Intelligent transport systems — Low-speed automated driving system (LSADS) service — Part 1: Role and functional model

This document defines the requirements of the basic role and functional model of service applications for the introduction of low-speed automated driving system (LSADS) services including infrastructure facilities for supporting mobility in urban and rural areas. This document covers services using LSADS-equipped vehicles only; in-vehicle control systems are outside the scope. Examples of infrastructure facilities and road furniture include driving monitoring platforms, emergency response platforms, operation management platforms, user service platforms (e.g. for online reservations and online payments) and platforms for supporting automated driving systems.

Systèmes intelligents de transport — Service de système de conduite automatisée à vitesse réduite (CAVR) — Partie 1: Rôle général et modèle fonctionnel

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ISO/TS 5255-1:2022 - Intelligent transport systems — Low-speed automated driving system (LSADS) service — Part 1: Role and functional model Released:3/2/2022
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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 5255-1
First edition
2022-03
Intelligent transport systems — Low-
speed automated driving system
(LSADS) service —
Part 1:
Role and functional model
Systèmes intelligents de transport — Service de système de conduite
automatisée à vitesse réduite (CAVR) —
Partie 1: Rôle général et modèle fonctionnel
Reference number
ISO/TS 5255-1:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
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ISO/TS 5255-1:2022(E)
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© ISO 2022

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© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 5255-1:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

5 Automated driving system classification and service evolution ..................................................................... 2

5.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Service classification of AD systems ................................................................................................................................... 2

5.3 AD system service evolution ........................................................................................................................................... .......... 2

6 Infrastructure support for LSADS service role and functional model .......................................................3

7 Role and functional model .........................................................................................................................................................................4

7.1 Objective....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 National variations ............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

7.3 Basic role model..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.4 Application layer role and functional model for LSADS ..................................................................................... 5

7.4.1 Role and functional model options .................................................................................................................... 6

7.4.2 Certification of service providers ....................................................................................................................... 6

8 Concept of operations ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2 Statement of the goals and objectives of the system ............................................................................................ 6

8.3 Strategies, tactics, policies and constraints affecting the system ............................................................ 6

8.4 Operational processes for the system ............................................................................................................................... 7

8.5 Appointment of a certification authority ........................................................................................................................ 7

8.6 Role of the service provider ........................................................................................................................................................ 7

8.7 User ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

9 Operational physical layer role and functional model ................................................................................................ 8

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.2 Actors .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

9.3 LSADS service role and functional model ...................................................................................................................... 9

9.3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

9.3.2 LSADS service control centre .................................................................................................................................. 9

9.3.3 LSADS service user with nomadic device .................................................................................................... 9

9.3.4 LSADS transport provider ......................................................................................................................................... 9

9.3.5 LSADS service vehicle .................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.3.6 LSADS service driving recorder ........................................................................................................................... 9

9.3.7 LSADS service vehicle owner ............................................................................................................................... 10

9.3.8 LSAD vehicle inspection/certification authority................................................................................ 10

9.3.9 First responders (police/fire fighters) ........................................................................................................ 10

9.3.10 LSADS service supporting infrastructure facilities (ISAD) (physical and

digital) ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 10

9.3.11 Regulator (municipal) ................................................................................................................................................. 10

9.3.12 Regional road authority ............................................................................................................................................ 10

9.3.13 SCMS (security credential management system) ............................................................................... 10

9.3.14 Traffic management centre .................................................................................................................................... 10

9.4 Operational physical layer data flow ............................................................................................................................... 11

9.4.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

9.4.2 External data sharing ................................................................................................................................................. 11

9.4.3 LSADS service supporting infrastructure facilities......................................................................... 11

9.4.4 Interaction between LSADS components .................................................................................................. 11

iii
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ISO/TS 5255-1:2022(E)

10 Booking and payment layer role and functional model ..........................................................................................12

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

10.2 Actors ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

10.3 LSADS service role and functional model in booking and payment layer ......................................12

10.3.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................12

10.3.2 User with nomadic device ....................................................................................................................................... 13

10.3.3 LSADS service provider .............................................................................................................................................13

10.3.4 Strategic route planning ........................................................................................................................................... 13

10.3.5 Banking ....................................................................................................................................................................................13

10.3.6 Central account payment system ..................................................................................................................... 13

10.3.7 Payment media owner ................................................................................................................................................ 13

10.4 Booking and payment layer data flow ............................................................................................................................ 13

10.4.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................13

10.4.2 Data flow of booking and payment actions ............................................................................................. 14

Annex A (informative) Infrastructure support levels for automated driving (ISAD) ..................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

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ISO/TS 5255-1:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

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ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

A list of all parts in the ISO 5255 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 5255-1:2022(E)
Introduction

In order to introduce low-speed automated driving systems (LSADS) to support mobility used as a

means of moving people, goods and services in urban and rural areas, it is necessary to standardize the

related service role and functional model.

ISO 22737 describes vehicle driving supports, but does not cover the requirements of the service role

or the functional model covering infrastructure facilities. Therefore, a document covering these topics

is necessary.

