Space systems — Paints and varnishes — Processes, procedures, and requirements for coating materials and coatings

This document establishes the main requirements for: — a choice of coating materials and coatings for space applications; — processes and procedures for the verification of coating materials; — processes of preparation and quality control of the painted surface; — the quality control of the applied coatings. This document also describes the causes of possible defects in coatings. This document is applicable to coating materials and coatings based on them; it is intended for use by manufacturers of space systems products for various surfaces of spacecraft’s and its constitutive parts (on-board systems, facilities, tools, electronic component base products) with long active lifetimes.

Systèmes spatiaux — Peintures et vernis — Procédés, modes opératoires et exigences concernant les produits de peinture et les revêtements

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Jan-2023
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
13-Jan-2023
Due Date
12-Aug-2022
Completion Date
13-Jan-2023
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 23230:2023 - Space systems — Paints and varnishes — Processes, procedures, and requirements for coating materials and coatings Released:13. 01. 2023
English language
17 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (Sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23230
First edition
2023-01
Space systems — Paints and varnishes
— Processes, procedures, and
requirements for coating materials
and coatings
Systèmes spatiaux — Peintures et vernis — Procédés, modes
opératoires et exigences concernant les produits de peinture et les
revêtements
Reference number
ISO 23230:2023(E)
© ISO 2023
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 23230:2023(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2023

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 23230:2023(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General provisions .............................................................................................................................................................................................4

4.1 General requirements for coating materials and coatings.............................................................................. 4

4.2 Main processes and procedures to manufacture coatings ............................................................................. 5

5 Verification of coating materials ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

6 Preparation of surfaces before painting .................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 General conditions for the preparation of surfaces before painting ...................................................... 7

6.2 Preparation of metal surfaces .................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.3 Preparation of non-metallic surfaces ................................................................................................................................. 8

7 Preparation of coating material .......................................................................................................................................................... 8

8 Application and drying of coating materials ......................................................................................................................... 9

8.1 Basic parameters for the coating material application ...................................................................................... 9

8.2 Control during the coating process (operational inspection) ................................................................... 10

8.3 Safety requirements and quality assurance ............................................................................................................. 10

8.4 Curing of coating ................................................................................................................................................................................ 11

9 Quality control of an applied coating ..........................................................................................................................................11

Annex A (informative) Test methods for the quality evaluation of the applied coating ...........................13

Annex B (informative) Defective types of coatings and their causes ............................................................................14

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

iii
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 23230:2023(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 23230:2023(E)
Introduction

Nowadays, there are a large number of paints and varnishes (coating materials), on the basis of which

coatings for space systems products can be developed and manufactured.

For the use of coating materials, requirements are additionally imposed on the selection processes and

procedures for verifying coating materials, surface preparation before painting, application conditions

and quality control of coatings.

The main purpose of this document is to harmonize the requirements of existing international and

national standards in this area.

Manufacturers of space systems products usually prepare coating materials for application and form

coatings under the required operating conditions; therefore, this document aims to optimize the

processes of verification, preparation and application of coating materials to improve the quality of

painting.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23230:2023(E)
Space systems — Paints and varnishes — Processes,
procedures, and requirements for coating materials and
coatings
1 Scope
This document establishes the main requirements for:
— a choice of coating materials and coatings for space applications;
— processes and procedures for the verification of coating materials;
— processes of preparation and quality control of the painted surface;
— the quality control of the applied coatings.
This document also describes the causes of possible defects in coatings.

This document is applicable to coating materials and coatings based on them; it is intended for use by

manufacturers of space systems products for various surfaces of spacecraft’s and its constitutive parts

(on-board systems, facilities, tools, electronic component base products) with long active lifetimes.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1514, Paints and varnishes — Standard panels for testing

ISO 4628-8, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of degradation of coatings — Designation of quantity

and size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance — Part 8: Assessment of degree of

delamination and corrosion around a scribe or other artificial defect
ISO 9000, Quality management systems — Fundamentals and vocabulary
ISO 9227, Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres — Salt spray tests

ISO 10794, Space systems — Programme management — Material, mechanical parts and processes

ISO 16691, Space systems — Thermal control coatings for spacecraft — General requirements

ECSS-Q-ST-70-71C, Space product assurance. Materials, processes and their data selection

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 9000 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 23230:2023(E)
3.1
coat
layer of a coating material (3.3) resulting from a single application
Note 1 to entry: For fillers the word “coat” is used instead of “film”.
[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.49]
3.2
coating

layer formed from a single or multiple application of a coating material (3.3) to a substrate (3.12)

[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.50.1]
3.3
coating material

product, in liquid, paste or powder form, that, when applied to a substrate (3.12), forms a layer

possessing protective, decorative or other specific properties

Note 1 to entry: The term “specific properties” means insulating, anti-corrosive, thermal control and other

properties.

