Information technology — Open data protocol (OData) v4.0 — Part 2: OData JSON Format

ISO/IEC 20802-2:2016 extends ISO/IEC 20802-1, the core specification of the Open Data Protocol (OData) for representing and interacting with structured content, by defining representations for Odata requests and responses using a JSON format.

Technologies de l'information — Protocole de données ouvertes (OData) v4.0 — Partie 2: Format OData JSON

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Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Dec-2016
Current Stage
9020 - International Standard under periodical review
Start Date
15-Oct-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 20802-2
First edition
2016-12-15
Information technology — Open data
protocol (OData) v4.0
Part 2:
OData JSON Format
Technologies de l'information — Protocole de données ouvertes
(OData) v4.0 —
Partie 2: Format OData JSON
Reference number
ISO/IEC 20802-2:2016(E)
ISO/IEC 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 20802-2:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2016

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any

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ii © ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 20802-2:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity.

ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non‐governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

ISO/IEC 20802‐2 was prepared by OASIS and was adopted, under the PAS procedure, by Joint Technical

Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, in parallel with its approval by the national bodies of

ISO and IEC.
© ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 20802-2:2016(E)
OData JSON Format Version 4.0 Plus
Errata 02
OASIS Standard incorporating Approved Errata 02
30 October 2014
Specification URIs
This version:

http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata-json-format/v4.0/errata02/os/odata-json-format-v4.0-

errata02-os-complete.doc (Authoritative)

http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata-json-format/v4.0/errata02/os/odata-json-format-v4.0-

errata02-os-complete.html

http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata-json-format/v4.0/errata02/os/odata-json-format-v4.0-

errata02-os-complete.pdf
Previous version:

http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata-json-format/v4.0/errata01/os/odata-json-format-v4.0-

errata01-os-complete.doc (Authoritative)

http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata-json-format/v4.0/errata01/os/odata-json-format-v4.0-

errata01-os-complete.html

http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata-json-format/v4.0/errata01/os/odata-json-format-v4.0-

errata01-os-complete.pdf
Latest version:

http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata-json-format/v4.0/odata-json-format-v4.0.doc

(Authoritative)

http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata-json-format/v4.0/odata-json-format-v4.0.html

http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata-json-format/v4.0/odata-json-format-v4.0.pdf

Technical Committee:
OASIS Open Data Protocol (OData) TC
Chairs:
Ralf Handl (ralf.handl@sap.com), SAP AG
Ram Jeyaraman (Ram.Jeyaraman@microsoft.com), Microsoft
Editors:
Ralf Handl (ralf.handl@sap.com), SAP AG
Michael Pizzo (mikep@microsoft.com), Microsoft
Martin Zurmuehl (martin.zurmuehl@sap.com), SAP AG
Mark Biamonte (mark.biamonte@progress.com), Progress Software
Additional artifacts:
This prose specification is one component of a Work Product that also includes:

OData JSON Format Version 4.0 Errata 02. Edited by Ralf Handl, Michael Pizzo, and Martin

Zurmuehl. 30 October 2014. OASIS Approved Errata. http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata-

json-format/v4.0/errata02/os/odata-json-format-v4.0-errata02-os.html.
Change-marked (redlined) version. OData JSON Format Version 4.0 Plus Errata 02

(redlined). Edited by Ralf Handl, Michael Pizzo, Martin Zurmuehl, and Mark Biamonte. 30

October 2014. OASIS Standard incorporating Approved Errata 02. http://docs.oasis-

odata-json-format-v4.0-errata02-os-complete 30 October 2014

Standards Track Work Product Copyright © OASIS Open 2014. All Rights Reserved. Page 1 of 43

