Development of service standards -- Recommendations for addressing consumer issues

ISO/IEC Guide 76:2008 provides general guidance on the issues to be considered in standards for services. On the basis of this guidance, detailed standards can be prepared for any service. ISO/IEC Guide 76:2008 provides a checklist which can be used by consumer representatives and others participating in the process of standards development. Use of the checklist enables full consideration to be given to all matters of consumer interest, including the needs of children, older persons, persons with disabilities and those from different ethnic and cultural heritages. ISO/IEC Guide 76:2008 is relevant to the full range of services, whether or not a formal contract is entered into or purchase price paid, but it also has relevance for public or charitable services in which there is a consumer, a user or a participant, but not necessarily a purchase, e.g. education, health and care provision.

Élaboration des normes de service -- Recommandations pour répondre aux attentes des consommateurs

L'ISO/CEI Guide 76:2008 fournit des directives générales relatives aux questions ŕ traiter dans les normes pour les services. Ces directives peuvent servir de base ŕ l'élaboration de normes détaillées pour tout service. L'ISO/CEI Guide 76:2008 propose une liste de contrôle qui peut ętre utilisée par les représentants des consommateurs et par toute autre personne participant au processus d'élaboration de normes. L'utilisation de cette liste de contrôle permet de pleinement prendre en considération tous les sujets présentant un intéręt pour les consommateurs, y compris les besoins des enfants, des personnes âgées, des personnes présentant des incapacités et celles d'origines ethniques et culturelles différentes. L'ISO/CEI Guide 76:2008 s'applique ŕ l'ensemble de la gamme des services, qu'ils soient assurés par conclusion d'un contrat formel ou par rčglement direct du prix d'achat. Il concerne également les services publics et de bienfaisance qui impliquent un consommateur, un utilisateur ou un participant mais pas nécessairement un achat, par exemple dans le domaine de l'éducation, de la santé et des soins.

General Information

Status
Replaced
Publication Date
15-Jan-2008
Withdrawal Date
15-Jan-2008
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Completion Date
16-Jan-2008
Ref Project

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GUIDE 76
Development of service
standards — Recommendations
for addressing consumer issues
First edition 2008
Corrected version 2008
ISO/IEC 2008
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2008

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Key consumer principles ..................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Information ............................................................................................................................................ 4

4.3 Access and fairness ............................................................................................................................. 4

4.4 Choice .................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5 Safety and security............................................................................................................................... 4

4.6 Quality.................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.7 Redress.................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.8 Environmental issues........................................................................................................................... 6

4.9 Representation...................................................................................................................................... 6

4.10 Compliance with laws and regulations............................................................................................... 6

5 Using this Guide ................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Taking account of consumer issues when developing standards.................................................. 8

7 Key consumer questions to address................................................................................................ 10

8 Detailed consideration of service elements and related topic areas ............................................ 12

8.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 12

8.2 Service provider.................................................................................................................................. 12

8.3 Suppliers.............................................................................................................................................. 13

8.4 Personnel............................................................................................................................................. 14

8.5 Customer ............................................................................................................................................. 14

8.6 Contract ............................................................................................................................................... 14

8.7 Billing ................................................................................................................................................... 15

8.8 Delivery ................................................................................................................................................ 15

8.9 Service outcome ................................................................................................................................. 16

8.10 Service environment........................................................................................................................... 16

8.11 Equipment ........................................................................................................................................... 17

8.12 Safeguards .......................................................................................................................................... 17

8.13 Communication between service provider and customer.............................................................. 18

8.14 Communication within service organization ................................................................................... 19

9 Checklist .............................................................................................................................................. 20

Annex A (informative) Examples of possible services................................................................................. 25

Annex B (informative) Illustration of the relevance of the checklist to different kinds of services......... 26

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 31

© ISO/IEC 2008 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

Draft Guides adopted by the responsible Committee or Group are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as a Guide requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC Guide 76 was prepared by the ISO Committee on consumer policy (COPOLCO).

This corrected version of ISO/IEC Guide 76:2008 incorporates the following correction:

⎯ correction of the term “responsibility” to “social responsibility” in the example to point 5 in Table 1 on

page 10.
iv © ISO/IEC 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
Introduction

0.1 Standards are increasingly being developed to cover services. This Guide has been prepared to help

standards developers in these areas to take account of consumer requirements. It elaborates on the aims of

service standards, set out in the ISO/IEC publication The consumer and standards — Guidance and principles

[25]

for consumer participation in standards development . In addressing the major concerns of consumers,

standards can help by representing a consensus on the best knowledge and experience available worldwide.

