect its specific context;

— enhance the vitality of public space for the site by considering active land use, density and

(human) scale;

— consider properly connected street segments and integrated land uses (rather than disconnected

and segregated patterns);
— consider cautious ecological placement of green spaces and parks for an area;

— consider cautious placement of lighting and, if necessary, security cameras for an area;

— consider anti-terrorism building and landscape planning for particular target sites;

— consider the security and crime prevention of the construction site against attacks (e.g. the misuse

of land and building for grouping of offenders, drug trafficking or stolen goods, prostitution, theft

of tools, material and building machines, trucks.) during the CPTED planning stage as construction

development often lasts for a few years until building completion.

NOTE Table 1 provides additional and detailed information with examples on CPTED strategies for the

planning stage.
5.2.3 CPTED strategies for design stage
The organization should:
— evaluate the external and internal situational context of CPTED-related risks;
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 22341:2021(E)

— understand what factors significantly influence the risk and the effectiveness of countermeasures.

Evaluating the external situational context of the risk includes:

— the social and cultural, political, legal, regulatory, financial, technological, economic, natural and

competitive environment, whether international, national, regional or local;
— key drivers and trends having an impact on the objectives of the organization;

— relationships with, and the perceptions and values of, external interested parties.

Evaluating the internal situational context of the risk includes:

— governance, organizational structure, roles, responsibilities and accountabilities;

— policies and objectives, and the strategies in place to achieve them;

— capabilities, understood in terms of resources and knowledge (e.g. capital, time, people, processes,

systems, technologies);

— relationships with, and the perceptions and values of, internal interested parties;

— the organization’s culture;
— standards, guidelines and models adopted by the internal interested parties.

The organization should aim at creating the conditions for social control, natural surveillance, a sense

of ownership and pride in an area for the design stage CPTED strategies.

The organization should integrate the CPTED design strategies as part of the planning and design phase.

The organization should:

— enhance the visibility of streets and buildings by proper building, landscaping and lighting design;

— enhance the access control of a site through gates, fences and walls, or entry/exit barriers tested

and certified by relevant security performance standards;

— harden soft target sites/buildings (in addition to traditionally hardened sites) through security

equipment certified by relevant security performance standards;

— consider the territoriality of a site by clear demarcation between public space, semi-public space,

semi-private space and private space to create buffer zones and to enhance sense of ownership;

— consider the attractiveness/aesthetics of a site in order to create positive area image and active land

use by attractive public art and lighting;
— consider clear signage with a proper colour scheme and legibility;

— consider the robustness of street furniture in order to resist vandalism attacks and to facilitate

maintenance.

NOTE Table 1 provides additional and detailed information with examples on CPTED strategies for the

design stage.
5.2.4 CPTED strategies for site and social management stage
The organization should:
— manage target areas by professional surveillance and maintenance;

— implement the management strategies and support, encourage the natural surveillance and sense of

ownership by residents and visitors, and not discourage residents from performing this task;

6 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22341:2021(E)

— assume a certain level of self-regulation, which can be elevated to a higher level with professional

support for the management strategy;
— create a complete and effective set of measures for the management strategies.
The organization should:

— keep proper maintenance of a site in order to have a positive image by street cleaning or emptying

garbage bins;

— consider enhancing surveillance by placing security cameras or security patrols for a site when

necessary;
— consider setting and enforcing rules for vulnerable areas and places;

— repair broken street furniture or lighting in a speedy manner to eliminate the signs of neglect (as

per the broken window theory);
— carefully treat vulnerable groups (e.g. homeless people);

— consider launching a publicity campaign and activities with preventive messages and rules of

conduct for active risk communication.

NOTE Table 1 provides additional and detailed information with examples on CPTED strategies for the site

and social management stage.
6 Process of CPTED implementation
6.1 General

The organization should mandate CPTED as a design standard as part of a continual improvement

process for community/site/building security, safety and quality of life, and not just for the installation

of security cameras and murals. The organization should implement a step-by-step process involving

all relevant interested parties.
The organization should:

— follow the risk management framework given in ISO 31000 to integrate risk management into

CPTED activities and programmes;

— develop the framework following clear decision steps to set a strategy, taking into account the

responsibilities of all interested parties involved;

— ensure that CPTED strategies are addressed by the multiple interested parties to adequately manage

risk through developing partnering arrangements.

NOTE 1 There are many different roles and responsibilities within and between public, private and not-for-

profit organizations.

NOTE 2 ISO 22397 provides principles and a process to develop the relationship among organizations in a

partnering arrangement.
The process of CPTED is given in Figure 3.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 22341:2021(E)
Figure 3 — Process of CPTED

NOTE 3 Depending on practice and theory, there are several other CPTED-related process models, such as the

SARA (scanning, analysis, response, assessment) model, which is a commonly used problem-solving method.