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ISO/IEC 20802-2:2016(E)

open.org/odata/odata-json-format/v4.0/errata02/os/odata-json-format-v4.0-errata02-os-

redlined.html.
Related work:
This specification is related to:
OData Version 4.0. OASIS Standard. Multi-part Work Product that includes:
o OData Version 4.0 Part 1: Protocol. http://docs.oasis-
open.org/odata/odata/v4.0/os/part1-protocol/odata-v4.0-os-part1-protocol.html.
o OData Version 4.0 Part 2: URL Conventions. http://docs.oasis-
open.org/odata/odata/v4.0/os/part2-url-conventions/odata-v4.0-os-part2-url-
conventions.html.
o OData Version 4.0 Part 3: Common Schema Definition Language (CSDL).
http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata/v4.0/os/part3-csdl/odata-v4.0-os-part3-
csdl.html.
o ABNF components: http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata/v4.0/os/abnf/
o Vocabulary components: http://docs.oasis-
open.org/odata/odata/v4.0/os/vocabularies/
o XML schemas: http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata/v4.0/os/schemas/
o OData Metadata Service Entity Model: http://docs.oasis-
open.org/odata/odata/v4.0/os/models/MetadataService.edmx.

OData Atom Format Version 4.0. Edited by Martin Zurmuehl, Michael Pizzo, and Ralf Handl.

Latest version: http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata-atom-format/v4.0/odata-atom-format-

v4.0.html.
Abstract:

The Open Data Protocol (OData) for representing and interacting with structured content is

comprised of a set of specifications. The core specification for the protocol is in OData Version

4.0 Part 1: Protocol; this document extends the former by defining representations for OData

requests and responses using a JSON format.
Status:

This document was last revised or approved by the OASIS Open Data Protocol (OData) TC on

the above date. The level of approval is also listed above. Check the “Latest version” location

noted above for possible later revisions of this document. Any other numbered Versions and

other technical work produced by the Technical Committee (TC) are listed at https://www.oasis-

open.org/committees/tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=odata#technical.

TC members should send comments on this specification to the TC’s email list. Others should

send comments to the TC’s public comment list, after subscribing to it by following the

instructions at the “Send A Comment” button on the TC’s web page at https://www.oasis-

open.org/committees/odata/.

For information on whether any patents have been disclosed that may be essential to

implementing this specification, and any offers of patent licensing terms, please refer to the

Intellectual Property Rights section of the Technical Committee web page (https://www.oasis-

open.org/committees/odata/ipr.php).
Citation format:

When referencing this specification the following citation format should be used:

[OData-JSON-Format-v4.0-plus-Errata02]

OData JSON Format Version 4.0 Plus Errata 02. Edited by Ralf Handl, Michael Pizzo, Martin

Zurmuehl, and Mark Biamonte. 30 October 2014. OASIS Standard incorporating Approved Errata

02. http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata-json-format/v4.0/errata02/os/odata-json-format-v4.0-

errata02-os-complete.html. Latest version: http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/odata-json-

format/v4.0/odata-json-format-v4.0.html.
odata-json-format-v4.0-errata02-os-complete 30 October 2014

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ISO/IEC 20802-2:2016(E)
Notices
Copyright © OASIS Open 2014. All Rights Reserved.

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Property Rights Policy (the "OASIS IPR Policy"). The full Policy may be found at the OASIS website.

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ISO/IEC 20802-2:2016(E)
Table of Contents

1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 6

1.1 Terminology ........................................................................................................................................ 6

1.2 Normative References ........................................................................................................................ 6

1.3 Typographical Conventions ................................................................................................................ 7

2 JSON Format Design ........................................................................................................................... 8

3 Requesting the JSON Format .............................................................................................................. 9

3.1 Controlling the Amount of Control Information in Responses ............................................................ 9

3.1.1 odata.metadata=minimal .................................................................................................... 9

3.1.2 odata.metadata=full ........................................................................................................ 10

3.1.3 odata.metadata=none ........................................................................................................ 10

3.2 Controlling the Representation of Numbers ..................................................................................... 10

4 Common Characteristics .................................................................................................................... 11

4.1 Header Content-Type ................................................................................................................... 11