Business use cases regarding LSADS services are currently emerging and further variations are coming

to be deployed. Various roles and functional model presentation methodologies are available for use,

and there is a need for a set of more commonly understandable role and functional model presentation

guidelines. This document defines a common LSADS service role and functional model presentation.

Future emerging business cases can refer to this document as a baseline document. Indeed, this it is

intended to assist in the development of future business, and does not hinder them. This document can

also contribute to the development of future automated driving system service business cases other

than LSADS services.
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 5255-1:2022(E)
Intelligent transport systems — Low-speed automated
driving system (LSADS) service —
Part 1:
Role and functional model
1 Scope

This document defines the requirements of the basic role and functional model of service applications

for the introduction of low-speed automated driving system (LSADS) services including infrastructure

facilities for supporting mobility in urban and rural areas.

This document covers services using LSADS-equipped vehicles only; in-vehicle control systems are

outside the scope.

Examples of infrastructure facilities and road furniture include driving monitoring platforms,

emergency response platforms, operation management platforms, user service platforms (e.g. for

online reservations and online payments) and platforms for supporting automated driving systems.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/TR 4445, Intelligent transport systems — Mobility integration — Role model of ITS service application

in smart cities
ISO/TS 14812, Intelligent transport systems — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TS 14812 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
4 Abbreviated terms
AD automated driving
CAD connected and automated driving
CONOPS concept of operations
E-call emergency call
ISAD infrastructure support levels for automated driving
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ISO/TS 5255-1:2022(E)
LSAD low-speed automated driving
LSADS low-speed automated driving system
METR management for electronic traffic regulations
ODD operational design domain
PT public transport
SCMS security credential management system
5 Automated driving system classification and service evolution
5.1 Introduction

The automated driving (AD) system classification and service evolution vision are described in this

clause in order to present the current development and deployment situation of LSADS services.

5.2 Service classification of AD systems
A suggested AD system service classification is shown in Table 1.

Within the context of the scope of this document, L2 operational design domain (ODD) is not classified

as AD.

AD system services cover a range of use cases as described in Table 1, including carrying people and

goods, urban and rural use, normal mobility uses and emergency mobility use such as in pandemic/

lockdown situations, where human driving vehicles can be unusable for transporting people and goods.

The majority of current LSADSs deployed are as per the SAE-defined ODD levels L3 and L4. However,

LSADSs of L5 and above are anticipated as being the ideal mobility for flexible use cases in the future.

Table 1 — AD system service classification

ODD levels Mobility for Mobility for goods Urban use Rural area Used under emergen-

people (including road (Last/first mile use (replac- cy or pandemic status
(OEM defini-
service vehicles) use) ing PT)
tion)
L5 A A A A A
L4 A A A A A
L3 O/S O/S O/S O/S O/S
L2 O/S O/S O/S O/S O/S
Key
A: applicable to this document;
0/S: out of scope of this document.
5.3 AD system service evolution

Table 2 shows the expected AD system service evolution. The deployment of the current low-speed

automated driving (LSAD) service is for limited use only, as the safety function and emergency case

manoeuvring ability are not qualified as being a sufficiently safely reliable services. However, the

LSADS is intended to evolve into a fully functional connected and automated driving (CAD) system

in the future. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a LSADS service role and a functional model

defining and covering fully automated and connected driving such as is described by the term CAD.

Tables 2 and 3 show where a current LSADS service sits within the fully automated CAD paradigm.

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ISO/TS 5255-1:2022(E)
Table 2 — AD system service evolution (current)

Service type Public Shared and personal Demand manage- Integration with All levels of

transport use ment kerbside opera- ODDs
use (Robot taxi) tion
(PT)
Mobility for C/L C/L C/L
people
Mobility for C/L C/L C/L
goods
Dedicated lane C/L C/L C/L
(road)
Mixed lane
Road ser-
vice vehicles
(snowplough)
Key
C/L: current LSAD emerging status.
Table 3 — AD system service anticipated evolution (future)

Service type Public Shared and personal Demand manage- Integration with All levels of

transport use ment kerbside opera- ODDs
use tion
(Robot taxi)
(PT)
Mobility for F/L F/L F/L F/L F/L
people
Mobility for F/L F/L F/L F/L F/L
goods
Dedicated lane F/L F/L F/L F/L F/L
(road)
Mixed lane
Road ser- F/L F/L F/L F/L F/L
vice vehicles
(snowplough)
Key
F/L: future LSAD emerging status --> reaching to CAD mobility status
6 Infrastructure support for LSADS service role and functional model

The LSADS service shall be fully functional with support from infrastructures, such as safety

information provisioning, kerb operation interactions, road signs and road digital and physical facilities

for CAD.

— Kerb operation, LSADS shall use the kerb for loading and unloading goods and people. The operation

environment should be carefully considered to achieve safe operations.