[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.51, modified — Note 1 to entry has been replaced by a new one.]

3.4
coating process
method of application of a coating material (3.3) to a substrate (3.12)
[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.53]
3.5
coating system

combination of all coats (3.1) of coating materials (3.3) which are to be applied or which have been

applied to a substrate (3.12)

Note 1 to entry: The actual system can be characterized by the number of coats involved.

Note 2 to entry: See also coating (3.2).
[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.54]
3.6
flow time
relative viscosity

time that elapses from the moment when the material under test starts to flow from the orifice of the

filled flow cup to the moment when the flow stream of material first breaks off close to the orifice

[SOURCE: ISO 2431:2019, 3.1, modified — The symbol "t" has been removed; the alternative term

"relative viscosity" has been added.]
3.7
functional coat

coat (3.1) of coating system (3.5) with specific properties, designed to perform additional functions

Note 1 to entry: Additional functions may include: corrosion protection, protect from UV radiation and from

other types of radiation, low and high temperatures and also from other factors of space environment.

© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 23230:2023(E)
3.8
normative documentation

specifications, standards, rules or instructions, to which adherence is required through citation in

the design documentation or the construction, fabrication, manufacture, purchase or production

documentation for the manufacture and operation of the facility, system or equipment

Note 1 to entry: In this document, the term is applied to the documentation for a specific coating material (3.3) or

coating (3.2).
[SOURCE: ISO 16159:2012, 2.11, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
3.9
paint

pigmented coating material (3.3) which, when applied to a substrate (3.12), forms an opaque dried film

having protective, decorative or specific properties

Note 1 to entry: For coating materials with protective and specific properties in normative documentation (3.8),

the term "enamel" may be used for a liquid or paste-like pigmented coating material in which the coating medium

is a solution of the film-forming substance of the coating material in organic solvents.

[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.184, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
3.10
priming coat
first coat (3.1) of a coating system (3.5)

Note 1 to entry: Priming ensures better adhesion of coating material (3.3) to the surface, increases paint (3.9)

durability, and provides additional protection for the material being painted.
[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014 2.207, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
3.11
ready-to-apply coating material

coating material (3.3) or coating material after mixing of its certain components (multicomponent

coating material) and after dilution if it is necessary with certain solvents and/or with certain dilutants

according to normative documentation (3.8) and that is ready to apply by certain painting methods

3.12
substrate
surface to which a coating material (3.3) is applied or is to be applied
[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.244]
3.13
surface preparation

physical and/or chemical treatment of the surface to be painted in order to clean it and improve the

adhesion of the coating material (3.3) to the surface to be painted
3.14
thermal control coating
TCC

coating (3.2) that is used to maintain certain temperature conditions of an object by way of establishing

the balance between the heat absorbed from an environment and/or emitted by internal heat sources

and the energy radiated by object’s surface in an environment

Note 1 to entry: In this document, the term refers to TCC based on coating materials (3.3).

[SOURCE: ISO 16691:2014, 3.1.15, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 23230:2023(E)
3.15
varnish
transparent coating material (3.3)
Note 1 to entry: See also clear coating material (ISO 4618:2014, 2.47).

[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.266, modified — Note 1 to entry has been replaced by a new one.]

4 General provisions
4.1 General requirements for coating materials and coatings

4.1.1 To apply coatings for products of space systems, coating materials shall be selected that meet

the requirements for their operation in space environment conditions.

4.1.2 For products of space systems, coatings with the following specific properties are used:

a) thermal control;
b) electrically conductive;
c) electrically insulating;
d) thermal resistant;
e) anticorrosive;
f) chemically resistant;
g) resistant to space environment factors.

4.1.3 Coating materials shall meet the requirements of the normative documentation, be

manufactured according to technological documentation for each material, and be delivered to the

customer with quality document according to the delivery documentation, taking into consideration

specific national and local requirements.

4.1.4 The delivery documentation for a particular material specifies the scope of the coating material,

specification and conditions for coatings’ formation.

4.1.5 A warranty period of storage shall be established for the coating materials.

4.1.6 To confirm the durability (service life) of coatings as part of the product, the following tests

shall be carried out:

— accelerated aging tests to simulate storage in land conditions (accelerated climatic tests) according

to ISO 4628-8 and ISO 9227;

— accelerated simulation tests of space environment factors (atomic oxygen, electron, proton,

ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling);
— tests to determine the outgassing.