4.2 Message Body .................................................................................................................................. 11

4.3 Relative URLs ................................................................................................................................... 11

4.4 Payload Ordering Constraints........................................................................................................... 12

4.5 Control Information ........................................................................................................................... 12

4.5.1 Annotation odata.context .................................................................................................... 13

4.5.2 Annotation odata.metadataEtag ......................................................................................... 13

4.5.3 Annotation odata.type ........................................................................................................... 13

4.5.4 Annotation odata.count ........................................................................................................ 14

4.5.5 Annotation odata.nextLink .................................................................................................. 14

4.5.6 Annotation odata.deltaLink ................................................................................................ 14

4.5.7 Annotation odata.id ............................................................................................................... 14

4.5.8 Annotation odata.editLink and odata.readLink ........................................................... 15

4.5.9 Annotation odata.etag ........................................................................................................... 15

4.5.10 Annotation odata.navigationLink and odata.associationLink ............................. 16

4.5.11 Annotation odata.media* .................................................................................................... 16

5 Service Document .............................................................................................................................. 17

6 Entity ................................................................................................................................................... 19

7 Structural Property.............................................................................................................................. 20

7.1 Primitive Value .................................................................................................................................. 20

7.2 Complex Value ................................................................................................................................. 21

7.3 Collection of Primitive Values ........................................................................................................... 21

7.4 Collection of Complex Values ........................................................................................................... 21

8 Navigation Property ............................................................................................................................ 23

8.1 Navigation Link ................................................................................................................................. 23

8.2 Association Link ................................................................................................................................ 23

8.3 Expanded Navigation Property ......................................................................................................... 23

8.4 Deep Insert ....................................................................................................................................... 24

8.5 Bind Operation .................................................................................................................................. 24

9 Stream Property ................................................................................................................................. 25

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ISO/IEC 20802-2:2016(E)

10 Media Entity ........................................................................................................................................ 26

11 Individual Property or Operation Response ....................................................................................... 27

12 Collection of Entities ........................................................................................................................... 28

13 Entity Reference ................................................................................................................................. 29

14 Delta Response .................................................................................................................................. 30

14.1 Added/Changed Entity .................................................................................................................... 31

14.2 Deleted Entity ................................................................................................................................. 31

14.3 Added Link ...................................................................................................................................... 31

14.4 Deleted Link .................................................................................................................................... 32

15 Bound Function .................................................................................................................................. 33

16 Bound Action ...................................................................................................................................... 34

17 Action Invocation ................................................................................................................................ 35

18 Instance Annotations .......................................................................................................................... 36

18.1 Annotate a JSON Object ................................................................................................................ 36

18.2 Annotate a JSON Array or Primitive ............................................................................................... 36

19 Error Response .................................................................................................................................. 37

20 Extensibility ......................................................................................................................................... 38

21 Security Considerations ..................................................................................................................... 39

22 Conformance ...................................................................................................................................... 40

Appendix A. Acknowledgments ............................................................................................................. 41

Appendix B. Revision History ................................................................................................................ 42

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ISO/IEC 20802-2:2016(E)
1 Introduction

The OData protocol is comprised of a set of specifications for representing and interacting with structured

content. The core specification for the protocol is in [OData-Protocol]; this document is an extension of

the core protocol. This document defines representations for the OData requests and responses using

the JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), see [RFC7159].
An OData JSON payload may represent:
a single primitive value
a collection of primitive values
a single complex type value
a collection of complex type values
a single entity or entity reference
a collection of entities or entity references
a collection of changes
a service document describing the top-level resources exposed by the service
an error.
1.1 Terminology

The key words “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD

NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” in this document are to be interpreted as described

in [RFC2119].
1.2 Normative References

[GeoJSON] Howard Butler, Martin Daly, Alan Doyle, Sean Gillies, Tim Schaub and Stefan

Drees, "The GeoJSON Format" draft-butler-geojson-02, 15 March 2014.
http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-butler-geojson-02.