The organization should:

— ensure that framework development encompasses integrating, designing, implementing, evaluating

and improving risk management across the organization for CPTED leadership and commitment;

— encourage interested parties to initiate a regular planning/management process resulting in the

building of a new area or rebuilding, refurbishment or maintenance of an existing area;

— incorporate this document to prevent and reduce crime and the fear of crime in the regular planning/

management process;

— define in documented procedures the responsibilities and requirements for planning and conducting

evaluation, and for reporting results and maintaining records;
— foll
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 22341
Première édition
2021-01
Sécurité et résilience — Sécurité
préventive — Lignes directrices pour
la prévention de la criminalité par la
conception environnementale
Security and resilience — Protective security — Guidelines for crime
prevention through environmental design
Numéro de référence
ISO 22341:2021(F)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22341:2021(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2021

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

ISO copyright office
Case postale 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Genève
Tél.: +41 22 749 01 11
E-mail: copyright@iso.org
Web: www.iso.org
Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 22341:2021(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Comprendre le contexte environnemental du risque associé au crime et à la sécurité ............2

5 Les bases de la CPTED ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Considérations clés de la CPTED ............................................................................................................................................. 3

5.2 Stratégies de CPTED ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.2.2 Stratégies de CPTED pour la phase de planification ......................................................................... 5

5.2.3 Stratégies de CPTED pour la phase de conception ............................................................................. 6

5.2.4 Stratégies de CPTED pour la phase de gestion sociale et urbaine ........................................ 7

6 Processus de mise en œuvre de la CPTED .................................................................................................................................. 8

6.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2 Organe de surveillance, énoncé des objectifs de performance et équipe projet ............................ 9

6.3 Processus de CPTED ........................................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.1 Étape 1 — Communication et consultation ...........................................................................................11

6.3.2 Étape 2 — Domaine d’application, contexte et critères ..............................................................12

6.3.3 Étape 3 — Appréciation du risque ................................................................................................................12

6.3.4 Étape 4 — Traitement du risque .....................................................................................................................14

6.3.5 Étape 5 — Surveillance, revue, enregistrement et rapports ...................................................15

6.4 Principes généraux du processus de CPTED ..............................................................................................................16

6.4.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................16

6.4.2 Approche équilibrée du concept de CPTED ...........................................................................................16

6.4.3 Rentabilité ..........................................................................................................................................................................16

6.4.4 Durabilité et résilience.............................................................................................................................................16

6.4.5 Approche de l’environnement vert (écologique) ..............................................................................17

6.4.6 Application adaptative .............................................................................................................................................17

6.4.7 Approche basée sur les preuves ......................................................................................................................17

Annexe A (informative) Considérations clés de la CPTED ...........................................................................................................18

Annexe B (informative) Concepts fondamentaux de la CPTED ..............................................................................................23

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................25

© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 22341:2021(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L’attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par par l'ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www .iso .org/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 292, Sécurité et résilience.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ fr/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22341:2021(F)
Introduction

Le présent document est destiné à promouvoir une conception commune de la prévention de la

criminalité par la conception environnementale (CPTED) dans le domaine de la sécurité, de l’application

des lois et des risques connexes, et des mesures associées de prévention, par la conception et la gestion

de l’environnement.

Les concepts de CPTED sont utilisés depuis les années 1970 et les mesures de sécurité de type CPTED

remontent aux premiers établissements humains. L’acronyme CPTED a été utilisé pour la première

fois en 1971 par C. Ray Jeffery (voir la Référence [5]). Les concepts de CPTED sont issus de théories

et d’études sur la criminologie et les opportunités de crime. Depuis, la CPTED a été incluse dans de

nombreuses autres stratégies de prévention de la criminalité utilisées aujourd’hui, dont, entre autres,

l’espace défendable, la théorie de la vitre brisée, la théorie des activités routinières, le choix rationnel, la

prévention de la criminalité situationnelle et le logement sans crime.

La CPTED a une base théorique de plus en plus solide, fondée sur des preuves avérées de la réduction

significative du crime et de la peur, recueillies grâce à une série d’évaluations officielles rigoureuses

dans le domaine de la psychologie environnementale, de la criminologie et de la science du crime.

Lorsqu’elle est correctement planifiée et judicieusement mise en œuvre, la CPTED améliore la sûreté

des communautés et la sécurité industrielle de manière rentable.

La Figure 1 illustre le cadre de la CPTED pour la prévention de la criminalité et la sécurité.

Figure 1 — Cadre de la CPTED pour la prévention de la criminalité et la sécurité

Le présent document commence par la présentation du contexte environnemental des facteurs de

risque associé au crime et à la sécurité, des causes de vulnérabilités et des niveaux de risque. Sont

ensuite exposées les bases de la CPTED à travers un historique, les quatre considérations clés de la

CPTED (lieux générateurs de crime, types de risque et causes associées, parties intéressées de la

CPTED et contre-mesures) et les stratégies de CPTED. Une meilleure compréhension du risque et

des considérations de la CPTED permet de choisir des contre-mesures personnalisées adaptées. Le

processus de CPTED commence par la mise en place d’un organe de surveillance, la définition des

objectifs de performance, la constitution d’une équipe projet, l’appréciation et le traitement du risque,

l’évaluation du traitement, la définition d’actions correctives et un retour d’expérience à l’étape initiale

de la CPTED pour garantir une amélioration continue. Les principes fondamentaux du processus de

CPTED sont ensuite définis: approche conceptuelle équilibrée, rentabilité, durabilité et résilience,

© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés v
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ISO 22341:2021(F)

approche de l’environnement vert (écologique), application adaptative et approche basée sur les

preuves.

