Space systems — Detailed space debris mitigation requirements for spacecraft

This document defines detailed space debris mitigation requirements and recommendations for the design and operation of unmanned spacecraft in Earth orbit. This document defines detailed requirements that are applicable to: a) avoiding the intentional release of space debris into Earth orbit during normal operations; b) avoiding break-ups in Earth orbit; c) disposal of a spacecraft after the end of mission; d) estimating the mass of the remaining usable propellant; e) developing and maintaining the space debris mitigation plan. NOTE This document does not cover nuclear power sources on spacecraft.

Systèmes spatiaux — exigences détaillées pour la diminution des debris spatiaux relatifs aux satellites

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Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Jul-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
20-Dec-2021
Completion Date
14-Jul-2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23312
First edition
2022-07
Space systems — Detailed space
debris mitigation requirements for
spacecraft
Systèmes spatiaux — exigences détaillées pour la diminution des
debris spatiaux relatifs aux satellites
Reference number
ISO 23312:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
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ISO 23312:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23312:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms..........................................................................................................................................................2

5 Avoiding release of space debris into Earth orbit during normal operations ...................................2

6 Avoiding break-ups in Earth orbit ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Accidental break-up caused by an on-board source of energy .................................................................... 3

6.2.1 General measures .............................................................................................................................................................. 3

6.2.2 Subsystem-specific measures................................................................................................................................. 4

6.3 Accidental break-up caused by a collision ..................................................................................................................... 5

6.3.1 Collision avoidance ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3.2 Assessment of the probability of structural break-up caused by impacts

with debris or meteoroid ............................................................................................................................................ 6

7 Disposal of spacecraft after the end of mission .................................................................................................................. 6

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Ensuring execution of disposal action .............................................................................................................................. 6

7.3 Disposal to minimize interference with the GEO protected region ........................................................ 7

7.3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.3.2 Developing basic manoeuvre requirements for a stable disposal orbit ............................ 7

7.3.3 Developing long-term (100-year) disposal orbit characteristics ............................................ 7

7.3.4 Determining the manoeuvre sequence .......................................................................................................... 8

7.4 Disposal to minimize interference with the LEO protected region ........................................................ 8

7.4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.4.2 Re-entry ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8 Estimating mass of remaining usable propellant ............................................................................................................. 9

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2 Uncertainty of estimation............................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.3 Incorporating required function into spacecraft design .................................................................................. 9

8.4 Documentation of data ................................................................................................................................................................. 10

9 Space debris mitigation plan ...............................................................................................................................................................10

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 10

9.2 Break-up prevention plan .......................................................................................................................................................... 11

9.3 End of mission disposal plan (EOMDP) ......................................................................................................................... 11

9.4 Contingency plan ...............................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Procedure for estimating probability of accidental break-up ...............................13

Annex B (informative) Examples of estimation methods ...........................................................................................................16

Annex C (informative) Deployable drag enhancement device ..............................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

iii
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ISO 23312:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www.iso.org/

iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

This first edition cancels and replaces ISO 16127:2014, ISO 16164:2015, ISO 23339:2010 and

ISO 26872:2019.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
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ISO 23312:2022(E)
Introduction

This document is developed to incorporate the content of ISO 16127, ISO 16164, ISO 23339, ISO 26872

and other detailed requirements relevant to spacecraft related debris mitigation, corresponding to

ISO 24113. The purpose of this document is to enable conformance with those high-level space debris

mitigation requirements in ISO 24113 that are relevant to spacecraft.

This document acts as one of the supporting technical standards for space debris mitigation, to provide

implementation requirements and details for the top-level requirements in ISO 24113.

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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23312:2022(E)
Space systems — Detailed space debris mitigation
requirements for spacecraft
1 Scope

This document defines detailed space debris mitigation requirements and recommendations for the

design and operation of unmanned spacecraft in Earth orbit.
This document defines detailed requirements that are applicable to:

a) avoiding the intentional release of space debris into Earth orbit during normal operations;

b) avoiding break-ups in Earth orbit;
c) disposal of a spacecraft after the end of mission;
d) estimating the mass of the remaining usable propellant;
e) developing and maintaining the space debris mitigation plan.
NOTE This document does not cover nuclear power sources on spacecraft.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 24113:2019, Space systems — Space debris mitigation requirements
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 24113 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
acquiring organization

organization that plans and manages the development and acquisition contracts for the space system

