Automation systems and integration — Digital twin framework for manufacturing — Part 1: Overview and general principles

This document provides an overview and general principles of a digital twin framework for manufacturing including: — terms and definitions; — requirements of the digital twin framework for manufacturing.

Systèmes d'automatisation industrielle et intégration — Cadre technique de jumeau numérique dans un contexte de fabrication — Partie 1: Vue d'ensemble et principes généraux

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Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Oct-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
22-Oct-2021
Completion Date
22-Oct-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23247-1
First edition
2021-10
Automation systems and
integration — Digital twin framework
for manufacturing —
Part 1:
Overview and general principles
Systèmes d'automatisation industrielle et intégration — Cadre
technique de jumeau numérique dans un contexte de fabrication —
Partie 1: Vue d'ensemble et principes généraux
Reference number
ISO 23247-1:2021(E)
© ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 23247-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 23247-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................. 1

3.1 General terms .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Terms related to digital twin for manufacturing .................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4 Overview of digital twin for manufacturing .......................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Concept of the digital twin for manufacturing .......................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Applications of the digital twin for manufacturing ......... ...................................................................................... 4

4.2.1 Real-time control ............................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.2 Off-line analytics ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.2.3 Predictive maintenance ............................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2.4 Health check ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2.5 Engineering design ...................................................................... ..................................................................................... 5

4.2.6 Production control ........................................................................................................................................... ................. 5

4.2.7 Video surveillance ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.3 Benefits of the digital twin for manufacturing.......................................................................................................... 5

4.3.1 In-loop planning and validation ............................................................................................................................ 5

4.3.2 Production scheduling assurance ....................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.3 Enhanced understanding of manufacturing elements ..................................................................... 5

4.3.4 Dynamic risk management ....................................................................................................................................... 6

4.3.5 Part/assembly traceability ....................................................................................................................................... 6

4.3.6 Process traceability ......................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Observable manufacturing elements ................................................................................................................................. 6

4.4.1 Personnel ................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4.2 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.4.3 Material....................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4.4 Process ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.4.5 Facility ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.4.6 Environment .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.4.7 Product ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.4.8 Supporting document .................................................................................................................................................... 7

5 General principles of the digital twin framework for manufacturing .......................................................7

5.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Limitations and boundaries of the digital twin framework for manufacturing .......................... 7

5.3 Requirements of the digital twin for manufacturing .......................................................................................... 8

5.3.1 Accuracy .................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.2 Communication.................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.3 Data acquisition .................. .................................................... ............................................................................................. 8

5.3.4 Data analysis .......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.5 Data integrity ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.3.6 Extensibility ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.7 Granularity .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.8 Identification ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.9 Management ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.10 Product life-cycle ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.11 Security .................. .................................................... ................................................................................................................. 9

5.3.12 Simulation................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.3.13 Synchronization .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.3.14 Viewpoint .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

iii
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 23247-1:2021(E)

5.3.15 Hierarchical modelling of digital twin for manufacturing ........................................................... 9

5.4 High level outline for framework implementations .............................................................................................. 9

Annex A (informative) Digital twins and the product life-cycle .........................................................................................10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 23247-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 184, Automation systems and integration,

Subcommittee SC 4, Industrial data.
A list of all parts in the ISO 23247 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 23247-1:2021(E)
Introduction

The ISO 23247 series defines a framework to support the creation of digital twins of observable

manufacturing elements including personnel, equipment, materials, manufacturing processes, facilities,

environment, products, and supporting documents.

A digital twin assists with detecting anomalies in manufacturing processes to achieve functional

objectives such as real-time control, predictive maintenance, in-process adaptation, Big Data analytics,

and machine learning. A digital twin monitors its observable manufacturing element by constantly

updating relevant operational and environmental data. The visibility into process and execution

enabled by a digital twin enhances manufacturing operation and business cooperation.

