Electronic document management — Vocabulary — Part 1: Electronic document imaging

ISO 12651-1:2012 defines terms and concepts relevant to electronic document management. It is intended to facilitate communication in the field of electronic document management and translation of the terms it contains into other languages. The term "electronic document management" used throughout ISO 12651-1:2012 is intended as an all-encompassing term referring to inputting technologies, management technologies and storage technologies.

Gestion électronique de documents — Vocabulaire — Partie 1: Imagerie documentaire électronique

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Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Jan-2012
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
14-Jun-2017
Completion Date
12-Sep-2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12651-1
First edition
2012-01-15
Electronic document management —
Vocabulary —
Part 1:
Electronic document imaging
Gestion électronique de documents — Vocabulaire —
Partie 1: Imagerie documentaire électronique
Reference number
ISO 12651-1:2012(E)
ISO 2012
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ISO 12651-1:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

The reproduction of the terms and definitions contained in this International Standard is permitted in teaching manuals, instruction

booklets, technical publications and journals for strictly educational or implementation purposes. The conditions for such reproduction are:

that no modifications are made to the terms and definitions; that such reproduction is not permitted for dictionaries or similar publications

offered for sale; and that this International Standard is referenced as the source document.

With the sole exceptions noted above, no other part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

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ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12651-1:2012(E)
Contents

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ iv

1  Scope ............................................................................................................................................................ 1

2  Normative references.................................................................................................................................. 1

3  Principles and conventions ....................................................................................................................... 1

4  Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................. 2

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 16

Alphabetical index ............................................................................................................................................ 17

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 12651-1:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 12651-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 171, Document management applications,

Subcommittee SC 3, General issues.

This first edition of ISO 12651-1, together with ISO 12651-2 , cancels and replaces ISO 12651:1999.

ISO 12651 consists of the following parts, under the general title Electronic document management —

Vocabulary:
 Part 1: Electronic document imaging
The following parts are under preparation:
 Part 2: Document workflow
Under preparation.
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12651-1:2012(E)
Electronic document management — Vocabulary —
Part 1:
Electronic document imaging
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12651 is intended to facilitate communication in the field of electronic document management

and translation of the terms it contains into other languages.

The term “electronic document management” used throughout this part of ISO 12651 is intended as an all-

encompassing term referring to inputting technologies [scanning, indexing, optical character recognition

(OCR), forms, digital creation, etc.], management technologies (document services, workflow, and other work

management tools), and storage (primarily optical/magnetic) technologies.

All terms and definitions in this part of ISO 12651 have been drafted in accordance with ISO 10241-1 and

ISO 1087-1. The selection of terms and the wording of definitions have, as far as possible, followed

established usage. Where there were contradictions, solutions agreeable to the majority have been sought.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 11544, Information technology — Coded representation of picture and audio information —

Progressive bi-level image compression

ISO/IEC 10918-4, Information technology — Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images:

Registration of JPEG profiles, SPIFF profiles, SPIFF tags, SPIFF colour spaces, APPn markers, SPIFF

compression types and Registration Authorities (REGAUT)

ISO 18901, Imaging materials — Processed silver-gelatin-type black-and-white films — Specifications for

stability
3 Principles and conventions
3.1 Definition, formatting and organization of entries

All terms and definitions listed in Clause 4 meet the requirements of ISO 10241-1:2011.

3.2 Spelling

Terms, definitions, examples and notes are given in the spelling preferred in the United Kingdom, unless

otherwise indicated. Other correct spellings may be used without violating this International Standard.

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ISO 12651-1:2012(E)
4 Terms and definitions
4.1
aberration
defect in a lens or mirror that produces distortions in an image (4.67)
EXAMPLES Astigmatism, chromatic aberration, curvature of field.
4.2
ablation

deformation in an optical disk (4.99) created by a high-powered laser during write operation, that burns or

melts the surface
NOTE This is also known as a pit.
4.3
addressability

number of discrete pixels (4.108) that can be addressed using a co-ordinate system on a display or in the

devices supporting a display
EXAMPLE 1,600  1,200.
4.4
analogue monitor
output device that uses an analogue signal to display an image (4.67)

NOTE The voltage that determines the brightness of each colour component varies continuously.

