Information technology — Reference Architecture for Service Oriented Architecture (SOA RA) — Part 3: Service Oriented Architecture ontology

ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016 defines a formal ontology for service-oriented architecture (SOA), an architectural style that supports service orientation. The terms defined in this ontology are key terms from the vocabulary in ISO/IEC 18384-1.

Technologie de l'information — Architecture de référence pour l'architecture orientée service (SOA RA) — Partie 3: Ontologie de l'architecture orientée service

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Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Jun-2016
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
20-Sep-2021
Completion Date
20-Sep-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 18384-3
First edition
2016-07-01
Information technology — Reference
Architecture for Service Oriented
Architecture (SOA RA) —
Part 3:
Service Oriented Architecture
ontology
Technologie de l’information — Architecture de référence pour
l’architecture orientée service (SOA RA) —
Partie 3: Ontologie de l’architecture orientée service
Reference number
ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016(E)
ISO/IEC 2016
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ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Notations....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Conventions ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

7 SOA Ontology Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

7.1 At a Glance .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

7.2 Intended Use ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

7.3 Applications ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8 System and Element .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.2 The Element Class ................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

8.3 The uses and usedBy Properties ............................................................................................................................................. 6

8.4 Element — Organizational Example .................................................................................................................................... 7

8.5 The System Class ................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.6 System — Examples ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.6.1 Organizational Example............................................................................................................................................. 8

8.6.2 Service composition Example............................................................................................................................... 8

8.6.3 Car wash Example ........................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.7 The represents and representedBy Properties ........................................................................................................... 9

8.8 The represents and representedBy Examples ..........................................................................................................10

8.8.1 Organizational Example..........................................................................................................................................10

8.8.2 Car Wash Example .......................................................................................................................................................10

9 HumanActor and Task ..................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.2 The HumanActor Class ..................................................................................................................................................................11

9.3 HumanActor — Examples ..........................................................................................................................................................12

9.3.1 The uses and usedBy Properties Applied to HumanActor ........................................................12

9.3.2 The represents and representedBy Properties Applied to HumanActor .....................12

9.3.3 Organizational Example..........................................................................................................................................12

9.3.4 Car Wash Example .......................................................................................................................................................13

9.4 The Task Class .......................................................................................................................................................................................13

9.5 The does and doneBy Properties .........................................................................................................................................13

9.6 Task — Examples ...............................................................................................................................................................................14

9.6.1 The uses and usedBy Properties Applied to Task ............................................................................14

9.6.2 The represents and representedBy Properties Applied to Task ..........................................14

9.6.3 Organizational Example..........................................................................................................................................14

9.6.4 Car Wash Example .......................................................................................................................................................15

10 Service, ServiceContract, and ServiceInterface .................................................................................................................15

10.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.2 The Service Class ................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.3 The performs and performedBy Properties ...............................................................................................................16

10.4 Service Consumers and Service Providers...................................................................................................................17

10.5 Service — Examples ........................................................................................................................................................................17

10.5.1 The uses and usedBy properties Applied to Service ......................................................................17

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ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016(E)

10.5.2 The represents and representedBy Properties Applied to Service ...................................18

10.5.3 Exemplifying the Difference Between Doing a Task and Performing a Service ......18

10.5.4 Car Wash Example .......................................................................................................................................................18

10.6 The ServiceContract Class ..........................................................................................................................................................18

10.7 The interactionAspect and legalAspect Datatype Properties ......................................................................19

10.8 The hasContract and isContractFor Properties .......................................................................................................20

10.9 The involvesParty and isPartyTo Properties ..............................................................................................................20

10.10 The Effect Class ....................................................................................................................................................................................21

10.11 The specifies and isSpecifiedBy Properties ................................................................................................................22

10.12 ServiceContract — Examples ..................................................................................................................................................22

10.12.1 Service-level Agreements ......................................................................................................................................22

10.12.2 Service Sourcing ............................................................................................................................................................23