[I-JSON] Bray, T., Ed., "The I-JSON Message Format" draft-bray-i-json-01, 06 January

2014. http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-bray-i-json-01
[OData-ABNF] OData ABNF Construction Rules Version 4.0.
See link in “Related work” section on cover page.
[OData-CSDL] OData Version 4.0 Part 3: Common Schema Definition Language (CSDL).
See link in “Related work” section on cover page.
[OData-Protocol] OData Version 4.0 Part 1: Protocol.
See link in “Related work” section on cover page.
[OData-URL] OData Version 4.0 Part 2: URL Conventions.
See link in "Related work" section on cover page.
[OData-VocCap] OData Capabilities Vocabulary.
See link in "Related work" section on cover page.

[RFC2119] Bradner, S., “Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels”, BCP

14, RFC 2119, March 1997. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt.

[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, “Uniform Resource Identifier (URI):

Generic Syntax”, IETF RFC3986, January 2005.
http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt.

[RFC3987] Duerst, M. and, M. Suignard, “Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)”, RFC

3987, January 2005. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt.

[RFC7159] Bray, T., Ed., “The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data Interchange Format”,

RFC 7159, March 2014. http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7159.
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ISO/IEC 20802-2:2016(E)

[RFC5646] Phillips, A., Ed., and M. Davis, Ed., “Tags for Identifying Languages”, BCP 47,

RFC 5646, September 2009. http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5646.

[ECMAScript] ECMAScript Language Specification Edition 5,1. June 2011. Standard ECMA-

262. http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm.
1.3 Typographical Conventions
Keywords defined by this specification use this monospaced font.
Normative source code uses this paragraph style.
Some sections of this specification are illustrated with non-normative examples.
Example 1: text describing an example uses this paragraph style
Non-normative examples use this paragraph style.
All examples in this document are non-normative and informative only.
All other text is normative unless otherwise labeled.
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ISO/IEC 20802-2:2016(E)
2 JSON Format Design

JSON, as described in [RFC7159], defines a text format for serializing structured data. Objects are

serialized as an unordered collection of name-value pairs.

JSON does not define any semantics around the name/value pairs that make up an object, nor does it

define an extensibility mechanism for adding control information to a payload.

OData’s JSON format extends JSON by defining general conventions for name-value pairs that annotate

a JSON object, property or array. OData defines a set of canonical annotations for control information

such as ids, types, and links, and custom annotations MAY be used to add domain-specific information to

the payload.

A key feature of OData’s JSON format is to allow omitting predictable parts of the wire format from the

actual payload. To reconstitute this data on the receiving end, expressions are used to compute missing

links, type information, and other control data. These expressions (together with the data on the wire) can

be used by the client to compute predictable payload pieces as if they had been included on the wire

directly.

Annotations are used in JSON to capture control information that cannot be predicted (e.g., the next link

of a collection) as well as a mechanism to provide values where a computed value would be wrong (e.g.,

if the media read link of one particular entity does not follow the standard URL conventions). Computing

values from metadata expressions is compute intensive and some clients might opt for a larger payload

size to avoid computational complexity; to accommodate for this the Accept header allows the client to

control the amount of control information added to the response.

To optimize streaming scenarios, there are a few restrictions that MAY be imposed on the sequence in

which name/value pairs appear within JSON objects. For details on the ordering requirements see

Payload Ordering Constraints.
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ISO/IEC 20802-2:2016(E)
3 Requesting the JSON Format

The OData JSON format can be requested using the $format query option in the request URL with the

MIME type application/json, optionally followed by format parameters, or the case-insensitive

abbreviation json which MUST NOT be followed by format parameters.

Alternatively, this format can be requested using the Accept header with the MIME type

application/json, optionally followed by format parameters.
If specified, $format overrides any value specified in the Accept header.
Possible format parameters are:
odata.metadata
IEEE754Compatib
...

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