Note 1 to entry: The responsibilities of the acquiring organization include the engineering and technical aspects

of the space system’s design and operations.
3.2
book-keeping method

method for determining fluid consumption by monitoring flow rates and the duration of propellant

expenditure periods
3.3
disposal orbit

orbit in which a spacecraft resides following the completion of its disposal actions

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ISO 23312:2022(E)
3.4
PVT method

method for determining the remaining fluid quantity by estimating the mass of gas by deriving density

in a known volume from pressure and temperature measurements
3.5
remaining usable propellant

propellant that remains in the propellant system and that is effective for attitude and orbit control

manoeuvres excluding residuals and uncertainty
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
ΔV delta velocity or total velocity change
EOL end of life
EOMDP end of mission disposal plan
GEO geostationary Earth orbit
LEO low Earth orbit
ṁ mass flow rate
MLI multilayer insulation
PVT pressure, volume, temperature
SDMP space debris mitigation plan
t time
5 Avoiding release of space debris into Earth orbit during normal operations

ISO 24113 specifies that a spacecraft shall be designed so as not to release space debris into Earth orbit

during normal operations. To satisfy this requirement, as a minimum, the following measures shall be

implemented.

a) Any appendage related to spacecraft normal operations shall be designed not to be released.

NOTE 1 Appendages include items such as apogee kick propulsion devices, fasteners of holding and

deployment mechanisms, caps, hoods, heat insulation enclosures, springs, explosive bolts and related

fragments.

b) Releasing parts essential for mission objectives should be assured not to pose a risk to the safety of

operating spacecraft and deteriorate the space environment.

c) Paint, MLI and surface materials that are exposed to the space environment, should be selected and

processes applied properly, to avoid flaking off from the spacecraft.
NOTE 2 Following ISO documents could help to assure compliance:
1) ISO 16691, Thermal control coatings for spacecraft — General requirements.

2) ISO 23129, Space systems — Thermal control coatings for spacecraft — Atomic oxygen protective

coating on polyimide film.

3) ISO 23230, Space systems — Paint materials — Processes, procedures, requirements.

d) Programs using tethers shall take extra measures to limit the collision risk with resident space

objects, and not to be severed with a single impact of debris or meteoroid.
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ISO 23312:2022(E)

NOTE 3 Potential measure for tethered system is to apply multi-strand tether, to retract the tether in the

disposal phase.
6 Avoiding break-ups in Earth orbit
6.1 General

ISO 24113 specifies requirements to avoid the accidental break-up of a spacecraft in Earth orbit both

before and after its end of life. 6.2 and 6.3 provide detailed measures to help satisfy these requirements.

6.2 Accidental break-up caused by an on-board source of energy
6.2.1 General measures
6.2.1.1 Spacecraft design

The spacecraft design measures to prevent accidental break-ups caused by on-board source of energy

are as follows.

a) The calculations to determine the probability of accidental break-up while in orbit until its end of

life shall be performed and assessed with probability levels defined in ISO 24113:2019, 6.2.2.1.

NOTE 1 Annex A provides an example of an acceptable detailed evaluation approach.

b) Measures shall be designed to ensure that all on-board sources of stored energy can be depleted or

made safe and permanently deactivated once they are no longer required for the mission operation.

NOTE 2 Source can be residual propellants, batteries, high-pressure vessels, self-destructive devices,

flywheels, and momentum wheels.

c) The design of the on-board sources of stored energy shall take into account the following influences:

— the environmental extremes expected to be encountered during the normal operations;

— mechanical degradation during the normal operations;
— chemical decomposition;

— the effect of potential failure modes of the spacecraft during the mission, and

— what effect they would have on the ability to passivate the spacecraft.

d) The robustness of the design shall be confirmed during the design review process, to ensure that

adequate reliability and quality control has been performed to inhibit any failure that can lead to a

break-up event with a probability worse than specified in ISO 24113.

e) The first issue of passivation procedures shall be established prior to the end of the design phase.

6.2.1.2 Spacecraft operations

The spacecraft in-orbit operation measures to prevent accidental break-ups caused by on-board source

of energy are as follows.

a) For the operations of the spacecraft, procedures shall be defined to allow monitoring of the relevant

parameters of each subsystem, which has been identified as a potential source of space debris

generation, in order to detect malfunctions.

b) The following items, as a minimum, shall be monitored from the ground, if applicable:

— pressure and temperature in the engines, tanks, pressure vessels;
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ISO 23312:2022(E)
— parameters (temperature and voltage) of batteries to detect failures;
— parameters to detect failure modes of the orbit and attitude control system.

c) Prior to the disposal phase, the passivation procedures shall be updated to take into account any

failures that have occurred during the mission and that affect the ability to passivate the spacecraft.

d) At the time when spacecraft operation is concluded either purposefully or due to malfunction and

disposal manoeuvres have been finished, passivation shall be performed.