4.5
analogue transmission

transmission of continuously varying electronic signals analogous to tonal variations

4.6
analogue-to-digital conversion
A/D

process of converting a continuous electrical current or signal into digital form

4.7
aperture card scanner
device for scanning micro-images in aperture cards
NOTE Some scanners (4.124) can also read information printed on the card.
4.8
aspect ratio
ratio of height to width of a rectangle
4.9
automatic character recognition

technology using special systems, such as OCR (4.100) or ICR (4.80), to identify human-readable characters,

usually alphanumeric, and then use the data
4.10
automatic document feeder

powered device to feed microforms, films or paper into a scanner (4.124) for capture

NOTE It can also position the microform, film, or paper.
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ISO 12651-1:2012(E)
4.11
auxiliary operation

activity supplementary to the primary operations of a document (4.41) management system

EXAMPLES Film cleaning, splicing, mounting, packaging, loading, coding.
4.12
backfile

collection of documents (4.41), usually predating the imaging (4.76) system, that have not been digitized

4.13
backfile conversion
process of scanning, indexing (4.77) and quality control of the backfile (4.12)
4.14
backward compatibility

ability to move data from a more advanced version of a system or software package to a less advanced

version
4.15
bar-code scanner
device used to read bar codes by means of reflected light
4.16
bar-code symbol

machine-generated and readable representation of data, usually numeric, in the form of a printed series of

contrasting parallel bars of various widths, spacing and/or heights
4.17
batch processing
machine processing of a batch of documents (4.41)
NOTE The documents (4.41) could have been collected over a period of time.
4.18
bit-mapped image
image (4.67) derived from an array of pixels (4.108)
4.19
bitonal image

image (4.67) having a number of pixels (4.108), each of which has an “on” or an “off” value

4.20
bleed-through, US
show-through, GB

undesired appearance of information from the reverse of a document (4.41) when viewed and/or scanned

4.21
blocking
unintentional adhesion of adjacent sheets of film or paper
4.22
browsing
searching for information in a database or in a document (4.41)
4.23
cache
temporary storage providing rapid access to frequently used information
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ISO 12651-1:2012(E)
4.24
character recognition
identification of graphic characters by automatic means
4.25
CCD scanner
charge-coupled device scanner

scanner (4.124) that incorporates a light-sensitive semiconductor device that can collect, store and move

electric charges in packets
4.26
clipped pixel array
actual pixel (4.108) array to be imaged as determined by all clipping parameters
4.27
clipping

reduction in the range of tones recorded by a scanner (4.124) due to limited spectral sensitivity of its

photodetector
4.28
CD-ROM
compact disk–read only memory

optical disk (4.99), conforming to compact disk specifications, created by a mastering process and used for

distributing read-only information
4.29
CD-R
compact disk recordable

optical disk (4.99), conforming to compact disk specifications, on which data is recorded by the user once

and can be read many times
4.30
compound document
document (4.41) that contains information in more than one object

EXAMPLE Text, graphics and images (4.67) in a single document (4.41) or a spreadsheet embedded in a

word-processing document.
4.31
compression
reduction in size of an electronic file
NOTE 1 Compression can be lossy (4.88) or lossless (4.87).

NOTE 2 Compression is usually carried out to reduce storage requirements, to reduce network traffic and/or to reduce

file transmission times.
4.32
compression ratio

relationship of the file size before compression (4.31) to the file size after compression

4.33
COLD
computer output to laser disk

technology used to store computer-generated reports in a computer-based accessible format through the use

of virtual printers or other technology, in order to capture the report as it is generated or printed

NOTE This term is sometimes referred to as enterprise report management (4.54).
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ISO 12651-1:2012(E)
4.34
continuous-tone
having continuous variation in colour and/or density
NOTE Colour includes shades of grey.
4.35
contrast
difference in density between darkest and lightest fields
4.36
decompression
expansion of a compressed file
4.37
deskewing

process of rotating an image (4.67) by the same amount as its skew (slant), but in the opposite direction,

resulting in a horizontally and vertically aligned image where the text runs across the page rather than at an

angle
NOTE 1 See also skewing (4.129).

