Geometrical product specifications (GPS) -- Surface texture: Profile method -- Calibration of contact (stylus) instruments

This document specifies the calibration and adjustment of the metrological characteristics of contact (stylus) instruments for the measurement of surface texture by the profile method as defined in ISO 3274. The calibration and adjustment is intended to be carried out with the aid of measurement standards. Annex B specifies the calibration and adjustment of metrological characteristics of simplified operator contact (stylus) instruments which do not conform with ISO 3274.

Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) -- État de surface: Méthode du profil -- Étalonnage des instruments à contact (palpeur)

Le présent document spécifie l'étalonnage et l’ajustage des caractéristiques métrologiques des instruments à contact (stylet) pour le mesurage de l'état de surface par la méthode du profil comme défini dans l'ISO 3274. L'étalonnage et et l’ajustage s’effectuent à l'aide d'étalons de mesure. L'Annexe B spécifie l'étalonnage et le réglage des caractéristiques métrologiques des instruments à contact (stylet) à utilisation simplifiée qui ne sont pas conformes à l'ISO 3274.

Specifikacija geometrijskih veličin izdelka - Tekstura površine: Profilna metoda - Umerjanje kontaktnih (s tipalom) instrumentov

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Dec-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
27-Oct-2021
Completion Date
26-Oct-2021

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Draft
ISO/FDIS 12179 - Geometrical product specifications (GPS) -- Surface texture: Profile method -- Calibration of contact (stylus) instruments
English language
20 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 12179
ISO/TC 213
Geometrical product specifications
Secretariat: BSI
(GPS) — Surface texture: Profile
Voting begins on:
2021­08-31 method — Calibration of contact
(stylus) instruments
Voting terminates on:
2021­10-26
Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) — État de surface:
Méthode du profil — Étalonnage des instruments à contact (palpeur)
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 12179:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12179:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12179:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Conditions of use .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 Components and configurations of the contact (stylus) instrument ....................................................... 3

4.2 Calibration of a configuration .................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Place of calibration .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.4 Defects ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Measurement standards ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Contact (stylus) instrument metrological characteristics ........................................................................................ 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Residual profile calibration .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Vertical profile component calibration .............................................................................................................................. 6

6.4 Horizontal profile component calibration ...................................................................................................................... 6

6.5 Profile coordinate system calibration ................................................................................................................................. 6

6.6 Total contact (stylus) instrument calibration .............................................................................................................. 7

7 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.1 Preparation for calibration ........................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2 E valuation of the residual profile ............................................................................................................................................ 7

7.3 Calibration of the vertical profile component .............................................................................................................. 8

7.3.1 Overall objective ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.4 Calibration of the horizontal profile component ....................................................................................................... 8

7.4.1 Overall objective ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.4.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.5 Calibration of the profile coordinate system ................................................................................................................. 8

7.5.1 Overall objective ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.5.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.6 Calibration of the total contact (stylus) instrument ............................................................................................... 9

7.6.1 Overall objective ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.6.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.7 Other calibrations ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8 Measurement uncertainty .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1 Information from the calibration certificate for a measurement standard ........................................ 9

8.2 The uncertainty of the values measured during calibration of a measuring

instrument using a measurement standard .................................................................................................................. 9

9 Contact (stylus) instrument calibration certificate ......................................................................................................10

10 General information ......................................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (normative) Calibration of instruments measuring parameters of the motifs method .......11

Annex B (normative) Calibration of simplified operator instruments for the measurements

of surface texture ..............................................................................................................................................................................................13

Annex C (informative) Example: roughness measurement standard parameter Ra .......................................14

Annex D (informative) Concept diagram .......................................................................................................................................................17

Annex E (informative) Overview of profile and areal standards in the GPS matrix model.......................18

Annex F (informative) Relation to the GPS matrix model ............................................................................................................19

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12179:2021(E)

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12179:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 213, Dimensional and geometrical product

specifications and verification, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN)

Technical Committee CEN/TC 290, Dimensional and geometrical product specification and verification, in

accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 12179:2000), which has been technically

revised. It also incorporates Technical Corrigendum ISO 12179:2000/Cor. 1:2003.
The main changes to the previous edition are as follows:
— Annex C has been amended.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12179:2021(E)
Introduction

This document is a geometrical product specification (GPS) standard and is to be regarded as a general

GPS standard (see ISO 14638). It influences chain link G of the chain of standards on profile surface

texture.