0.2 This Guide is intended for those involved in the preparation and revision of standards for services,

whether International Standards or national standards in developed or developing countries. With its checklist

and examples, it also contains information which might be useful for others, such as service providers and

educators.

0.3 Service delivery can involve complex relationships and structures, frequently involving many different

organizations. Additionally, consumers engage with a variety of public services, such as medical provision or

education, for which formal contracts and direct payment might not be applicable.

0.4 In a global market, it is logical that consumers expect to benefit from access to a wider choice of

services and service providers. There is also continuing demand for lower prices that are not contrived to

disadvantage certain markets and communities. Quality, economy and efficiency are sought, whether or not

the consumer pays directly for a service. There is also increasing consumer concern about the need for

sustainable development.

0.5 The Internet fuels comparisons and the growth of knowledge and provision of information on which to

base choices. Globally, consumers expect that the services they engage with, contract to and purchase will

not only be consistent in quality, durability and ease of use, but also safe, environmentally friendly and fair for

the communities affected by the services.

0.6 Although all people have a right of access to services, this will not always be relevant or feasible.

However, it is advisable that service providers consider the needs of all potential users, including children and

those from different cultural and ethnic heritages. This will enable the services to be available to as many

people as possible. The issue of accessibility and usability of products and services has become more critical

with the increasing percentage of older persons in the world's population. While not all older persons have

disabilities, the prevalence of disability or limitations is highest among this demographic group.

0.7 The standardization of services can provide the following benefits:

⎯ build consumer confidence by assuring safety, security, quality, durability and ease of use;

⎯ supply accurate and appropriate information and take into account user requirements;

⎯ support the development of choice and access to a wide range of users;
⎯ provide appropriate and fair forms of redress, where necessary.

0.8 Many national and sectoral codes of practice exist in relation to parts of service delivery which can be

considered when developing standards. However, these are most commonly drawn up from the viewpoint of

the service provider and are thus not necessarily those of the consumer. This Guide seeks to ensure that

consumer needs are addressed. It also allows a common set of criteria for services across countries in which

there can be many differences in the scope and application of national consumer protection legislation.

0.9 It is recognized that when developing service standards, it is advisable to take account of applicable

statutory or regulatory requirements.
© ISO/IEC 2008 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
Development of service standards — Recommendations for
addressing consumer issues
1 Scope

This Guide provides general guidance on the issues to be considered in standards for services. On the basis

of this guidance, detailed standards can be prepared for any service. This Guide provides a checklist (see

Clause 9) which can be used by consumer representatives and others participating in the process of

standards development. Use of the checklist enables full consideration to be given to all matters of consumer

interest, including the needs of children, older persons, persons with disabilities and those from different

ethnic and cultural heritages.

This Guide is relevant to the full range of services, whether or not a formal contract is entered into or purchase

price paid, but it also has relevance for public or charitable services in which there is a consumer, a user or a

participant, but not necessarily a purchase, e.g. education, health and care provision.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 9000, Quality management systems — Fundamentals and vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 9000 and the following apply.

3.1
service

result of at least one activity, necessarily performed at the interface between the supplier and customer, that is

generally intangible
NOTE 1 Examples of possible services are given in Annex A.

NOTE 2 In ISO 9000, “product” is defined as the “result of a process” that encompasses four generic product

categories [services (e.g. transport), software (e.g. computer program, dictionary), hardware (e.g. engine mechanical part)

and processed materials (e.g. lubricant)] and that indicates that the product category used is based on the dominant

element. A service can therefore include the delivery of software, hardware and processed materials. For the purposes of

this Guide, a separate definition of “service” is given here.
© ISO/IEC 2008 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
3.2
goods
products excluding services

EXAMPLE Software, hardware and processed materials, e.g. domestic appliances, home care articles, food.

NOTE In ISO 9000, “product” is defined as the “result of a process” that encompasses four generic product

categories [services (e.g. transport), software (e.g. computer program, dictionary), hardware (e.g. engine mechanical part)

and processed materials (e.g. lubricant)] and that indicates that the product category used is based on the dominant

element. A service can therefore include the delivery of software, hardware and processed materials. For the purposes of

this Guide, a separate definition of “goods” is given here.
3.3
service provider
entity that offers one or more services
NOTE The entity can be an individual or an organization.
3.4
consumer

individual member of the general public purchasing or using goods, property or services, for personal, family

or household purposes
[26]

NOTE Adapted from the ISO/IEC Statement on Consumer participation in standardization work .