— Management for electronic traffic regulations (METR), for the efficient and safer operation of

CAD-type LSADS, electronic regulation information shall be given to the vehicle with the safety

information provisioning given from infrastructure facilities.

— V2X communication path between vehicle and infrastructure (LTE, 5G and beyond) should be

carefully designed and the various communication paths between LSADS and infrastructure should

be according to relevant International Standards.
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ISO/TS 5255-1:2022(E)

— Infrastructure support levels for automated driving (ISAD) system service categorization per

infrastructure support platform utilization levels shall be according to the Level A (highest level:

cooperative driving) to level E (basic level: conventional infrastructure/no AV support), as developed

by the EU INFRAMIX project.

NOTE A technical report issued by the EU INFRAMIX project proposes the careful study of LSAD operation

according to the ISAD concept, and it is recommended that adoption of this concept be thoroughly discussed in

order to classify the levels for automated driving for supports from infrastructure facilities (see Annex A).

7 Role and functional model
7.1 Objective

This clause describes a generic role and functional model for the provision of ITS service applications

for LSADS services. It explains the general concept of role and functional model operations. It also

provides a definition for the role and functional model and the elaboration of the model at a conceptual

level.
7.2 National variations

The definition of what comprises an ITS service application is an issue for national decision and can

vary from country to country. The instantiation of interoperable on-board platforms (or nomadic

devices such as smart phones) for ITS service application with common features is ideal but varies

between countries, as does the provision of services. It is possible that certain countries will mandate

the use of such a platform, while others will offer it as an option to meet the requirements of the ITS

service application with minimum administration and paperwork (providing a good business case

for operators to fit and use the equipment). Certain countries might implement a single, government-

operated, -controlled, or -contracted service provider, which will be the single communication manager

between the user and the service. Other countries might provide a market-based solution with multiple

service providers competing for the business of vehicle operators.
7.3 Basic role model

The role model concept defined in ISO/TR 4445 shall be considered as baseline document. Figure 1

shows the basic role model for ITS service application for smart cities.
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ISO/TS 5255-1:2022(E)
Figure 1 — Role model defined in ISO/TR 4445
7.4 Application layer role and functional model for LSADS

The role model concept defined in ISO/TR 4445 is modified for LSADS service as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 — Application layer role and functional model
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ISO/TS 5255-1:2022(E)
7.4.1 Role and functional model options

For the requirements of the role and functional model, it needs to be possible for an LSADS service

application user to use the services of different service providers in different geographical areas, or

for different services to be provided within the same geographical area. In these circumstances, where

there is a market of competing service providers, it is likely that the solution will be for the user to

choose a single service provider who will provide and maintain the LSADS service application on a

nomadic device (such as a smart phone) and who will deliver to the user all services to which that user

chooses to subscribe. Other options are possible, but should be able to support the peer conceptual role

and functional model.
7.4.2 Certification of service providers

As determined by the regulator, the LSADS service provider will need to be certified by the regulator,

and so some form of certification authority (regulatory) role forms an essential part of the role and

functional model. However, the role can and will be instantiated differently by different jurisdictions.

LSAD vehicle inspection and certification is performed by certain parties, taking into consideration

regional authority-defined regulations.
8 Concept of operations
8.1 General

This clause describes the characteristics of a proposed LSADS from the viewpoint of an individual

who will use that system. The objective is to communicate the quantitative and qualitative system

characteristics to all stakeholders.

This clause describes the roles and responsibilities of the classes and actors involved in the provision

of LSADS service applications. It is recognized that variations exist between regional authorities.

This clause does not attempt, nor recommend, homogeneity between regional authorities; it is simply

designed to provide a set of common standard features to enable the use of equipment of common

specification. It is also intended to provide the common features of service provision so that they can

be referenced by a regional authority in its regulatory and/or legislative regime simply by referring to

an ISO document (thereby requiring it to specify in detail only the particular additional requirements).

A concept of operations (CONOPS) evolves from a concept and is a description of how a set of capabilities

can be employed to achieve desired objectives.
8.2 Statement of the goals and objectives of the system

The overall objective of this role is the assessment and monitoring of LSADS service applications to

meet the requirements of the regional authorities within which it is operating, using LSAD.

This concept of operations is achieved by the provision of application services for specific aspects

of the control and management of LSADS service applications. These services should be provided by

agreement with the user and by using an approved service provider, meeting the requirements of the

regional authorities using ITS systems (or nomadic devices such as smart phones), with communications

capability between the user (pedestrians) and LSADS service provider.
8.3 Strategies, tactics, policies and constraints affecting the system

Strategies, tactics, policies and constraints affecting the LSADS services can vary from regional

authority to regional authority.
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ISO/TS 5255-1:2022(E)
8.4 Operational processes for the system

The following description of operational processes is at a high abstracted level (above that of any

application service). Specific services can have additional requirements not described herein, but

guidance and specification for certain aspects should be obtained from ISO 22737.

A regional authority passes legislation/regulations to require or support the provision of a particular

LSADS application service. The legislation/regulation needs to provide a clear and unambiguous

definit
...

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