NOTE If a controlled re-entry is to be performed, then passivation is not necessary.

e) In the event of in-orbit malfunctions which can lead to break-up or the loss of operating function,

a contingency plan to prevent debris generation should have been studied and, where appropriate,

implemented.
6.2.2 Subsystem-specific measures
6.2.2.1 Electrical systems
The specific measures for electrical systems are as follows.

a) The performance of batteries shall be monitored and assessed in accordance with standardized

procedures to assure the safety of the mission and post-mission disposal.

NOTE 1 Standardized procedure for health assessment of lithium-ion batteries can be found in

ISO/TR 20891.

b) Batteries and/or electrical systems shall be designed and manufactured, both structurally and

electrically, to prevent break-ups during all orbital life.

c) Pressure increase in battery cells and assemblies, potentially leading to a break-up, shall be

prevented.

NOTE 2 This can be done by mechanical measures for some types of batteries as far as it doesn’t decrease

the reliability.

d) At the end of operations, take measures to prevent re-charging to batteries, and discharge the

stored electric energy with assuring to keep necessary electric energy for following disposal action.

6.2.2.2 Propulsion systems
The specific measures for propulsion systems are as follows.

a) Pressure vessels, such as tanks and high-pressure gas bottles, shall be designed to avoid accidental

break-up caused by stored energy sources.

NOTE 1 ISO 14623 and ISO 24638 contain requirements relating to the design of pressure vessels.

b) For a bipropellant propulsion system, especially with hypergolic propellants, tanks and lines should

be designed so that any single-point failure does not cause the unplanned mixture or combustion of

the propellants.

c) Before end of life, as part of the disposal phase, the spacecraft shall have consumed or vented

residual liquid propellants and pressurized fluids, such as cold gas, liquefied gas, and propellant for

the fluid-based electric propulsion systems, which are potential sources of break-ups. Any residual

liquid propellants and pressurized fluids can be a source of break-ups also for spacecraft drifting

outside protected regions after end of life and should be consumed or vented to the maximum

extent as possible before end of life.
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ISO 23312:2022(E)

d) End of venting shall be monitored (or confirmed), if appropriate, by proper means, such as on-

board pressure sensors, fluid gauging systems, thermal sensing, attitude sensing, or any other

demonstrable means.

e) If it is not possible to vent, a sufficient safety margin to ensure no break-ups under expected post-

disposal environmental conditions shall be adopted.

f) The venting system and process shall be designed not to be prevented by the frozen propellants.

g) The venting process should be defined to take into account any potential effects on the spacecraft’s

attitude or orbit and any ground visibility issues.

h) Solid rocket motors shall only be actuated in the case that there have been no sensor indications of

motor degradation due to mission-induced damage or due to adverse environmental conditions.

i) Solid motor should not be allowed if it generates slags in the GEO and LEO protected regions.

6.2.2.3 Pressurized systems such as heat pipes/fluid loops

All pressurized systems which are typically not designed to be vented, such as heat pipes/fluid loops,

shall be designed and qualified with safety margins that prevent break-up of the spacecraft when

considering thermal effects in orbit.

NOTE Specific venting operations for this kind of pressurized systems are not required in the disposal

phase.
6.2.2.4 Rotating hardware
The specific measures for rotating hardware are as follows.

a) All rotating devices, for example flywheels, reaction wheels, and momentum wheels, shall be

designed so that failure of the rotating part does not cause the break-up of the spacecraft under

nominal mechanical environmental conditions.

b) All rotating parts shall be allowed to de-spin, or stopped by termination of the power supply, at the

end of life.
6.2.2.5 Other devices
The specific measures for other devices are as follows.

a) Any other energy sources, such as pyrotechnically operated devices, shall be designed so that they

do not cause unacceptable risk of break-up and generate fragments.

b) Where this is unavoidable, the fragments shall be self-contained within the device which is affected

by break-up.
6.3 Accidental break-up caused by a collision
6.3.1 Collision avoidance

The spacecraft shall be designed and operated properly to prevent collision with trackable orbital

objects before its end of life.

a) During the mission operation, the conjunction assessment shall be conducted periodically against

potentially approaching objects based on the reliable orbit data.

b) Exchange of orbital parameters should be encouraged among spacecraft operators or space

agencies, to precisely check the close approach distance, and then determine an optimal avoidance

manoeuvre strategy for operators.
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ISO 23312:2022(E)

c) The probability of collision with approaching trackable orbital objects shall be assessed during

operation.
NOTE 2 ISO/TR 16158 can be used to estimate the probability of collision.

d) If the risk of collision is above the threshold set by an approving agent, then the collision avoidance

manoeuvre (and/or returning manoeuvre) shall be planned and conducted appropriately, to reduce

the collision risk below the corresponding risk threshold.