The type of manufacturing supported by an implementation of the ISO 23247 framework depends on

the standards and technologies available to model the observable manufacturing elements. Different

manufacturing domains can use different data standards. As a framework, this document does not

prescribe specific data formats and communication protocols.
The scopes of the four parts of this series are defined below:

— ISO 23247-1: General principles and requirements for developing digital twins in manufacturing;

— ISO 23247-2: Reference architecture with functional views;

— ISO 23247-3: List of basic information attributes for the observable manufacturing elements;

— ISO 23247-4: Technical requirements for information exchange between entities within the

reference architecture.
Figure 1 shows how the four parts of the series are related.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 23247-1:2021(E)
Figure 1 — ISO 23247 series structure

ISO 23247-4:2021, Annexes A to E, provide use cases that demonstrate the digital twin framework

for manufacturing. The use cases are in the discrete manufacturing domain and the digital twins are

modelled using the ISO 10303 series. In other domains, different standards and technologies can be

used. For example, in the oil and gas industry, digital twins may be modelled using the ISO 15926 series,

and for building and construction, digital twins may be modelled using the ISO 16739 series.

vii
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23247-1:2021(E)
Automation systems and integration — Digital twin
framework for manufacturing —
Part 1:
Overview and general principles
1 Scope

This document provides an overview and general principles of a digital twin framework for

manufacturing including:
— terms and definitions;
— requirements of the digital twin framework for manufacturing.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
control
purposeful action on or in a process to meet specified objectives

[SOURCE: IEC 60050:2013, 351-42-19, modified — The Notes to entry have been removed.]

3.1.2
element

basic system part that has the characteristics of state, behaviour, and identification

[SOURCE: ISO 14258:1998, 2.2.4]
3.1.3
enterprise

one or more organizations sharing a definite mission, goals, and objectives which provides an output

such as a product or service
[SOURCE: IEC 62264-1:2013]
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 23247-1:2021(E)
3.1.4
entity
anything (physical or non-physical) having a distinct existence

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 15459-3:2014, 3.1, modified — The Note to entry has been removed.]

3.1.5
Internet of Things
IoT

infrastructure of interconnected entities, people, systems and information resources together with

services which processes and reacts to information from the physical and virtual world

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 20924:2021]
3.1.6
management

direction, control (3.1.1), and coordination of work performed to develop a product or perform a service

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2017, 3.3064, modified — In the term, "process" has been removed.]

3.1.7
physical element
thing that has material existence
3.1.8
resource

any device, tool and means, except raw material and final product components, at the disposal of the

enterprise (3.1.3) to produce goods or services
Note 1 to entry: Resources, as they are defined here, include human resources.

[SOURCE: ISO 15531-1:2004, 3.6.43, modified — Note 1 has been modified. Note 2 has been deleted.]

3.1.9
sensor

device that observes and measures a physical property of a natural phenomenon or process and

converts that measurement into a signal

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2:2013, 2.1.5, modified — "man-made" has been removed and Note 1 to entry

has been deleted.]
3.1.10
universally unique identifier
UUID
computer-generated identification that, for practical purposes, is unique
3.2 Terms related to digital twin for manufacturing
3.2.1
digital identification method

method selected to identify each OME (3.2.5) and its digital twin

Note 1 to entry: Twins can be identified using UUIDs (3.1.10), part numbering or some other mechanism.

3.2.2
digital representation

data element representing a set of properties of an observable manufacturing element

(3.2.5)

[SOURCE: IIC: PUB: G8V2 .1: PB: 20180822, modified — In the definition, "physical element" has been

replaced with "observable manufacturing element".]
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 23247-1:2021(E)
3.2.3
digital twin

fit for purpose digital representation (3.2.2) of an observable manufacturing element

with synchronization between the element and its digital representation
3.2.4
manufacturing process

set of processes in manufacturing involving a flow and/or transformation of material, information,

energy, control, or any other element in a manufacturing area
[SOURCE: ISO 18435-1:2009, 3.16, modified — Note 1 to entry has been deleted.]
3.2.5
observable manufacturing element
OME
item that has an observable physical presence or operation in manufacturing.

Note 1 to entry: Observable manufacturing elements include personnel, equipment, material, process, facility,

environment, product, and supporting document.
3.2.6
presentation
manner in which information is displayed for use by a human
Note 1 to entry: Information can be presented in any way that human can sense.
[SOURCE: ASME Y14.47-2019, modified — Note 1 to entry has been modified.]
3.2.7
representation
manner in which information is modelled for interpretation by a machine

[SOURCE: ASME Y14.47-2019, modified — In the definition, "stored" has been changed to "modelled".]