Il convient d’appliquer la CPTED de manière universelle et égale, sans aucun préjugé (culturel, racial,

religieux ou autre).
vi © ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 22341:2021(F)
Sécurité et résilience — Sécurité préventive — Lignes
directrices pour la prévention de la criminalité par la
conception environnementale
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document fournit aux organismes des lignes directrices pour établir les éléments, stratégies

et processus de base permettant de prévenir et de réduire le crime et la peur du crime dans un

environnement bâti nouveau ou existant. Il recommande la mise en place de contre-mesures et d’actions

pour traiter les risques associés au crime et à la sécurité de manière efficace et efficiente, en tirant parti

de la conception environnementale.

Dans le présent document, le terme «sécurité» est utilisé au sens large pour englober toutes les

applications spécifiques au crime, à la sûreté et à la sécurité. Il s’applique donc aux organismes publics

et privés, de quelque type, taille ou nature que ce soit.

Bien que le présent document présente des exemples généraux de stratégies de mise en œuvre et de

bonnes pratiques, il n’a pas pour vocation de fournir une liste exhaustive des stratégies de conception

et de mise en œuvre de la prévention de la criminalité par la conception environnementale (CPTED)

à des fins de sécurité architecturale ou physique, ni de limiter les applications potentielles aux seuls

exemples fournis dans le présent document.
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont cités dans le texte de sorte qu’ils constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur

contenu, des exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique.

Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les

éventuels amendements).
ISO 22300, Sécurité et résilience — Vocabulaire
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions de l’ISO 22300 ainsi que les suivants,

s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
prévention de la criminalité par la conception environnementale
CPTED

processus d’analyse et d’appréciation des risques associés au crime et à la sécurité en vue de guider le

développement, la conception urbaine, la gestion des sites et l’utilisation de l’environnement bâti pour

prévenir et réduire le crime et la peur du crime et promouvoir et améliorer la santé publique, la qualité

de vie et la durabilité

Note 1 à l'article: La conception environnementale fait référence aux arts et sciences appliqués traitant de la

création d’un environnement conçu par l’homme.
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ISO 22341:2021(F)
3.2
protection adéquate

volonté de superviser, d’identifier et de prendre des mesures pour prévenir ou décourager la

perpétration de crimes
4 Comprendre le contexte environnemental du risque associé au crime et à la
sécurité
Il existe de nombreuses manières de définir les éléments de risque.

NOTE L’ISO 31000 définit le risque comme l’effet de l’incertitude sur l’atteinte des objectifs.

Dans un contexte de sécurité et dans le présent document, le risque est composé de trois éléments:

les actifs, les menaces et les vulnérabilités. Les risques associés au crime et à la sécurité dépendent

de la valeur de l’actif par rapport aux menaces et vulnérabilités qui lui sont associées. Cette approche

peut être considérée comme une mise en œuvre opérationnelle de l’ISO 31000, mettant l’accent sur les

risques associés au crime et à la sécurité. Les menaces et les vulnérabilités influencent la dimension de

vraisemblance, et les actifs influencent les conséquences d’un risque.

Les actifs peuvent être l’état actuel de l’environnement bâti physique et des éléments ayant une valeur

financière. Les actifs peuvent également être intangibles, avec des valeurs souples.

Les menaces sont les délinquants ou dangers potentiels. Il convient de les traiter en identifiant leur

nature. Cela peut se faire en:
— se concentrant sur les scénarios les plus probables traités comme un récit;
— décrivant le sujet du scénario;

— décrivant le qui (les délinquants), le où (le lieu de l’infraction) et le comment (les moyens utilisés).

Les vulnérabilités sont les opportunités d’effets négatifs et le manque de maturité par rapport à

l’efficacité des contre-mesures associées.

Les risques associés au crime et à la sécurité sont accrus lorsqu’un délinquant motivé et une cible

appropriée se rencontrent à un moment et un endroit où aucune contre-mesure appropriée n’est prévue.

Pour atténuer la possibilité qu’un crime se produise, l’approche conventionnelle consiste à supprimer

un ou plusieurs des facteurs exprimés dans le triangle des risques associés au crime et à la sécurité

présentés à la Figure 2. Les événements criminels nécessitent que ces trois facteurs (au minimum)

soient tous présents en même temps.
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ISO 22341:2021(F)

Figure 2 — Triangle des risques associés au crime et à la sécurité pour les opportunités de

crime dans l’environnement bâti
5 Les bases de la CPTED
5.1 Considérations clés de la CPTED
Il convient que l’organisme:

— fonde ses stratégies de prévention de la criminalité et de sécurité sur la compréhension des

opportunités de crime;
— identifie les quatre considérations suivantes au stade initial d’un projet:
— où: l’emplacement exact et le type de zone;

— quoi: les problèmes de criminalité rencontrés dans la zone, aujourd’hui ou à l’avenir;

— qui: les parties intéressées impliquées dans la zone;

— comment: le traitement efficace et efficient des risques associés au crime et à la sécurité (par

exemple, contre-mesures).

NOTE L’Annexe A fournit des informations supplémentaires sur les considérations clés de la CPTED.

5.2 Stratégies de CPTED
5.2.1 Généralités
Il convient que l’organisme:
— comprenne qu’il existe deux concepts de CPTED différents:
— le concept de CPTED physique (ou CPTED première génération);
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ISO 22341:2021(F)
— le concept de CPTED sociale (ou CPTED deuxième génération);
— envisage des stratégies de CPTED physique et de CPTED sociale.