10.12.3 Car Wash Example .......................................................................................................................................................23

10.13 The ServiceInterface Class .........................................................................................................................................................23

10.14 The Constraints Datatype Property ...................................................................................................................................24

10.15 The hasInterface and isInterfaceOf Properties ........................................................................................................25

10.16 The InformationType Class .......................................................................................................................................................25

10.17 The hasInput and isInputAt Properties ..........................................................................................................................26

10.18 The hasOutput and isOutputAt Properties ..................................................................................................................26

10.19 Examples ...................................................................................................................................................................................................26

10.19.1 Interaction Sequencing ...........................................................................................................................................26

10.19.2 Car wash example ........................................................................................................................................................27

11 Composition and its Subclasses .........................................................................................................................................................27

11.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................27

11.2 The Composition Class ..................................................................................................................................................................27

11.3 The compositionPattern Datatype Property ..............................................................................................................28

11.3.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................28

11.3.2 The Orchestration Composition Pattern ..................................................................................................29

11.3.3 The Choreography Composition Pattern .................................................................................................29

11.3.4 The Collaboration Composition Pattern ...................................................................................................29

11.4 The orchestrates and orchestratedBy Properties ..................................................................................................31

11.5 The ServiceComposition Class ...............................................................................................................................................32

11.6 The Process Class ...............................................................................................................................................................................32

11.7 Service Composition and Process Examples ..............................................................................................................33

11.7.1 Simple Service Composition Example ........................................................................................................33

11.7.2 Process Example ...........................................................................................................................................................33

11.7.3 Process and Service Composition Example ...........................................................................................34

11.7.4 Car Wash Example .......................................................................................................................................................34

12 Policy ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................34

12.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................34

12.2 The Policy Class ...................................................................................................................................................................................34

12.3 The appliesTo and isSubjectTo Properties ...................................................................................................................35

12.4 The setsPolicy and isSetBy Properties ............................................................................................................................35

12.5 Examples ...................................................................................................................................................................................................36

12.5.1 Car Wash Example .......................................................................................................................................................36

13 Event ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................36

13.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................36

13.2 The Event Class ....................................................................................................................................................................................36

13.3 The generates and generatedBy Properties................................................................................................................37

13.4 The respondsTo and respondedToBy Properties ...................................................................................................37

Annex A (informative) Complete Car Wash Example ........................................................................................................................39

Annex B (informative) Internet Purchase Example ...........................................................................................................................44

Annex C (normative) The OWL Definition of the SOA Ontology ............................................................................................46

Annex D (informative) Class Relationship Matrix ................................................................................................................................55

iv © ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016(E)

Annex E (informative) Terms Mapping Between the SOA RA Parts ...................................................................................59

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................74

© ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, Subcommittee

SC 38, Cloud Computing and Distributed Platforms.

ISO/IEC 18384 consists of the following parts, under the general title Reference Architecture for Service

Oriented Architecture (SOA RA):
— Part 1: Terminology and concepts for SOA
— Part 2: Reference Architecture for SOA Solutions
— Part 3: Service Oriented Architecture Ontology
vi © ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016(E)
Introduction

Service oriented architecture (SOA) is an architectural style in which business and IT systems are

designed in terms of services available at an interface and the outcomes of these services. A service

is a logical representation of a set of activities that has specified outcomes, is self-contained, it may be

composed of other services but consumers of the service need not be aware of any internal structure.

SOA takes “service” as its basic element to constitute and integrate information systems so that they are

suitable for a variety of solution requirements. SOA enables interactions between businesses without

needing to specify aspects of any particular business domain. Using the SOA architectural style can

improve the efficiency of developing information systems and integrating and reusing IT resources. In

addition, using the SOA architectural style can help enable rapid response of information systems to

ever-changing business needs.

This International Standard is intended to be a single set of SOA technical principles, specific norms,

and standards for the world-wide market to help remove confusion about SOA and improve the

standardization and quality of solutions.