4.1.6.1 In the process of testing, the parameters given in Table A.1 are controlled in accordance with

the established requirements for a specific coating.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 23230:2023(E)

4.1.6.2 Test methods, their scope and sufficiency shall be selected depending on the operating

conditions of the coatings in the composition of the product and depending on the requirements of the

normative documentation.

4.1.7 The main outgassing characteristics of coatings for space applications are as follows:

— total mass loss (TML);
— recovered mass loss (RML);
— collected volatile condensable materials (CVCM).

Materials having TML of less than 1,0 %, RML of less than 1,0 % and CVCM of less than 0,1 % are

generally considered as low-outgassing materials.

The outgassing requirements shall be based on the quantity of material concerned and the specific

environmental conditions.

When contamination-sensitive products are involved or for materials in the vicinity of cryogenic

surfaces, more stringent requirements shall apply in order to compensate the missing details.

4.1.8 Coating materials used for space systems products shall be subjected to the procedures of

verification and validation in ISO 10794 and ECSS-Q-ST-70-71C.

4.1.9 To obtain coatings with specified characteristics, coating materials shall meet the requirement

of the normative documentation for coatings; for example, thermal control coatings shall meet the

requirements of ISO 16691.

4.1.10 For particular coatings, additional requirements for coating materials apply according to the

normative documentation and ECSS-Q-ST-70-31C.
4.2 Main processes and procedures to manufacture coatings
4.2.1 For the production of coatings, the main processes and procedures are:

a) verification of coating materials in accordance with the normative documentation;

b) preparation of the surface before painting;
c) preparation of coating materials for the application of a coating;
d) filling layer applying (if the coating’s system includes this layer):
1) drying;
2) operational inspection;
e) priming coat applying (if the coating system includes this coat):

1) drying or curing (depending on the physico-chemical properties of coating materials);

2) operational inspection;
f) functional coat applying;

1) drying or curing (depending on the physico-chemical properties of coating materials);

2) operational inspection;
NOTE The coating system may consist of several functional coats.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 23230:2023(E)
g) quality control applied coating.

4.2.2 In violation of the integrity of the coating in cases provided by the normative documentation for

a specific coating, repair work may be performed with a subsequent reinspection.

4.2.2.1 If the area to be restored is less than 10 % of the total surface, localized repairs may be

performed.

4.2.2.2 If the area to be restored is more than 10 % of the total surface, the coating layer (coating) is

removed from the total surface and reapplied according to 4.2.1.

4.2.3 The following requirements shall be established for the processes performed:

a) requirements for production facilities;
b) requirements for production equipment;
c) requirements for application process;
d) requirements for storage and transportation;
e) requirements for personnel;
f) requirements for measurement tools and for test equipment;
g) requirements for personal protective gear;
h) requirements for industrial wastes disposal.

Specific requirements related to the specifics of production shall be reflected in the normative

documentation.
5 Verification of coating materials

5.1 Verification of coating materials (purchased products) is carried out to check the conformity

of the product quality with the normative documentation, the period and method of storage for the

material and to prevent the product launch of non-conforming products.
5.2 Verification of coating materials shall include the following procedures:

a) a check-up during the acceptance test (determination of the main coating material properties

according to the normative documentation and to the document of quality);

b) a check-up at the end of the maintenance storage period (if it is allowable according to the normative

documentation for the material).

5.3 Indicators being monitored and coating materials properties, type, and volume of inspection shall

be determined in each case by the customer on the basis of the importance of each indicator.

5.4 Verification of coating materials, depending on their purchase volume, should be carried out

by continuous or selective inspection of a batch. Each of these types of control (tests) shall include

quantitative measurement and visual inspection methods, depending on the means of obtaining

information, its reliability, and sufficiency.

5.5 Measuring or visual verification methods of purchased products shall be used in accordance with

the normative documentation for coating materials. Measuring results and visual identification results

shall be consistent with estimated normative documentation parameters.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 23230:2023(E)

5.6 Measuring verification methods shall be used in those cases when higher reliability of the

obtained information is required. Measurement results shall be consistent with the parameters stated

in the normative documentation.

5.7 Non-conforming products shall be identified by a non-conformance label and placed in a

segregated place to prevent unintentional use thereof until a further decision is taken.

5.8 Non-conforming products shall be issued a claim or complaint.

5.9 Coating materials after the expiration of the storage period may be used only after rechecking for

compliance with all the main indicators established in the normative documentation, provided that this

indication is contained in the normative documentation for a specific coating material.

6 Preparation of surfaces before painting
6.1 General conditions for the preparation of surfaces before painting

The quality of a coating shall be ensured by proper and thorough surface preparation. The surface

preparation methods depend on the properties of the material to be painted and on the specific design

features of the product.
6.2 Preparation of metal surfaces

6.2.1 The main purpose of metallic surface preparation before painting is to remove substances that

interfere with colouring and accelerate corrosion processes.