3.5
customer
organization or person that receives a product
EXAMPLE Consumer, client, end-user, retainer, beneficiary or purchaser.

NOTE 1 For the purposes of this Guide, use of the term “customer” includes potential customers in the reference.

NOTE 2 Adapted from ISO 9000.
3.6
customer satisfaction

customer's perception of the degree to which the customer's requirements have been fulfilled

NOTE 1 Customer complaints are a common indicator of low customer satisfaction, but their absence does not

necessarily imply high customer satisfaction.

NOTE 2 Even when customer requirements have been agreed to with the customer and fulfilled, this does not

necessarily ensure high customer satisfaction.
NOTE 3 Adapted from ISO 9000.
3.7
user
participant
person who uses the service(s) of the service provider
3.8
impairment

problem in body function or structure such as a significant deviation or loss which can be temporary due, for

example, to injury, or permanent, slight or severe and can fluctuate over time, in particular, deterioration due

to ageing
[ISO/IEC Guide 71:2001, 3.4]
2 © ISO/IEC 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
3.9
contract

agreement by which one or more parties are obligated towards one or several other parties to provide a

service
3.10
code of conduct
customer promise(s) made by an organization, and related provisions

NOTE 1 The promise(s) are used by the organization for the purpose of maintaining and enhancing customer

satisfaction (3.6) and relate to the organization's products or the interaction of the organization with its existing or

potential customers.
NOTE 2 See also ISO 10001 on guidelines for codes of conduct for organizations.
3.11
customer service

interaction of an organization with the customer throughout the phases of service provision

NOTE Adapted from ISO 10002.
3.12
delivery
action of providing a service
3.13
usability

extent to which a service can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness,

efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use
[ISO/IEC Guide 71:2001, 3.7]
3.14
assistive technology
assistive device

piece of equipment, product system, hardware, software or service that is used to increase, maintain or

improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities

NOTE This can be acquired commercially off-the-shelf, modified or customized. The term includes technical aids for

persons with disabilities. Assistive devices do not eliminate an impairment but may lessen the difficulty an individual has in

carrying out a task or activity in specific environments.
[ISO/IEC Guide 71:2001, 3.3]
3.15
alternative format

different presentation which can make services accessible by the use of another movement or sensory ability

NOTE Adapted from ISO/IEC Guide 71.
3.16
complaint

expression of dissatisfaction made to an organization, related to its products, or the complaints-handling

process itself, where a response or resolution is explicitly or implicitly expected

[ISO 10002:2004, 3.2]
© ISO/IEC 2008 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
3.17
complainant
person, organization or its representative, making a complaint
[ISO 10002:2004, 3.1]
3.18
feedback

opinions, comments and expressions of interest in the service or the complaints-handling process

NOTE Adapted from ISO 10002 and from ISO/IEC Guide 51.
3.19
safeguard

precaution taken to prevent or reduce the impact of a failure in some aspect of service provision

4 Key consumer principles
4.1 General

Services cover a wide range of activities (see Annex A). The common features are a service provided by a

commercial, public or private organization, for which claims are made, products or assistance are delivered,

an organization on whose quality of provision consumers rely, often without individual or immediate means to

judge this. The key consumer principles, as described in subclauses 4.2 to 4.10, should be taken into account.

4.2 Information

Information and its communication play a crucial role in the selection, provision and effective use of services

because, unlike products such as shoes and food, there are less tangible elements to assist the consumer in

gauging quality, fitness for purpose, value for money, etc. Communication of information, especially prior to

contract signature, and the manner of doing it (including the attitude of staff) is a fundamental consideration.

The role of communication at every step in the decision-making process is illustrated in Figure 1.

4.3 Access and fairness

Access to services is a function of consumers' ability to afford the things they need or want, and of the

availability of these things to all consumers regardless of location, social and economic considerations and

physical or mental impairment. Thus, to be credible, the interests of the full range of consumers (from children

to older persons, with different cultural and ethnic backgrounds and with all variations in abilities) should be

acknowledged and included from the outset in the development of relevant standards. In maintaining the

principle of fairness, standards should ensure that services do not unreasonably discriminate against any

particular group of consumers.
4.4 Choice

Promoting consumer choice is fundamental to consumer policy. In standardization, this means that a standard

should not favour any one particular supplier or be unnecessarily restrictive of the form of service provision.