This International Standard defines the terminology, technical principles, reference architecture

and the ontology for SOA. ISO/IEC 18384 can be used to introduce SOA concepts, as a guide to the

development and management of SOA solutions, as well as be referenced by business and industry

standards.
This International Standard contains three parts:

1) ISO/IEC 18384-1 which defines the terminology, basic technical principles and concepts for SOA.

2) ISO/IEC 18384-2 which defines the detailed SOA reference architecture layers, including a

metamodel, capabilities, architectural building blocks, as well as types of services in SOA solutions.

3) ISO/IEC 18384-3 which defines the core concepts of SOA and their relationships in the Ontology.

The targeted audience of this International Standard includes, but is not limited to, standards

organizations, architects, architecture methodologists, system and software designers, business

people, SOA service providers, SOA solution and service developers, and SOA service consumers who

are interested in adopting and developing SOA.

Users of this International Standard will find it useful to read ISO/IEC 18384-1 for an understanding of

SOA basics. ISO/IEC 18384-1 should be read before reading or applying ISO/IEC 18384-2. For those new

to the SOA reference architecture in ISO/IEC 18384-2:2016, Clause 4 provides a high level understanding

of the reference architecture for SOA solutions. The remaining clauses provide comprehensive details

of the architectural building blocks and tradeoffs needed for a SOA Solution. This part of ISO/IEC 18384

contains the SOA Ontology, which is a formalism of the core concepts and terminology of SOA, with

mappings to both UML and OWL. The SOA Ontology can be used independent of or in conjunction with

ISO/IEC 18384-1 and ISO/IEC 18384-2.

The purpose of this part of ISO/IEC 18384 is to contribute to developing and fostering common

understanding of service-oriented architecture (SOA) in order to improve alignment between the

business and information technology communities and facilitate SOA adoption.

The SOA Ontology defines the concepts, terminology, and semantics of SOA in both business and

technical terms, in order to
— create a foundation for further work in domain-specific areas,
— enable communications between business and technical people,

— enhance the understanding of SOA concepts in the business and technical communities,

— provide a means to state problems and opportunities clearly and unambiguously to promote mutual

understanding, and
© ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved vii
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ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016(E)
— provide a starting point for model-driven development of SOA solutions.
viii © ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016(E)
Information technology — Reference Architecture for
Service Oriented Architecture (SOA RA) —
Part 3:
Service Oriented Architecture ontology
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 18384 defines a formal ontology for service-oriented architecture (SOA), an

architectural style that supports service orientation. The terms defined in this ontology are key terms

from the vocabulary in ISO/IEC 18384-1.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 18384-1, Information technology — Reference Architecture for Service Oriented Architecture (SOA

RA) — Part 1 Terminology and concepts for SOA
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 18384-1 and the

following apply.
3.1.1
opaque
having no internal structure that is visible to an external observer
3.1.2
ontology

model that represents a domain and is used to reason about the objects in that domain and the relations

between them

Note 1 to entry: This part of ISO/IEC 18384 is high level and not meant to be used for formal reasoning.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/TR 24800-1:2007, 2.1.9]
3.2 Abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviated terms apply.
ABB Architecture Building Block
BPMN Business Process Model and Notation
EA Enterprise Architecture
ESB Enterprise Service Bus
IT Information Technology
© ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 18384-3:2016(E)
OWL Web Ontology Language
RA Reference Architecture
RDF Resource Definition Framework
SLA Service Level Agreement
SOA Service Oriented Architecture
UML Unified Modeling Language
4 Notations

The ontology is represented in the web ontology language (OWL) defined by the World Wide Web

Consortium. OWL has three increasingly expressive sub-languages: OWL-Lite, OWL-DL, and OWL-

Full (see Reference [10] for a definition of these three dialects of OWL). This ontology uses OWL-DL,

the sub-language that provides the greatest expressiveness possible while retaining computational

completeness and decidability.