Il convient que l’organisme prenne en considération les six stratégies suivantes pour la CPTED physique:

— surveillance naturelle;
— contrôle des accès;
— renforcement territorial;
— image et gestion/entretien;
— soutien des activités;
— renforcement du site/de la cible.

Il convient que l’organisme prenne en considération les quatre stratégies suivantes pour la CPTED

sociale:
— cohésion sociale;
— connectivité sociale;
— culture communautaire;
— seuil de capacité.

NOTE L’Annexe B fournit des informations supplémentaires sur les concepts et stratégies de CPTED physique

et sociale.

Afin d’utiliser les stratégies de CPTED physique et sociale, il convient que l’organisme suive trois étapes:

planification (voir 5.2.2), conception (voir 5.2.3) et gestion sociale et urbaine (voir 5.2.4).

Les étapes de planification et de conception environnementale sont les plus pertinentes pour les

nouvelles zones et les nouveaux quartiers proposés. Les étapes de gestion sont plus pertinentes pour

les zones existantes. Les adaptations de planification et de conception sont pertinentes dans les

zones existantes dans une certaine mesure, mais elles restent modestes et limitées par rapport aux

conceptions réalisables dans les nouvelles zones.
Il convient que l’organisme:

— mette en œuvre les stratégies de CPTED afin de coordonner ses actions et mesures;

— prenne en compte le contexte local, la tradition culturelle et l’expérience passée en termes d’actions

et de mesures;

— sélectionne les mesures en prévision de leur efficacité attendue dans certains types d’environnements

et contre les types de crimes prédominants.

Le Tableau 1 fournit des informations détaillées ainsi que des exemples de stratégies de CPTED pour

chaque étape.
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ISO 22341:2021(F)
Tableau 1 — Stratégies de CPTED et exemples pour chaque étape
Étape Stratégies Exemples

Éviter les zones de piège/ Réduire le plus possible les zones isolées, éviter les angles morts

angles morts au niveau des bâtiments et implantations
Caractéristiques sociodé-
Prise en compte de la structure sociale des zones
mographiques

Vitalité des espaces Densité et activité adéquates, utilisation appropriée des ter-

publics rains, échelle humaine
Plan bien connecté/inté-
Rues reliées, usages mixtes appropriés, tracé des rues adéquat
gré
Planification
Espaces verts (ver-
Espaces verts et parcs contrôlés
dure urbaine)
Placement approprié de
Placement adéquat de l’éclairage public et des caméras
l’éclairage et des caméras
de sécurité
de sécurité
Planification antiterroriste pour la cible: site ou bâtiment

Planification antiterro- temporaire ou permanent sensible au terrorisme (par exemple,

riste fans zones, salles polyvalentes de type arènes, palais de justice,
bâtiment gouvernemental, siège social d’une grande entreprise)
Aménagement paysager, implantations, éclairage/rendu des
Visibilité
couleurs/uniformité des éclairages, grandes baies vitrées
Barrières d’entrée, murs et clôtures, portails certifiés
Contrôle d’accès
conformes aux normes de performance pertinentes
Renforcement des bâtiments/rues cibles sensibles par des équi-
pements de sécurité (par exemple, barrières de sécurité contre
Renforcement du site/
les véhicules, fenêtres et portes, serrures, grillage et grilles)
de la cible
certifiés conformes aux normes de performance pertinentes en
Conception
matière de sécurité
Délimitation claire de l’espace, sentiment d’appropriation/res-
Territorialité
ponsabilisation, zone tampon

Conception attrayante Image positive de la zone, éclairage et art public attrayants

Mobilier urbain résistant au vandalisme, entretien pratique,
intégrité des appareils utilisés pour les réseaux (par exemple,
Matériaux robustes
données, capteurs, énergie, eau, gaz, vapeur haute pression,
prises d’air)
Nettoyer les rues et ruelles, vider les poubelles, verdure et végé-
Entretien
tation dans les espaces publics
Caméras de sécurité pour les sites vulnérables, patrouilles de
Surveillance
police/d’agents de sécurité
Application des règles Panneaux d’interdiction de boire et manger, application
Gestion sociale et
publiques rigoureuse
urbaine
Réparations rapides Politique de réparation dans la journée

Traitement des groupes Prévoir des centres pour les sans-abri, les alcooliques et toxico-

vulnérables manes, les jeunes
Communications actives auprès du public, messages préventifs
Activités publicitaires
et règles de conduite à destination du public
5.2.2 Stratégies de CPTED pour la phase de planification
Il convient que l’organisme:

— choisisse l’échelle, la fonction et le mélange de fonctions pour inciter à l’habitabilité, au contrôle

social, à l’implication et au sentiment d’appropriation dans le cadre des stratégies de CPTED au

stade de la planification;
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ISO 22341:2021(F)

— mette en œuvre des stratégies au stade de la planification pour éviter de nuire à l’environnement

urbain existant et, en cas de menace émergente telle que la menace d’un véhicule piégé, adopte cette

stratégie avec souplesse;