Various characteristics of a service will be balanced with the need to maintain value for money and a

competitive market.
4.5 Safety and security

The safety (including hygiene and physical safety) and security (including financial security and privacy)

afforded by services are key priorities, with a particular emphasis on protecting vulnerable people, e.g.

children, older persons, persons with disabilities or persons disadvantaged through poverty or an inability

(perhaps due to language) to access relevant information and assistance.
4 © ISO/IEC 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)

Figure 1 — Service elements and role of communication at all stages of service provision

4.6 Quality

Quality is the extent to which the characteristics of a service fulfil the requirements. Therefore, quality

encompasses the many other intangible features that contribute to “good” service. These include factors

already considered in subclauses 4.2 to 4.5, such as access to helpful and accurate information, good

customer handling and timely provision, but also factors within a framework of environmental impact

assessment and sustainable development, such as sustainable use of resources and the ability to recycle.

Ease of use is a quality feature for the general populace, but also an access factor for those with some form of

impairment. Quality and value for money, as well as safety, are central issues for consumers.

4.7 Redress

Consumers need to feel confident of service delivery and of the fact that, should something go wrong, there

are appropriate provisions in place to handle any concerns or claims, irrespective of whether the service is

provided nationally or from another country.
© ISO/IEC 2008 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
4.8 Environmental issues

Environmental considerations are of increasing importance to consumers and may affect their decision-

making. Factors include promoting respect for the natural and human environment through reduction of waste,

odours, noise and visual pollution, and conservation of the physical, cultural and human heritage.

4.9 Representation

Standards development organizations should ensure that consumers are represented in all technical

committees or working groups where the subject matter has an effect on consumers. If this is not feasible,

they should use other ways to ensure that consumer interests are taken into account, e.g. through

consultation. Where appropriate, the standards themselves should make provision for consumer

representation, e.g. through consultation when developing new services.
4.10 Compliance with laws and regulations

Service providers should ensure compliance and proper consideration of applicable statutory and regulatory

requirements, from the earliest planning and design stages of the service to service delivery and redress.

5 Using this Guide

5.1 This Guide provides an overview on how consumer interests should be identified and taken into

account in the development of standards for services. Standards include international, regional and national

standards, as well as sectoral and organizational or company standards. This Guide indicates the areas in

which detailed requirements may be drawn up for particular sector-specific standards.

5.2 The documents listed below should all form part of the toolkit for the standards developer.

a) The ISO/IEC Policy Statement, Addressing the needs of older persons and people with disabilities in

[24]
, and the complementary guide, ISO/IEC Guide 71, provide standards developers
standardization work

and others with a systematic approach to addressing ageing and disability issues in the writing and

revision of International Standards. These documents also help Technical Committees to evaluate how

they are addressing such issues in their Work Programmes.

b) ISO/IEC Guide 51 provides guidance on general safety considerations. ISO/IEC Guide 50 provides more

specific guidelines for child safety.

c) Detailed guidance on specific aspects of service delivery, such as the internationally agreed criteria for

customer satisfaction given in ISO 10001, ISO 10002 and ISO 10003, constitutes useful guidance on

global customer care.

NOTE ISO 10001 provides guidelines on codes of conduct; ISO 10002 provides guidelines on complaints

handling; ISO 10003 provides guidelines on external customer dispute resolution.

5.3 Clause 6 outlines a process which standards developers may use to address the key areas of

consumer interest, including the needs of older persons and persons with disabilities.

5.4 Clause 7 identifies the key consumer questions that may be asked when selecting, purchasing or

engaging with a service, and indicates the link with the various “service elements” listed in Table 1.

5.5 The service elements, identified from the key consumer questions, may be considered when developing

organizational or company standards, or sector-specific standards. Within each service element, there are a

number of “topic areas”. Clause 8 describes the various topic areas for each service element. Taking all topic

areas into account should ensure that consumers' needs are addressed when developing a standard. In the

delivery of any service, there may be a sequence of phases in the provision of the service, all involving

interaction between the service provider and customer.

NOTE See Figure 2 for an example related to a sporting event; this figure also shows that there can be associated

support activities.
6 © ISO/IEC 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)

5.6 In Clause 9, Tables 2 to 6 provide checklists of the topic areas identified in Clause 8 as a quick way of

enabling standards developers to ensure that all relevant aspects are covered.