The ontology contains classes and properties corresponding to the concepts of SOA. The formal

OWL definitions are supplemented by natural language descriptions of the concepts, with graphic

illustrations of the relations betw
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
DRAFT
STANDARD FDIS
18384-3
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 38
Information Technology — Reference
Secretariat: ANSI
Architecture for Service Oriented
Voting begins on:
2015-06-19 Architecture (SOA) —
Voting terminates on:
Part 3:
2015-08-19
Service Oriented Architecture Ontology
Technologie de l’information — Architecture de référence pour
l’architecture orientée service (SOA)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/IEC FDIS 18384-3:2015(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO/IEC 2015
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18384-3:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 18384 Part 3
67 Contents Page

68 Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

69 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 9

70 1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................... 12

71 2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................... 12

72 3 Terms and Definitions ...................................................................................................................... 12

73 3.1 Definitions............................................................................................................................................ 12

74 3.1.1 Opaque ................................................................................................................................................. 12

75 3.1.2 Ontology .............................................................................................................................................. 12

76 3.2 Acronyms............................................................................................................................................. 13

77 3.3 Notations .............................................................................................................................................. 13

78 3.4 Conventions ........................................................................................................................................ 14

79 3.5 Conformance ....................................................................................................................................... 14

80 4 SOA Ontology Overview .................................................................................................................... 15

81 4.1 At a Glance .......................................................................................................................................... 15

82 4.2 Intended Use........................................................................................................................................ 17

83 4.3 Applications......................................................................................................................................... 17

84 5 System and Element ........................................................................................................................... 18

85 5.1 Overiew ................................................................................................................................................ 18

86 5.2 The Element Class .............................................................................................................................. 18

87 5.3 The uses and usedBy Properties ...................................................................................................... 19

88 5.4 Element – Organizational Example ................................................................................................... 19

89 5.5 The System Class ............................................................................................................................... 20

90 5.6 System – Examples ............................................................................................................................ 21

91 5.6.1 Organizational Example ..................................................................................................................... 21

92 5.6.2 Service Composition Example .......................................................................................................... 21

93 5.6.3 Car Wash Example .............................................................................................................................. 21

94 5.7 The represents and representedBy Properties ................................................................................ 21

95 5.8 Represents and representedBy Examples ....................................................................................... 23

96 5.8.1 Organizational Example ..................................................................................................................... 23

97 5.8.2 Car Wash Example .............................................................................................................................. 23

98 6 HumanActor and Task ........................................................................................................................ 24

99 6.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 24

100 6.2 The HumanActor Class ...................................................................................................................... 24

101 6.3 HumanActor – Examples .................................................................................................................... 25

102 6.3.1 The uses and usedBy Properties Applied to HumanActor ............................................................. 25

103 6.3.2 The represents and representedBy Properties Applied to HumanActor ...................................... 25

104 6.3.3 Organizational Example ..................................................................................................................... 26

105 6.3.4 Car Wash Example .............................................................................................................................. 26

106 6.4 The Task Class .................................................................................................................................... 26

107 6.5 The does and doneBy Properties ...................................................................................................... 27

108 6.6 Task – Examples ................................................................................................................................. 28

109 6.6.1 The uses and usedBy Properties Applied to Task .......................................................................... 28

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ISO/IEC FDIS 18384 Part 3

110 6.6.2 The represents and representedBy Properties Applied to Task .................................................... 28

111 6.6.3 Organizational Example ..................................................................................................................... 28

112 6.6.4 Car Wash Example .............................................................................................................................. 28

113 7 Service, ServiceContract, and ServiceInterface .............................................................................. 29

114 7.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 29

115 7.2 The Service Class ............................................................................................................................... 30

116 7.3 The performs and performedBy Properties ..................................................................................... 30

117 7.4 Service Consumers and Service Providers ..................................................................................... 31