— crée dans la mesure du possible des stratégies pour les conditions de formation de réseaux sociaux

et l’intégration d’un nouveau développement immobilier à l’environnement urbain existant;

— réduise le plus possible les endroits isolés et évite les zones de piège/angles morts près des bâtiments

et implantations où la visibilité est mauvaise.
Il convient que l’organisme:

— prenne en compte la structure sociale, telle que les caractéristiques socio-économiques et

démographiques, d’un site afin de refléter son contexte spécifique;

— renforce la vitalité de l’espace public du site en envisageant une utilisation active des terrains et en

tenant compte de la densité et de l’échelle (humaine);

— envisage des segments de rue correctement reliés et une utilisation des terrains intégrée (plutôt

que des tracés décousus et hachés);

— envisage un placement écologique réfléchi des espaces verts et des parcs pour une zone;

— envisage un placement réfléchi de l’éclairage et, si nécessaire, des caméras de sécurité pour une zone;

— envisage des dispositifs antiterroristes dans l’aménagement paysager et des bâtiments de sites

cibles particuliers;

— prévoie des mesures de sécurité et de prévention de la criminalité sur le chantier pour empêcher

les attaques (par exemple, utilisation des terrains et bâtiments par des délinquants pour se

regrouper, trafic de drogue ou vol de biens, prostitution, vol d’outils, de matériel et de machines de

construction, de camions) pendant la phase de planification de la CPTED, car les travaux durent

souvent plusieurs années.

NOTE Le Tableau 1 fournit des informations supplémentaires et détaillées ainsi que des exemples de

stratégies de CPTED pour la phase de planification.
5.2.3 Stratégies de CPTED pour la phase de conception
Il convient que l’organisme:

— évalue le contexte situationnel externe et interne des risques liés à la CPTED;

— comprenne quels facteurs influencent considérablement le risque et l’efficacité des contre-mesures.

L’évaluation du contexte situationnel externe du risque comprend:

— l’environnement social et culturel, politique, légal, réglementaire, financier, technologique,

économique, naturel et concurrentiel, au niveau international, national, régional ou local;

— les principaux moteurs et tendances ayant un impact sur les objectifs de l’organisme;

— les relations avec les parties intéressées externes ainsi que leurs perceptions et valeurs.

L’évaluation du contexte situationnel interne du risque comprend:

— la gouvernance, la structure organisationnelle, les rôles, les responsabilités et les devoirs;

— les politiques et les objectifs, ainsi que les stratégies mises en place pour atteindre ces derniers;

— les capacités en termes de ressources et de connaissances (par exemple, capital, temps, personnel,

processus, systèmes, technologies);
6 © ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22341:2021(F)

— les relations avec les parties intéressées internes ainsi que leurs perceptions et leurs valeurs;

— la culture de l’organisme;

— les normes, lignes directrices et modèles adoptés par les parties intéressées internes.

Dans le cadre des stratégies de CPTED pour l’étape de conception, il convient que l’organisme crée dans

la zone concernée des conditions propices au contrôle social, à la surveillance naturelle, au sentiment

d’appropriation et à la fierté.

Il convient que l’organisme intègre les stratégies de CPTED dans la phase de planification et de

conception.
Il convient que l’organisme:

— améliore la visibilité des rues et des bâtiments par une conception adaptée des bâtiments, des

paysages et de l’éclairage;

— améliore le contrôle d’accès d’un site grâce à des portes, des clôtures et des murs, ou des barrières

d’entrée/sortie soumis à essais et certifiés conformes aux normes de performance pertinentes

en matière de sécurité;

— renforce les sites/bâtiments cibles sensibles (en plus des sites traditionnellement renforcés) par des

équipements de sécurité certifiés conformes aux normes de performance pertinentes en matière

de sécurité;

— envisage la territorialité d’un site par une démarcation claire entre l’espace public, l’espace semi-

public, l’espace semi-privé et l’espace privé afin de créer des zones tampons et de renforcer le

sentiment d’appropriation;

— envisage l’attractivité/l’esthétique d’un site afin de créer une image positive de la zone et de

permettre une utilisation active des terrains en mettant en place des éclairages et de l’art public

attrayants;

— envisage une signalisation claire et lisible dans une palette de couleurs adaptée;

— prévoie du mobilier urbain résistant au vandalisme et facile d’entretien.

NOTE Le Tableau 1 fournit des informations supplémentaires et détaillées ainsi que des exemples de

stratégies de CPTED pour la phase de conception.
5.2.4 Stratégies de CPTED pour la phase de gestion sociale et urbaine
Il convient que l’organisme:
— gère les zones cibles par une surveillance et un entretien professionnels;

— mette en œuvre les stratégies de gestion et le soutien, encourage la surveillance naturelle et

le sentiment d’appropriation des résidents et des visiteurs, et ne décourage pas les résidents de

s’acquitter de cette tâche;
— présume un certain niveau d’autorégulation, qui peut être renforcé par u
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22341
First edition
Security and resilience — Protective
security — Guidelines for crime
prevention through environmental
design
Sécurité et résilience — Sécurité préventive — Lignes directrices pour
la prévention de la criminalité par la conception environnementale
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 22341:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22341:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 22341:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Understanding environmental context of crime and security risk ..................................................................2

5 Basics of CPTED ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Key considerations of CPTED ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 CPTED strategies ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.2 CPTED strategies for planning stage .............................................................................................................. 5