6.3.2 Assessment of the probability of structural break-up caused by impacts with debris or

meteoroid

It is required to assess the probability of structural break-ups of spacecraft caused by impacts with

debris or meteoroid before its end of life.

a) The vulnerability of spacecraft against impact of space debris or meteoroid shall be assessed

during the design phase.

b) If the risk of structural break-up caused by impacts with debris is above the threshold set by an

approving agent, then the special design measures should be considered to minimize this risk.

NOTE 1 ISO 11227 and ISO 16126 provide guidance for analysing the impact risk from small debris impacts

and improving the design of spacecraft.

NOTE 2 The probability of successful collision avoidance, induced from the experience and authorized by

approving agent, can be incorporated into this assessment.

NOTE 3 The estimated probability of collision with trackable object will provide information of the expected

number of collision avoidance during operation and contribute on the planning of propellant allocation for 7.2 c).

7 Disposal of spacecraft after the end of mission
7.1 General

ISO 24113 specifies requirements for the disposal of a spacecraft after the end of mission so as to

minimize interference with the protected regions. 7.2 to 7.4 provide detailed measures to help satisfy

these requirements.

NOTE Measures to prevent break-up, as a part of disposal action, is written in 6.2.

7.2 Ensuring execution of disposal action
The measures to ensure execution of disposal action are as follows.

a) The probability of successful disposal should be determined during the design phase, and decide

to terminate the operation taking into account the events that have occurred during the operating

phase.

NOTE 1 In the case of highly eccentric orbits, considering the uncertainty in estimation of orbital

lifetime, the amount of propellant for disposal is designed to assure the compliance with 25-year rule with a

probability of more than 0,9. This is excluded from the probability of successful disposal of 0,9.

NOTE 2 Where possible, put in place well-organized systematic surveillance procedures, pre-planned

emergency actions, adequate procedures for determining the extension of the lifespan taking into account

deterioration or decommissioning, etc. The method to assess this probability can be determined by the

approving agent.

b) The availability of items concerning to the specific criteria shall be assured throughout the

designated (or planned) mission life.
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ISO 23312:2022(E)

NOTE 3 Examples are estimated amounts of propellant remaining, redundancy remaining, status of

electrical power, status of systems critical to successful disposal, and time required to execute each disposal

action.

c) In order to reserve enough usable propellant to ensure the success of disposal manoeuvres, the

propellant used over the mission life shall be estimated with stated uncertainty; and the remaining

usable propellant shall be regularly monitored with quantified uncertainty.

NOTE 4 The remaining usable propellant can consider and include potentially needed collision avoidance

manoeuvres during operation.
NOTE 5 Clause 8 gives details for the estimation of remaining usable propellant.

d) A spacecraft should be injected into an intermediate (lower) altitude before transferring the

spacecraft to its final orbit for the planned operation, to provide the opportunity to check-out the

system, especially all critical systems required for controlling the spacecraft, performing collision

avoidance and post mission disposal.

e) The intermediate orbit should be designed preferably in a way that the spacecraft, even with critical

failures, naturally decays in accordance with the 25-year limit for the orbit lifetime as defined in

ISO 24113.
7.3 Disposal to minimize interference with the GEO protected region
7.3.1 General

ISO 24113 specifies that a spacecraft shall remain outside of, and not interfere with, the protected

regions for a period of at least 100 years after the end of its life.

a) Select a stable disposal orbit and conduct relating disposal manoeuvres for spacecraft before end

of life according to ISO 24113:2019, 6.3.2.2 or 6.3.2.3.

b) In the case of inclined GEO spacecraft, re-entry option is possible with feasible velocity increase

depending on the specific initial combination of inclination, eccentricity and ascending node. If

the orbital lifetime and dwell time passing through the protected orbital regions are acceptable

considering the contents of ISO 24113, it can be taken as a disposal option.
7.3.2 Developing basic manoeuvre requirements for a stable disposal orbit

A stable disposal orbit shall be established by one of the two options described below.

a) Use the eccentricity constraint as specified in ISO 24113:2019, 6.3.2.2 a) and Formula (1) to

determi
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