The ISO GPS matrix model is given in ISO 14638, For more detailed information on the relationship of

this document to the GPS matrix model, see Annex F. An overview of standards on profiles and areal

surface texture is given in Annex E.

This document introduces calibration of contact (stylus) instruments as defined in ISO 3274. The

calibration is carried out with the aid of measurement standards.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 12179:2021(E)
Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface
texture: Profile method — Calibration of contact (stylus)
instruments
1 Scope

This document specifies the calibration and adjustment of the metrological characteristics of contact

(stylus) instruments for the measurement of surface texture by the profile method as defined in

ISO 3274. The calibration and adjustment is intended to be carried out with the aid of measurement

standards.

Annex B specifies the calibration and adjustment of metrological characteristics of simplified operator

contact (stylus) instruments which do not conform with ISO 3274.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3274, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method — Nominal

characteristics of contact (stylus) instruments

ISO 4287, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method — Terms, definitions

and surface texture parameters

ISO 5436­1:2000, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method;

Measurement standards — Part 1: Material measures

ISO 10012, Measurement management systems — Requirements for measurement processes and measuring

equipment

ISO 14253­1, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Inspection by measurement of workpieces and

measuring equipment — Part 1: Decision rules for verifying conformity or nonconformity with specifications

ISO 14253­2, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Inspection by measurement of workpieces

and measuring equipment — Part 2: Guidance for the estimation of uncertainty in GPS measurement, in

calibration of measuring equipment and in product verification

ISO 25178­73, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Areal — Part 73: Terms and

definitions for surface defects on material measures

ISO/IEC Guide 98­3, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in

measurement (GUM: 1995)

ISO/IEC Guide 99, International vocabulary of metrology — Basic and general concepts and associated

terms (VIM)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 3274, ISO 4287, ISO 14253-1,

GUM and VIM and the following apply.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12179:2021(E)

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
calibration
operation that, under specified conditions:

a) in a first step, establishes a relation between the quantity values with measurement uncertainties

provided by measurement standards and corresponding indications with associated measurement

uncertainties; and

b) in a second step, uses this information to establish a relation for obtaining a measurement result

from an indication
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 (VIM), 2.39, modified — Notes to entry removed.]
3.2
task-related calibration

set of operations which establish, under specified conditions, the relationship between values of

quantities indicated by a measuring instrument and the corresponding known values of a limited

family of precisely defined measurands which constitute a subset of the measuring capabilities of the

measuring instrument
3.3
adjustment
adjustment of a measuring system

set of operations carried out on a measuring system so that it provides prescribed indications

corresponding to given values of a quantity to be measured
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 (VIM), 3.11, modified — Notes to entry removed.]
3.4
measurement standard
etalon

realization of the definition of a given quantity, with stated quantity value and associated measurement

uncertainty, used as a reference

Note 1 to entry: Measurement standards are also referred to as “calibration specimens”.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 (VIM), 5.1, modified — Examples and Notes to entry removed.]

3.5
measurement uncertainty
uncertainty of measurement
uncertainty

non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the quantity values being attributed to a

measurand, based on the information used
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 (VIM), 2.26, modified — Notes to entry removed.]
3.6
metrological traceability

property of a measurement result whereby the result can be related to a reference through a

documented unbroken chain of calibrations, each contributing to the measurement uncertainty

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 (VIM), 2.41, modified — Notes to entry removed.]
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12179:2021(E)
3.7
defect

part of the measurement standard’s geometrical feature (non­ideal surface) on

which the geometrical shape and geometrical dimensions deviate from those on the nominal feature