NOTE 2 Improperly aligned images (4.67) make optical character recognition [OCR (4.100)] more difficult and can

cause the OCR process to become slower and less accurate. Deskewing the documents (4.41) beforehand can make the

OCR process faster and more accurate.
4.38
digitize

use of a scanner (4.124) to convert documents (4.41) to digitally coded electronic images (4.48)

4.39
digitizer
device for the digitization of a document (4.41)

NOTE This term is often used, by extension, to refer to a device that allows both the scanning and the actual digitization

of the document (4.41).
4.40
dithering

method of simulating shades of grey using different patterns of black and white pixels (4.108) within a cell or

simulating colours by using patterns of other (often primary) colours
4.41
document
recorded information or object which can be treated as a unit
[ISO 15489-1:2001, definition 3.10]
4.42
document profile

set of attributes which specifies the characteristics of a document (4.41) as a whole

[ISO/IEC 2382-23:1994, 23.02.02]
4.43
document service

component, module, or application supporting and/or providing authoring, check-in/check-out, and version

control capabilities, along with other features necessary to create, manage, update and secure

document-based (4.41) information in an automated fashion
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ISO 12651-1:2012(E)
4.44
dpi
dots per inch
measure of resolution
4.45
dropout ink
ink of a colour that cannot be detected by a scanner (4.124)
4.46
edge enhancement

technique for sharpening the appearance of line edges on an electronic image (4.48)

4.47
EDMS
electronic document management system

computer-based application dealing with the management of documents (4.41) throughout the

document (4.41) life cycle

NOTE This may comprise one or more technologies, such as document imaging, document/library services, workflow,

enterprise report management, forms management and automatic character recognition.

4.48
electronic image
digital representation of a document (4.41)
4.49
electronic image management
coordinated use of all electronic imaging (4.51) techniques
4.50
electronic image grey scaling

production of an electronic image (4.48) representing the image (4.67) contents in shades of grey,

converting continuous-tone (4.34) images into a limited number of grey shades
4.51
electronic imaging

technique for inputting, recording, processing, storing, transferring and using images (4.67)

4.52
enhancement

technique for processing an image (4.67) so that the result is visually clearer than the image

4.53
ECM
enterprise content management

strategies, methods and tools used to capture, manage, store, preserve and deliver content and

documents (4.41) related to organizational processes

NOTE ECM tools and strategies allow management of an organization's unstructured information, wherever that

information exists.
4.54
enterprise report management
ERM

technology used to store computer-generated reports in a computer-based accessible format, using virtual

printers or other technology to capture the report as it is generated or printed
NOTE See also COLD (4.33).
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ISO 12651-1:2012(E)
4.55
expunge

completely remove a document (4.41), image (4.67) or file and its indexing (4.77) from a computer system,

leaving no evidence of it ever having appeared in the system
4.56
flat-bed scanner
device for scanning that has a flat surface for input material

NOTE This is generally used for scanning bound material and other originals unsuitable for automatic document

feeders (4.10).
4.57
formatting

setting up the space divisions on a data medium and initiating a space allocation table that will know exactly

how to reach each bit of data that could be stored there later
4.58
forms overlay

printer feature by which a set of standard-form images (4.67) can be stored in the printer or computer and

selectively overlaid on variable data to be printed in specified locations of the form

4.59
forms removal

system (usually software) which removes a fixed overlay from a digitized (4.38) image (4.67), leaving only

the variable data
4.60
forward compatibility

ability to move data from a less advanced version of a system or software package to a more advanced

version
4.61
Group 3 (compression)

form of compression (4.31) to the T.4 compression standard in which run-length encoding is used to reduce

redundancy
4.62
Group 4 (compression)

form of compression (4.31) to the T.6 compression standard in which run-length encoding is used to reduce

redundancy
4.63
halftone

technique for reproducing continuous-tone (4.34) originals as a series of dots by photographing the image

(4.67) through a hatched screen
NOTE The finer the screen, the greater the detail in the resulting negative.
4.64
horizontal image resolution
number of discrete elements used to image (4.67) the width of the page
4.65
Huffman coding

data compression (4.31) technique that assigns shorter bit sequences to frequently occurring symbols and

longer bit sequences to less frequent symbols
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ISO 12651-1:2012(E)
4.66
hypertext

system of storing images (4.67), text and other computer files that allows direct links to related data

EXAMPLE The best known implementation of hypertext is the World Wide Web (Internet).

NOTE Related data can include text, pictures, sound, video, or programs.
4.67
image
digital or photographic representation of a document (4.41)
NOTE 1 See also electronic image (4.48).
NOTE 2 A microform can also contain an image (4.67) of a document
...

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