3.2.8
view
viewpoint

projection of a model, from a given perspective, which omits entities that are not relevant to this

perspective
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19501:2005,
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 23247-1
ISO/TC 184/SC 4
Automation systems and
Secretariat: ANSI
integration — Digital twin framework
Voting begins on:
2021-07-07 for manufacturing —
Voting terminates on:
Part 1:
2021-09-01
Overview and general principles
Systèmes d'automatisation industrielle et intégration — Cadre
technique de jumeau numérique dans un contexte de fabrication —
Partie 1: Vue d'ensemble et principes généraux
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 23247-1:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23247-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23247-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 General terms ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Terms related to digital twin for manufacturing ....................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Overview of digital twin for manufacturing............................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 Concept of the digital twin for manufacturing ............................................................................................................ 3

4.2 Applications of the digital twin for manufacturing ................................................................................................. 4

4.2.1 Real-time control ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.2.2 Off-line analytics .............................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.2.3 Predictive maintenance ............................................................................................................................................. 5

4.2.4 Health check ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.2.5 Engineering design ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.2.6 Production control ......................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2.7 Video surveillance .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3 Benefits of the digital twin for manufacturing ............................................................................................................ 5

4.3.1 In-loop planning and validation ......................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.2 Production scheduling assurance ..................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.3 Enhanced understanding of manufacturing elements .................................................................... 5

4.3.4 Dynamic risk management ..................................................................................................................................... 6

4.3.5 Part/assembly traceability ...................................................................................................................................... 6

4.3.6 Process traceability ....................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Observable manufacturing elements ................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4.1 Personnel ................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.4.2 Equipment ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.4.3 Material .................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4.4 Process ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4.5 Facility ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.4.6 Environment ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.4.7 Product ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.4.8 Supporting document .................................................................................................................................................. 7

5 General principles of the digital twin framework for manufacturing ..........................................................7

5.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Limitations and boundaries of the digital twin framework for manufacturing ............................. 7

5.3 Requirements of the digital twin for manufacturing ............................................................................................. 8

5.3.1 Accuracy .................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.2 Communication ................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.3 Data acquisition ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.3.4 Data analysis ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.3.5 Data integrity ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.6 Extensibility ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.7 Granularity ............................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.3.8 Identification ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.9 Management ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.3.10 Product life-cycle ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.11 Security .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.3.12 Simulation .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.3.13 Synchronization ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.3.14 Viewpoint ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23247-1:2021(E)

5.3.15 Hierarchical modelling of digital twin for manufacturing ........................................................... 9

5.4 High level outline for framework implementations ............................................................................................... 9

Annex A (informative) Digital twins and the product life-cycle ............................................................................................10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23247-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 184, Automation systems and integration,

Subcommittee SC 4, Industrial data.
A list of all parts in the ISO 23247 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23247-1:2021(E)
Introduction

The ISO 23247 series defines a framework to support the creation of digital twins of observable

manufacturing elements including personnel, equipment, materials, manufacturing processes, facilities,

environment, products, and supporting documents.

A digital twin assists with detecting anomalies in manufacturing processes to achieve functional

objectives such as real-time control, predictive maintenance, in-process adaptation, Big Data analytics,

and machine learning. A digital twin monitors its observable manufacturing element by constantly

updating relevant operational and environmental data. The visibility into process and execution

enabled by a digital twin enhances manufacturing operation and business cooperation.