(ideal surface) either by an amount greater than some agreed or stated maximum value, or, in the

absence of any such agreed or stated maximum value, by an amount greater than what is typical or

characteristic for the processes used in manufacturing the measurement standard
[SOURCE: ISO 25178-73:2019, 3.1.2, modified — Notes to entry removed.]
4 Conditions of use
4.1 Components and configurations of the contact (stylus) instrument

The contact (stylus) instrument comprises the basic equipment, a drive unit, a probe and a profile

recorder (see ISO 3274). If the basic equipment is used with several drive units and probes, each of

these instrumental combinations (configurations) shall be calibrated separately.
4.2 Calibration of a configuration

The contact (stylus) instrument shall be calibrated when a change is made to the basic elements of the

system which intentionally or unintentionally modifies the measured profile or measuring result. Each

configuration of the contact (stylus) instrument shall be calibrated separately. For example, with a

change of probe, the contact (stylus) instrument is calibrated.
4.3 Place of calibration

The contact (stylus) instrument should be calibrated at the place of use with environmental conditions

similar to those present when in use for measurement to take into account external influence factors.

EXAMPLES Noise, temperature, vibration, air movement.
4.4 Defects

Geometrical defects that can be present on the surfaces of material measures and calibration specimens

shall be taken into consideration according to ISO 25178­73.
5 Measurement standards

The following measurement standards are applicable to the calibrations given in Clause 6:

— optical flat;

— depth measurement standard (see Figure 1): type A according to ISO 5436-1:2000;

— spacing measurement standard (see Figure 2);
— type C according to ISO 5436-1:2000;
— inclined optical flat (see Figure 3);

— profile coordinate measurement standard (consisting of a sphere or prism): type E according to

ISO 5436­1:2000;

— roughness measurement standard (see Figure 4): type D according to ISO 5436-1:2000.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12179:2021(E)

It is recommended that a profile coordinate measurement standard be used on contact (stylus)

instruments where the stylus rotates at least plus and minus one half of a degree when moving through

its full range.

NOTE A type C periodic measurement standard is also useful for checking Ra as well as for checking Rsm.

6 Contact (stylus) instrument metrological characteristics
6.1 General

Only those task-related contact (stylus) instrument metrological characteristics which are relevant

for the intended measurements should be selected for calibration and adjustment. For example, for the

measurement of spacing parameters, the vertical profile component need not be calibrated. Adjustment

(if required) of the metrological characteristic shall be carried out after calibration of the metrological

characteristic according to the instrument manufacturer’s procedures.
6.2 Residual profile calibration

The scratch-free optical flat reproduces the residual profile. For task-related calibrations use the

appropriate profile and parameters (e.g. the roughness profile with Ra, Rq or Rt; the waviness profile

with Wa, Wq or Wt, see ISO 4287).

NOTE By using this approach the effects of external guide straightness, environmental conditions and

instrument noise can be established.
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 1 — Example of a depth measurement standard (type A)
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12179:2021(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 2 — Example of a spacing measurement standard (type C)
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 3 — Example of an inclined optical flat and a measuring plan
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12179:2021(E)
Dimensions in millimetres

Figure 4 — Example of a roughness measurement standard (type D) and measuring plan

6.3 Vertical profile component calibration

The depth measurement standard establishes a profile depth in order to measure the error of indication

of the vertical profile component of an instrument.

If no depth measurement standards are available, gauge blocks steps may be used. Care should be taken

concerning the uncertainty of the height difference when using gauge blocks steps.

6.4 Horizontal profile component calibration

The spacing measurement standard reproduces the mean width of profile element, PSm, in order to

measure the error of indication of the horizontal profile component.
6.5 Profile coordinate system calibration
The inclined optical flat reproduces:
— the least-squares-best-fit angle in degrees;

— the total height of the primary profile, Pt, see ISO 4287, after removal of the least-squares-best-fit

straight line,

thus establishing the error of the linked horizontal and vertical coordinates (e.g. variation in traverse

speed, nonlinearities in scales).
6 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12179:2021(E)