118 7.5 Service – Examples ............................................................................................................................ 31

119 7.5.1 The uses and usedBy Properties Applied to Service ..................................................................... 31

120 7.5.2 The represents and representedBy Properties Applied to Service ............................................... 32

121 7.5.3 Exemplifying the Difference between Doing a Task and Performing a Service ........................... 32

122 7.5.4 Car Wash Example .............................................................................................................................. 32

123 7.6 The ServiceContract Class ................................................................................................................ 33

124 7.7 The interactionAspect and legalAspect Datatype Properties ........................................................ 33

125 7.8 The hasContract and isContractFor Properties............................................................................... 35

126 7.9 The involvesParty and isPartyTo Properties ................................................................................... 35

127 7.10 The Effect Class .................................................................................................................................. 36

128 7.11 The specifies and isSpecifiedBy Properties .................................................................................... 37

129 7.12 ServiceContract – Examples.............................................................................................................. 38

130 7.12.1 Service-Level Agreements ................................................................................................................. 38

131 7.12.2 Service Sourcing ................................................................................................................................. 38

132 7.12.3 Car Wash Example .............................................................................................................................. 38

133 7.13 The ServiceInterface Class ................................................................................................................ 38

134 7.14 The Constraints Datatype Property .................................................................................................. 39

135 7.15 The hasInterface and isInterfaceOf Properties ................................................................................ 40

136 7.16 The InformationType Class ................................................................................................................ 41

137 7.17 The hasInput and isInputAt Properties ............................................................................................. 41

138 7.18 The hasOutput and isOutputAt Properties ....................................................................................... 42

139 7.19 Examples ............................................................................................................................................. 42

140 7.19.1 Interaction Sequencing ...................................................................................................................... 42

141 7.19.2 Car Wash Example .............................................................................................................................. 43

142 8 Composition and its Subclasses ...................................................................................................... 43

143 8.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 43

144 8.2 The Composition Class ...................................................................................................................... 43

145 8.3 The compositionPattern Datatype Property ..................................................................................... 44

146 8.3.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 44

147 8.3.2 The Orchestration Composition Pattern .......................................................................................... 45

148 8.3.3 The Choreography Composition Pattern ......................................................................................... 45

149 8.3.4 The Collaboration Composition Pattern ........................................................................................... 46

150 8.4 The orchestrates and orchestratedBy Properties ........................................................................... 46

151 8.5 The ServiceComposition Class ......................................................................................................... 47

152 8.6 The Process Class .............................................................................................................................. 48

153 8.7 Service Composition and Process Examples .................................................................................. 49

154 8.7.1 Simple Service Composition Example ............................................................................................. 49

155 8.7.2 Process Example ................................................................................................................................ 50

156 8.7.3 Process and Service Composition Example .................................................................................... 50

157 8.7.4 Car Wash Example .............................................................................................................................. 50

158 9 Policy .................................................................................................................................................... 50

159 9.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 50

160 9.2 The Policy Class ................................................................................................................................. 50

161 9.3 The appliesTo and isSubjectTo Properties ...................................................................................... 51

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ISO/IEC FDIS 18384 Part 3

162 9.4 The setsPolicy and isSetBy Properties ............................................................................................ 52

163 9.5 Examples ............................................................................................................................................. 53

164 9.5.1 Car Wash Example .............................................................................................................................. 53

165 10 Event .................................................................................................................................................... 53

166 10.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 53

167 10.2 The Event Class .................................................................................................................................. 53

168 10.3 The generates and generatedBy Properties .................................................................................... 54

169 10.4 The respondsTo and respondedToBy Properties ........................................................................... 54

170 Annex A (Informative) Complete Car Wash Example................................................................................... 56

171 Annex B (Informative) Internet Purchase Example ...................................................................................... 63

172 Annex C (Normative) The OWL Definition of the SOA Ontology ................................................................ 65

173 Annex D (Informative) Class Relationship Matrix......................................................................................... 77