The type of manufacturing supported by an implementation of the ISO 23247 framework depends on

the standards and technologies available to model the observable manufacturing elements. Different

manufacturing domains can use different data standards. As a framework, this document does not

prescribe specific data formats and communication protocols.
The scopes of the four parts of this series are defined below:

— ISO 23247-1: General principles and requirements for developing digital twins in manufacturing;

— ISO 23247-2: Reference architecture with functional views;

— ISO 23247-3: List of basic information attributes for the observable manufacturing elements;

— ISO 23247-4: Technical requirements for information exchange between entities within the

reference architecture.
Figure 1 shows how the four parts of the series are related.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23247-1:2021(E)
Figure 1 — ISO 23247 series structure

ISO 23247-4:— , Annexes A to E, provide use cases that demonstrate the digital twin framework for

manufacturing. The use cases are in the discrete manufacturing domain and the digital twins are

modelled using the ISO 10303 series. In other domains, different standards and technologies can be

used. For example, in the oil and gas industry, digital twins may be modelled using the ISO 15926 series,

and for building and construction, digital twins may be modelled using the ISO 16739 series.

1) Under preparation. (Stage at the time of publication: ISO/FDIS 23247-4:2021.)

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 23247-1:2021(E)
Automation systems and integration — Digital twin
framework for manufacturing —
Part 1:
Overview and general principles
1 Scope

This document provides an overview and general principles of a digital twin framework for

manufacturing including:
— terms and definitions;
— requirements of the digital twin framework for manufacturing.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
control
purposeful action on or in a process to meet specified objectives

[SOURCE: IEC 60050:2013, 351-42-19, modified — The Notes to entry have been removed.]

3.1.2
element

basic system part that has the characteristics of state, behaviour, and identification

[SOURCE: ISO 14258:1998, 2.2.4]
3.1.3
enterprise

one or more organizations sharing a definite mission, goals, and objectives which provides an output

such as a product or service
[SOURCE: IEC 62264-1:2013]
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23247-1:2021(E)
3.1.4
entity
anything (physical or non-physical) having a distinct existence

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 15459-3:2014, 3.1, modified — The Note to entry has been removed.]

3.1.5
Internet of Things
IoT

infrastructure of interconnected entities, people, systems and information resources together with

services which processes and reacts to information from the physical and virtual world

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 20924:2021]
3.1.6
management

direction, control (3.1.1), and coordination of work performed to develop a product or perform a service

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2017, 3.3064, modified — In the term, "process" has been removed.]

3.1.7
physical element
thing that has material existence
3.1.8
resource

any device, tool and means, except raw material and final product components, at the disposal of the

enterprise (3.1.3) to produce goods or services
Note 1 to entry: Resources, as they are defined here, include human resources.

[SOURCE: ISO 15531-1:2004, 3.6.43, modified — Note 1 has been modified. Note 2 has been deleted.]

3.1.9
sensor

device that observes and measures a physical property of a natural phenomenon or process and

converts that measurement into a signal

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2:2013, 2.1.5, modified — "man-made" has been removed and Note 1 to entry

has been deleted.]
3.1.10
universally unique identifier
UUID
computer-generated identification that, for practical purposes, is unique
3.2 Terms related to digital twin for manufacturing
3.2.1
digital identification method

method selected to identify each OME (3.2.5) and its digital twin

Note 1 to entry: Twins can be identified using UUIDs (3.1.10), part numbering or some other mechanism.

3.2.2
digital representation

data element representing a set of properties of an observable manufacturing element

(3.2.5)

[SOURCE: IIC: PUB: G8V2 .1: PB: 20180822, modified — In the definition, "physical element" has been

replaced with "observable manufacturing element".]
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23247-1:2021(E)
3.2.3
digital twin

fit for purpose digital representation (3.2.2) of an observable manufacturing element

with synchronization between the element and its digital representation
3.2.4
manufacturing process

set of processes in manufacturing involving a flow and/or transformation of material, information,

energy, control, or any other element in a manufacturing area
[SOURCE: ISO 18435-1:2009, 3.16, modified — Note 1 to entry has been deleted.]
3.2.5
observable manufacturing element
OME
item that has an observable physical presence or operation in manufacturing.

Note 1 to entry: Observable manufacturing elements include personnel, equipment, material, process, facility,

environment, product, and supporting document.
3.2.6
presentation
manner in which information is displayed for use by a human
Note 1 to entry: Information can be presented in any way that human can sense.
[SOURCE: ASME Y14.47-2019, modified — Note 1 to entry has been modified.]
3.2.7
representation
manner in which inf
...

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