5.2.3 CPTED strategies for design stage .................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.4 CPTED strategies for site and social management stage............................................................... 6

6 Process of CPTED implementation .................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Oversight body, performance target statement and project team .............................................................. 8

6.3 CPTED process .....................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.1 Step 1 — Communication and consultation ..........................................................................................10

6.3.2 Step 2 — Scope, context and criteria ...........................................................................................................10

6.3.3 Step 3 — Risk assessment ....................................................................................................................................11

6.3.4 Step 4 — Risk treatment ........................................................................................................................................12

6.3.5 Step 5 — Monitoring, review, recording and reporting ..............................................................13

6.4 General principles for CPTED process .............................................................................................................................14

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.2 Balanced CPTED concept approach .............................................................................................................14

6.4.3 Cost-effectiveness ........................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.4 Sustainability and resilience ...............................................................................................................................15

6.4.5 Green environment (ecological) approach.............................................................................................15

6.4.6 Adaptive application ..................................................................................................................................................15

6.4.7 Evidence-based approach .....................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (informative) Key considerations of CPTED .......................................................................................................................17

Annex B (informative) Fundamental CPTED concepts ....................................................................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
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ISO 22341:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

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This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 292, Security and resilience.

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ISO 22341:2020(E)
Introduction

This document is intended to promote a common understanding of crime prevention through

environmental design (CPTED) in the field of security, law enforcement and related risks, and their

preventive measures, through environmental design and management.

CPTED concepts have been used since the 1970s and CPTED-style security measures can be traced

to early human settlements. The term CPTED was first introduced in 1971 by C. Ray Jeffery, see

Reference[5]. CPTED concepts originated from criminology and crime opportunity theories and

studies. Since then, it has been included as part of many other crime prevention strategies that are

utilized today. These include, but are not limited to, defensible space, broken windows theory, routine

activity theory, rational choice, situational crime prevention and crime free housing.

CPTED has an increasingly sound theoretical foundation based on firm evidence of significant crime

and fear reduction gained from a series of formal and rigorous evaluations in the field of environmental

psychology, criminology and crime science. When well-planned and wisely implemented, CPTED

improves community safety and industrial security in a cost-effective manner.
Figure 1 illustrates the framework of CPTED for crime prevention and security.
Figure 1 — Framework of CPTED for crime prevention and security

This document starts with understanding the environmental context of crime and security risk factors,

causes of vulnerabilities and risk levels. This is followed by the basics of CPTED through its historical

background, four key considerations of CPTED (places generating crime, types and causes of the risk,

CPTED interested parties and countermeasures) and CPTED strategies. Better understanding of the

risk and CPTED considerations leads to a better selection of tailored countermeasures. The process of

CPTED begins with the establishment of an oversight body, performance target settings and organizing

a project team, risk assessment and risk treatment, evaluation of treatment, corrective actions and

feedback to the initial stage of CPTED for continual improvement. It is followed by the fundamental

principles for CPTED process, such as balanced conceptual approach, cost-effectiveness, sustainability

and resilience, green environment (ecological) approach, adaptive application and an evidence-based

approach.
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ISO 22341:2020(E)

The use of CPTED should be applied universally in an equal manner and should not be applied with any

prejudice (whether cultural, racial, religious or any other bias).
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22341:2020(E)
Security and resilience — Protective security — Guidelines
for crime prevention through environmental design
1 Scope

This document provides guidelines to organizations for establishing the basic elements, strategies

and processes for preventing and reducing crime and the fear of crime at a new or existing built

environment. It recommends the establishment of countermeasures and actions to treat crime and

security risks in an effective and efficient manner by leveraging environmental design.

Within this document, the term “security” is used in a broad manner to include all crime, safety and

security-specific applications, so it is applicable to public and private organizations, regardless of type,

size or nature.

While this document provides general examples of implementation strategies and best practices, it is

not intended to provide an exhaustive listing of detailed design, architectural or physical security crime

prevention through environmental design (CPTED) implementation strategies or restrict the potential

applications to only those examples provided in this document.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 22300, Security and resilience — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 22300 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
crime prevention through environmental design
CPTED

process for analysing and assessing crime and security risks to guide development, urban design, site

management and the use of the built environment in order to prevent and reduce crime and the fear of

crime, and to promote and improve public health, quality of life and sustainability

Note 1 to entry: Environmental design refers to the applied arts and sciences dealing with creating the human-

designed environment.
3.2
capable guardianship

willingness to supervise, detect and take action to prevent or discourage the occurrence of crime

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ISO 22341:2020(E)
4 Understanding environmental context of crime and security risk
There are numerous ways of defining the elements of risk.
NOTE ISO 31000 defines risk as the effect of uncertainty on objectives.

In a security context and in this document, risk is composed of three elements: assets, threats and

vulnerabilities. Crime and security risks are based upon the value of the asset in relation to the threats

and vulnerabilities associated with it. This approach can be viewed as an operational implementation

of ISO 31000 with a specific focus on crime and security risks. Threats and vulnerabilities influence the

likelihood dimension, and assets influence the consequences of a risk.

Assets can be the current state of the physical built environment and items of financial value. Assets

can also be intangible with soft values.