174 Annex E (Informative) Terms Mapping between the SOA RA Parts ........................................................... 80

175 Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 93

176
177
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18384 Part 3
178 Table of Figures

179 Figure 1 ― SOA Ontology – Graphical Overview ............................................................................................. 16

180 Figure 2 — The Element Class ......................................................................................................................... 18

181 Figure 3 — The System Class .......................................................................................................................... 20

182 Figure 4 — The represents and representedBy Properties .............................................................................. 22

183 Figure 5 ― The HumanActor Class .................................................................................................................. 25

184 Figure 6 ― The Task Class .............................................................................................................................. 27

185

Figure 7 — The Service Class .......................................................................................................................... 30

186 Figure 8 — The ServiceContract Class ............................................................................................................ 33

187 Figure 9 — The Effect Class ............................................................................................................................. 36

188 Figure 10 — The ServiceInterface Class .......................................................................................................... 39

189 Figure 11 — The InformationType Class .......................................................................................................... 41

190 Figure 12 — The Composition Class ................................................................................................................ 44

191 Figure 13 ― The ServiceComposition Class .................................................................................................... 48

192 Figure 14 — The Process Class ....................................................................................................................... 49

193 Figure 15 ― The Policy Class .......................................................................................................................... 51

194 Figure 16 ― The Event Class ........................................................................................................................... 54

195 Figure A.1 ― Car Wash Example – The Organizational Aspect ...................................................................... 57

196 Figure A.2 ― Car Wash Example – The Washing Services ............................................................................. 59

197 Figure A.3 ― Car Wash Example – The Washing Processes .......................................................................... 61

198
199
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18384 Part 3
200 Foreword

201 ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

202 bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through

203 ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has

204 been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations,

205 governmental and knon-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely

206 with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

207 International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

208 The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

209 adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

210 International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

211 ISO 18384 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/JTC 1, Subcommittee SC 38, Cloud Computing and

212 Distributed Platforms.

213 ISO/IEC FDIS 18384 consists of three parts, under the general title: Reference Architecture for Service

214 Oriented Architecture

215 ISO/IEC FDIS 18384-1, Information technology – Reference Architecture for Service Oriented Architecture –

216 Part 1: Terminology and Concepts for SOA

217 ISO/IEC FDIS 18384-2, Information technology – Reference Architecture for Service Oriented Architecture –

218 Part 2: Reference Architecture for SOA Solutions

219 ISO/IEC FDIS 18384-3, Information technology – Reference Architecture for Service Oriented Architecture –

220 Part 3: SOA Ontology

221 Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

222 rights. ISO/IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

223
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224 Introduction

225 Service Oriented Architecture (abbreviated SOA) is an architectural style in which business and IT systems

226 are designed in terms of services available at an interface and the outcomes of these services. A service is a

227 logical representation of a set of activities that has specified outcomes and is self-contained, it may be

228 composed of other services but consumers of the service (3.1.20) need not be aware of any internal

229 structure.

230 SOA takes ‘service’ as its basic element to constitute and integrate information systems so that they are

231 suitable for a variety of solution requirements. SOA enables interactions between businesses without needing

232 to specify aspects of any particular business domain. Using the SOA architectural style can improve the

233 efficiency of developing information systems, and integrating and reusing IT resources. In addition, using the

234 SOA architectural style can help enable rapid response of information systems to ever-changing business

235 needs.

236 ISO/IEC 18384 is intended to be a single set of SOA technical principles, specific norms, and standards for

237 the world-wide market to help remove confusion about SOA and improve the standardization and quality of

238 solutions.