6.2.2 The main factors affecting these characteristics are the presence of rust, dross, greasy stains

and hard to get off pollutions, soluble oils mixed with metal chips and dust, carbon deposits, grinding

and polishing pastes, and conversion coatings.

6.2.3 The prime objective of the preparation is to obtain a surface that provides the required adhesion

to the metal substrate of the coating.
6.2.4 Surface preparation consists of a series of operations:

a) cleaning from contaminants: the cleaning may be performed using mechanical and chemical

(aqueous washing solutions, alkaline rinses, acid solutions, emulsion cleaners and emulsions,

solvents) methods;

b) mechanical processing: mechanical processing of products’ surfaces is performed to improve

adhesion properties of coatings by using hand-guided, mechanical hand tools, special equipment,

and also by abrasive-jet machining.

6.2.5 When choosing the surface preparation method, the initial condition of the surface, material

properties, and product characteristics shall be taken into account.

6.2.6 Surface areas inaccessible to power tools are prepared manually. The treatment shall be carried

out in such a way that no damages or surface defects like scratches, dents, etc. will be on the surface.

6.2.7 A special chemical treatment like phosphating, chromating and oxidation is performed after

cleaning to impart additional corrosion resistance to the surface. As a result of such a surface treatment,

inorganic non-metallic coatings are formed. They improve the adhesion and durability of the coating

applied above.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 23230:2023(E)

6.2.8 No burrs, sharp edges, welding splashes, soldering flows, thermal damages, flux residue are

allowed on the surface to be coated. The burrs, sharp edges, welding splashes, and soldering flows may

exist on surfaces of product details (without specific requirements for appearance) if it is stated in the

corresponding normative documentation.

6.2.9 Roughness, waviness parameters and parameters of the substrate are stated in each case

separately depending on specific requirements for the product surface.

6.2.10 After the preparation of the surfaces, the products shall be painted immediately or within time

as indicated in the coating material datasheet (normative documentation) including margins.

6.2.11 Conditions which exclude the appearance of any type of pollution and corrosion shall be

performed during and after the surface preparation. The shelf period after the surface preparation and

before the coating process is limited and should be regulated by the normative documentation.

6.3 Preparation of non-metallic surfaces

6.3.1 Preparation processes of non-metallic surfaces depend on material properties, specific design

features of the product and are performed according to the manufacturer’s documentation and include

the following main procedures:

a) processing with abrasive materials (grinding skins), in exceptional cases by abrasive-jet machining;

b) dust removal;
c) degreasing;
d) drying.

6.3.2 On the prepared non-metallic surface after treatment and degreasing, there should be no glossy

areas, white bloom, resign deposits, and residues of separating layers, grease, moisture, mineral oils,

and other contamination.
7 Preparation of coating material

7.1 It is presupposed that the preparation of the coating material, the conditions and modes of

application are controlled for compliance with the normative documentation for a specific coating

material.

7.2 The preparation of coating material, reaching the working viscosity, filtering, and implementation

of hardeners shall be performed after the material temperature is the same as the facility temperature

in accordance with the normative documentation.

7.3 The container with a coating material shall be tightly sealed to avoid solvent evaporating and also

water, dust, dirt entries since it can lead to the paint material degradation.

The container with a coating material before the opening thereof shall be cleaned from dust with a

cotton cloth to avoid contamination of the material.

7.4 Before usage, the coating material shall be thoroughly mixed until the pigment is evenly

distributed and the sediment disappears.

7.5 Before applying two–component (multicomponent) coating materials, a hardener or

polymerization initiator shall be added into a semi-finished product of the material in the requested

© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 23230:2023(E)

quantity and mixed thoroughly; if necessary, dilute and hold in accordance with the requirements for

the material.

Ready-to-apply coating material shall be applied during a limited period of time in accordance with the

material requirements.

7.6 Before usage, the coating material is brought to the working viscosity in accordance with the

requirements for the material and filtered through the filter material.
8 Application and drying of coating materials
8.1 Basic parameters for the coating material application

8.1.1 The coating materials shall be applied after all of the surface preparations have been performed.

8.1.2 The following methods are used for applying coating materials:
— pneumatic spraying;
— hydraulic spraying;
— electrostatic spraying;
— dipping;
— brush coating.

8.1.3 The painting method of coating materials shall be chosen according to the normative

documentation and also in accordance with the appearance, dimensions, the purpose of the product,

and in accordance with the coating requirements.

8.1.4 Paint coating parameters shall be recorded in the process control log. The process control log

shall include, but not limited to, the following:
— paint mate
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.