The profile coordinate measurement standard provides calibration for the total height of the primary

profile, Pt, after removal of the least-squares-best-fit nominal form, thus establishing the coordinate

system.
6.6 Total contact (stylus) instrument calibration
The roughness measurement standard reproduces the:
— arithmetical mean deviation, Ra, see ISO 4287;
— maximum height of profile, Rz, see ISO 4287,
thus establishing an overall check of the total contact (stylus) instrument.
7 Calibration
7.1 Preparation for calibration

Before calibration, the contact (stylus) instrument shall be checked to determine if it operates correctly

as described in the manufacturer's operating instructions. The condition of the stylus tip shall also be

checked according to the manufacturer's instructions.
For contact (stylus) instruments the following requirements apply:
— The residual profile shall be evaluated.

— The plane of the depth measurement standard shall be aligned to the reference surface in the best

possible way.

— All measurement standards shall be aligned properly, for example the plane of the roughness

measurement standard shall be aligned to within 10 % of the measuring gauge range but not more

than 10 µm over the evaluation length.

— In task­related calibrations, roughness measurement standards shall be used with the appropriate

roughness, comparable to the roughness of the surface to be measured.

— Measurements shall be taken in the middle of the vertical measuring range of the probe each time.

— A sufficient number of measurements shall be taken on each measurement standard for the required

measurement uncertainty (see Clause 8). Repeated measurements are usually necessary due to the

inhomogeneity of the measurement standard, the variability of the measurement procedure and the

repeatability of the contact (stylus) instrument.

— The conditions used to measure the measurement standard shall be compatible with those used

previously to calibrate the measurement standard.

— The best-fit procedure (i.e. least squares, minimum zone) used in the calibration of the measurement

standard shall be used.
7.2 E valuation of the residual profile

Traverse the optical flat. Determine the residual profile and calculate the surface texture parameters Pt

and Pq, see ISO 4287.

For task-related calibration, calibrate in accordance with the measuring conditions for each required

measurement. For example, when measuring a roughness measurement standard, a cut-off wavelength

λ = 0,8 mm and a cut­off ratio of 300:1, making a total evaluation length of 4 mm, are used. The

measured values of Ra and/or Rz, see ISO 4287, shall be indicated in the calibration certificate for the

instrument.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12179:2021(E)
7.3 Calibration of the vertical profile component
7.3.1 Overall objective

Traverse the groove(s) of the depth measurement standard. From the primary profile determine the

respective deviations from the value stated in the appropriate calibration certificate.

7.3.2 Procedure

Measure the groove(s) in profile sections within the calibrated area of the measurement standard (see

Figure 1). Traverse the groove(s) individually and determine the depth of the groove(s) according to

the calibration procedure supplied with the depth measurement standard. State the deviation of the

(mean) value [obtained from the measured value(s)] from the figure given in the calibration certificate

of the depth measurement standard.

Alternatively, if a depth measurement standard is not available, wring two gauge blocks, juxtaposed,

onto an optical flat. Traverse across both gauge blocks and determine the respective height difference

from the total profile. State the deviation in the measured height difference from the difference in

heights calculated from the values stated in the calibration certificates of the gauge blocks.

7.4 Calibration of the horizontal profile component
7.4.1 Overall objective

Traverse the spacing measurement standard. Determine the respective deviations from the wavelength

parameters stated in the calibration certificate.
7.4.2 Procedure

Perform measurements on the spacing measurement standard, distributed over the measurement

surface. An example of a measuring plan is given in Figure 2. Calculate the arithmetical mean for the

primary parameter Psm, see ISO 4287. Record the deviations from the values stated in the calibration

certificate.
7.5 Calibration of the profile coordinate system
7.5.1 Overall objective

Traverse the inclined optical flat, sphere or prism. Determine Pt, see ISO 4287, of the respective

deviations from the least-squares-best-fit of the form of the specimen.
7.5.2 Procedure

Perform measurements on each inclination measurement standard using the traverse length and

nominal angle of inclination as indicated in the calibration certificate. The measurements shall be

distributed over the measurement surface as shown in the measuring plan (see Figure 3). Calculate

the profile depth after removal of the least-squares-best-fit line and the arithmetical mean of the le

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.