Threats are the potential offenders or hazards and should be addressed by identifying the nature of the

threat. This can be done by:
— focusing on the most likely scenarios addressed as a narrative;
— describing the subject of the scenario;

— describing the who (the offenders), where (the place of the offence) and how (what means used).

Vulnerabilities are the opportunities for negative effects and the lack of maturity related to the

effectiveness of the associated countermeasures.

The crime and security risks are greater when a motivated offender and suitable target come together

in time and place, without appropriate countermeasures present.

To mitigate the opportunity for a crime to occur, the conventional approach is to remove one or more

of the factors expressed in the crime and security risk triangle in Figure 2. Crime events require these

three factors (at a minimum) to all be present at the same time.

Figure 2 — Crime and security risk triangle for crime opportunities in the built environment

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ISO 22341:2020(E)
5 Basics of CPTED
5.1 Key considerations of CPTED
The organization should:

— base its crime prevention and security strategies on understanding crime opportunities;

— identify the following four considerations at the beginning stage of a project:

— where: the exact location and the type of area;
— what: the crime problems occurring in the area now or in the future;
— who: the interested parties involved in the area;

— how: the treatment of crime and security risks (e.g. countermeasures) in an effective and

efficient manner.
NOTE Annex A provides additional information on the key considerations of CPTED.
5.2 CPTED strategies
5.2.1 General
The organization should:
— understand that there are two different CPTED concepts:
— physical CPTED (or first generation CPTED) concept;
— social CPTED (or second generation CPTED) concept;
— consider physical CPTED strategies as well as social CPTED strategies.
The organization should consider the six strategies for physical CPTED:
— natural surveillance;
— natural access control;
— territorial reinforcement;
— image and management/maintenance;
— activity support;
— site hardening/target hardening.
The organization should consider the four strategies for social CPTED:
— social cohesion;
— social connectivity;
— community culture;
— threshold capacity.

NOTE Annex B provides additional information about physical and social CPTED concepts and strategies.

The organization should consider three stages in order to use the physical and social CPTED strategies:

planning (see 5.2.2), design (see 5.2.3), and site and social management (see 5.2.4).

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ISO 22341:2020(E)

Environmental planning and design stages are most relevant for proposed new areas and

neighbourhoods. Management stages are more relevant in existing areas. Planning and design

adaptations are relevant in existing areas to a certain degree, but the feasible adaptations are modest

and small in existing areas compared to the designs for new areas.
The organization should:

— implement the CPTED strategies in order to coordinate its actions and measures;

— consider local context, cultural tradition and past experience for the actions and measures;

— select the measures in anticipation of their expected effectiveness in certain types of environments

and against the prevailing types of crime.

Table 1 provides detailed information with examples on the CPTED strategies by stage.

Table 1 — CPTED strategies and examples by stage
Stage Strategies Examples
Avoiding Minimizing isolated areas; avoiding blind spots of buildings and
blind/entrapment spots planted areas
Socio-demographic
Considering social structure of areas
character

Vitality of public spaces Adequate density and activity; proper land use; human scale

Well-connected/
Connected streets; proper mixed uses; good street pattern
integrated plan
Green spaces
Planning
Controlled green spaces and parks
(urban greenery)
Proper placement
of lighting and security Good placement of street lighting and security cameras
cameras
Anti-terrorism planning for target: a temporary or permanent
site or building that is sensitive to terrorism (e.g. fan zone,
Anti-terrorist planning
multi-activity hall type arena, courthouse, government
building, headquarters of an iconic company)
Landscape; planting; lighting illumination/colour rendering/
Visibility
uniformity; large glass windows
Entry barriers, walls and fences, gates certified by relevant
Access control
performance standards
Soft target building/street hardening through security
equipment (e.g. vehicle security barriers, windows and
Site/target hardening
doors, locks, mesh and grilles) certified by relevant security
Design
performance standards
Clear demarcation of space; sense of ownership/responsibility;
Territoriality
buffer zone
Attractive design Positive area image; attractive lighting and public art
Vandal-resistant street furniture; convenient maintenance;
Robust materials integrity of devices used for networks (e.g. data, sensors,
energy, water, gas, high pressure steam, air intakes)
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ISO 22341:2020(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Stage Strategies Examples
Clean streets and alleys; emptied garbage bins; greenery and
Maintenance
vegetation on public land
Security cameras for vulnerable spots; police/security guards
Surveillance
targeted patrols
Public rules enforcement No drinking zone signs; substantial enforcement
Site and social
management
Swift repairs One day fixing policy

Treating vulnerable Providing shelters for homeless people, alcohol/drug addicts,

groups youths
Active communications with the public; preventive messages
Publicity activities
and rules of conduct for the public
5.2.2 CPTED strategies for planning stage
The organization should:

— choose the scale, function and blending of functions to provide an incentive for liveability, social

control, involvement and sense of ownership for CPTED strategies in the planning stage;

— implement planning stage strategies to prevent the existing urban environment from being harmed

and, in the case of an emerging threat such as a vehicle bomb threat flexibly adopt this strategy;

— create strategies for the conditions for the formation of social networks and making a new

development part of the existing surrounding urban environment as much as possible;

— minimize isolated places and avoid blind/entrapment spots of buildings and planted areas that have

low visibility from nearby.
The organization should:

— consider the social structure, such as socio-economic and demographic characters of a site in order

to reflect its specific context;

— enhance the vitality of public space for the site by considering active land use, density and

(human) scale;

— consider properly connected street segments and integrated land uses (rather than disconnected

and segregated patterns);
— consider cautious ecological placement of green spaces and parks for an area;

— consider cautious placement of lighting and, if necessary, security cameras for an area;

— consider anti-terrorism building and landscape planning for particular target sites;

— consider the security and crime prevention of the construction site against attacks (e.g. the misuse

of land and building for grouping of offenders, drug trafficking or stolen goods, prostitution, theft

of tools, material and building machines, trucks.) during the CPTED planning stage as construction

development often lasts for a few years until building completion.