239 ISO/IEC 18384 defines the terminology, technical principles, reference architecture and ontology for SOA.

240 ISO/IEC 18384 can be used to introduce SOA concepts, as a guide to the development and management of

241 SOA solutions, as well as be referenced by business and industry standards
242 This ISO/IEC 18384 contains three parts:

243 1. Part 1: Terminology and Concepts – which defines the terminology, basic technical principles and

244 concepts for SOA

245 2. Part 2: Reference Architecture for SOA Solutions – which defines the detailed SOA reference

246 architecture layers, including a metamodel, capabilities, architectural building blocks, as well as types of

247 services in SOA solutions.

248 3. Part 3: SOA Ontology – which defines the core concepts of SOA and their relationships in

249 anOntology.

250 The targeted audience of ISO/IEC 18384 includes, but is not limited to, standards organizations;

251 architects, architecture methodologists, system and software designers, business people, SOA service

252 providers, SOA solution and service developers, and SOA service consumers who are interested in

253 adopting and developing SOA.

254 Users of ISO/IEC 18384 will find it useful to read ISOIEC 18384-1 for an understanding of SOA basics.

255 ISOIEC 18384-1 should be read before reading or applying ISOIEC 18384-2. For those new to the SOA

256 reference architecture, clause 4 in ISOIEC 18384-2 provides a high level understanding of the Reference

257 Architecture for SOA Solutions. The remaining clauses provide comprehensive details of the architectural

258 building blocks and tradeoffs needed for a SOA Solution. This part of this International Standard contains the

259 SOA Ontology, which is a formalism of the core concepts and terminology of SOA, with mappings to both

260 UML and OWL. The SOA Ontology can be used independent of or in conjunction with the other two Parts.

261 The purpose of this part of this International Standard is to contribute to developing and fostering common

262 understanding of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in order to improve alignment between the business

263 and information technology communities, and facilitate SOA adoption.
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264 The SOA Ontology defines the concepts, terminology, and semantics of SOA in both business and technical

265 terms, in order to:
266 • Create a foundation for further work in domain-specific areas
267 • Enable communications between business and technical people

268 • Enhance the understanding of SOA concepts in the business and technical communities

269 • Provide a means to state problems and opportunities clearly and unambiguously to promote mutual

270 understanding

271 • It may provide a starting point for model-driven development of SOA solutions

272

273 The content of this part of this International Standard is defined in the following clauses:

274 Forward – abstract for this part
275 Introduction – high level overview of this Part
276 Clause 1 – Scope
277 Clause 2 Normative references

278 Clause 3 – Terminology – defines terms used when discussing or designing Service Oriented Solutions.

279 Terms defined here are used in some unique fashion for SOA. It does not define terms that are used in

280 general English manner.

281 Clause 4 – SOA ontology overview - provides an introduction to the SOA ontology.

282 Clauses 5 through 10 provide the formal definitions (OWL and natural language) of the terms and

283 concepts included in the ontology organized as follows:
284 Clause 5 – System and Element – describes the System and Element concepts

285 Clause 6 – Human Actor and Task – describes the Human Actor and Task concepts

286 Clause 7 – Service, Service Contract, and Service Interface – describes the Service, Service Contract

287 and Service Interface concepts

288 Clause 8 – Composition and its Subclasses– describes the Composition concepts

289 Clause 9 – Policy– describes the Policy concept
290 Clause 10 – Event– describes the Event concept

291 Annex A contains the complete car wash example that is used as a common example throughout.

292 Annex B contains an additional elaborate example utilizing most of the classes in the ontology.

293 Annex C contains the formal OWL definitions of the ontology, collected together.

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294 Annex D contains a relationship matrix that details the class relationships implied by the OWL definitions

295 of the ontology.

296 Annex E conatins a mapping of the terms from ISO/IEC 18384-1 to the terms and concepts in this part of

297 this International Standard and identifies where the terms are discussed in 18384-2 .

298 Bibliography
299
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300 1 Scope

301 This part of this International Standard defines a formal ontology for Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), an

302 architectural style that supports service orientation. The terms defined in this ontology are key terms from the

303 vocabulary in ISO/IEC 18384-1.
304 2 Normative reference
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