NOTE Table 1 provides additional and detailed information with examples on CPTED strategies for the

planning stage.
5.2.3 CPTED strategies for design stage
The organization should:
— evaluate the external and internal situational context of CPTED-related risks;
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ISO 22341:2020(E)

— understand what factors significantly influence the risk and the effectiveness of countermeasures.

Evaluating the external situational context of the risk includes:

— the social and cultural, political, legal, regulatory, financial, technological, economic, natural and

competitive environment, whether international, national, regional or local;
— key drivers and trends having an impact on the objectives of the organization;

— relationships with, and the perceptions and values of, external interested parties.

Evaluating the internal situational context of the risk includes:

— governance, organizational structure, roles, responsibilities and accountabilities;

— policies and objectives, and the strategies in place to achieve them;

— capabilities, understood in terms of resources and knowledge (e.g. capital, time, people, processes,

systems, technologies);

— relationships with, and the perceptions and values of, internal interested parties;

— the organization’s culture;
— standards, guidelines and models adopted by the internal interested parties.

The organization should aim at creating the conditions for social control, natural surveillance, a sense

of ownership and pride in an area for the design stage CPTED strategies.

The organization should integrate the CPTED design strategies as part of the planning and design phase.

The organization should:

— enhance the visibility of streets and buildings by proper building, landscaping and lighting design;

— enhance the access control of a site through gates, fences and walls, or entry/exit barriers tested

and certified by relevant security performance standards;

— harden soft target sites/buildings (in addition to traditionally hardened sites) through security

equipment certified by relevant security performance standards;

— consider the territoriality of a site by clear demarcation between public space, semi-public space,

semi-private space and private space to create buffer zones and to enhance sense of ownership;

— consider the attractiveness/aesthetics of a site in order to create positive area image and active land

use by attractive public art and lighting;
— consider clear signage with a proper colour scheme and legibility.

— consider the robustness of street furniture in order to resist vandalism attacks and to facilitate

maintenance.

NOTE Table 1 provides additional and detailed information with examples on CPTED strategies for the

design stage.
5.2.4 CPTED strategies for site and social management stage
The organization should:
— manage target areas by professional surveillance and maintenance;

— implement the management strategies and support, encourage the natural surveillance and sense of

ownership by residents and visitors, and not discourage residents from performing this task;

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ISO 22341:2020(E)

— assume a certain level of self-regulation, which can be elevated to a higher level with professional

support for the management strategy;
— create a complete and effective set of measures for the management strategies.
The organization should:

— keep proper maintenance of a site in order to have a positive image by street cleaning or emptying

garbage bins;

— consider enhancing surveillance by placing security cameras or security patrols for a site when

necessary;
— consider setting and enforcing rules for vulnerable areas and places;

— repair broken street furniture or lighting in a speedy manner to eliminate the signs of neglect (as

per the broken window theory);
— carefully treat vulnerable groups (e.g. homeless people);

— consider launching a publicity campaign and activities with preventive messages and rules of

conduct for active risk communication.

NOTE Table 1 provides additional and detailed information with examples on CPTED strategies for the site

and social management stage.
6 Process of CPTED implementation
6.1 General

The organization should mandate CPTED as a design standard as part of a continual improvement

process for community/site/building security, safety and quality of life, and not just for the installation

of security cameras and murals. The organization should implement a step-by-step process involving

all relevant interested parties.
The organization should:

— follow the risk management framework given in ISO 31000 to integrate risk management into

CPTED activities and programmes;

— develop the framework following clear decision steps to set a strategy, taking into account the

responsibilities of all interested parties involved;

— ensure that CPTED strategies are addressed by the multiple interested parties to adequately manage

risk through developing partnering arrangements.

NOTE 1 There are many different roles and responsibilities within and between public, private and not-for-

profit organizations.

NOTE 2 ISO 22397 provides principles and a process to develop the relationship among organizations in a

partnering arrangement.
The process of CPTED is given in Figure 3.
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Figure 3 — Process of CPTED

NOTE 3 Depending on practice and theory, there are several other CPTED-related process models, such as the

SARA (scanning, analysis, response, assessment) model, which is a commonly used problem-solving method.

The organization should:

— ensure that framework development encompasses integrating, designing, implementing, evaluating

and improving risk management across the organization for CPTED leadership and commitment;

— encourage interested parties to initiate a regular planning/management process resulting in the

building of a new area or rebuilding, refurbishment or maintenance of an existing area;

— incorporate this document to prevent and reduce crime and the fear of crime in the regular planning/

management process;
— define
...

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