5.7 Annex B illustrates how different service elements may assume greater or lesser significance when this

systematic checklist approach is used to develop standards in very different service sectors (i.e. hair care

providers, hotels and life insurance).

NOTE Annex B gives examples rather than exhaustive lists of all necessary requirements for each of these services.

5.8 The Bibliography provides a list of sources that standards developers can use to investigate more

detailed and specific guidance materials.

5.9 In developing a new service standard, the expectation should be to identify the criteria required to

ensure best practice, regardless of the size or location of the service provider. However, the more complex the

service, the more optional features there may be to consider. To facilitate the use of standards by even the

smallest organization, it is recommended that issues of overriding importance for the particular service being

standardized should be identified by means of checklists, from which should be formulated a set of the key

criteria with which a small organization should comply. This may be included as an annex (e.g. Annex A of

ISO 10002:2004).

Figure 2 illustrates the provision of services by a professional soccer club, where the spectator is the

customer . Several services may be offered during each phase of the experience. For example, during half-

time, music may be played, spectators may buy a drink or snack, or go to the toilet. Support activities include

other provision for the same customers, but not directly related to the match, e.g. selling club articles or

issuing a magazine. All of these activities need to be planned for and done well if the resulting service is to

provide customer satis
...

GUIDE 76
Development of service
standards — Recommendations
for addressing consumer issues
First edition 2008
ISO/IEC 2008
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2008

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Key consumer principles ..................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Information ............................................................................................................................................ 4

4.3 Access and fairness ............................................................................................................................. 4

4.4 Choice .................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5 Safety and security............................................................................................................................... 4

4.6 Quality.................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.7 Redress.................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.8 Environmental issues........................................................................................................................... 6

4.9 Representation...................................................................................................................................... 6

4.10 Compliance with laws and regulations............................................................................................... 6

5 Using this Guide ................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Taking account of consumer issues when developing standards.................................................. 8

7 Key consumer questions to address................................................................................................ 10

8 Detailed consideration of service elements and related topic areas ............................................ 12

8.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 12

8.2 Service provider.................................................................................................................................. 12

8.3 Suppliers.............................................................................................................................................. 13

8.4 Personnel............................................................................................................................................. 14

8.5 Customer ............................................................................................................................................. 14

8.6 Contract ............................................................................................................................................... 14

8.7 Billing ................................................................................................................................................... 15

8.8 Delivery ................................................................................................................................................ 15

8.9 Service outcome ................................................................................................................................. 16

8.10 Service environment........................................................................................................................... 16

8.11 Equipment ........................................................................................................................................... 17

8.12 Safeguards .......................................................................................................................................... 17

8.13 Communication between service provider and customer.............................................................. 18

8.14 Communication within service organization ................................................................................... 19

9 Checklist .............................................................................................................................................. 20

Annex A (informative) Examples of possible services................................................................................. 25

Annex B (informative) Illustration of the relevance of the checklist to different kinds of services......... 26

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 31

© ISO/IEC 2008 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

Draft Guides adopted by the responsible Committee or Group are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as a Guide requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC Guide 76 was prepared by the ISO Committee on consumer policy (COPOLCO).
iv © ISO/IEC 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
Introduction

0.1 Standards are increasingly being developed to cover services. This Guide has been prepared to help

standards developers in these areas to take account of consumer requirements. It elaborates on the aims of

service standards, set out in the ISO/IEC publication The consumer and standards — Guidance and principles

[25]

for consumer participation in standards development . In addressing the major concerns of consumers,

standards can help by representing a consensus on the best knowledge and experience available worldwide.

0.2 This Guide is intended for those involved in the preparation and revision of standards for services,

whether International Standards or national standards in developed or developing countries. With its checklist

and examples, it also contains information which might be useful for others, such as service providers and

educators.

0.3 Service delivery can involve complex relationships and structures, frequently involving many different

organizations. Additionally, consumers engage with a variety of public services, such as medical provision or

education, for which formal contracts and direct payment might not be applicable.

0.4 In a global market, it is logical that consumers expect to benefit from access to a wider choice of

services and service providers. There is also continuing demand for lower prices that are not contrived to

disadvantage certain markets and communities. Quality, economy and efficiency are sought, whether or not

the consumer pays directly for a service. There is also increasing consumer concern about the need for

sustainable development.

0.5 The Internet fuels comparisons and the growth of knowledge and provision of information on which to

base choices. Globally, consumers expect that the services they engage with, contract to and purchase will

not only be consistent in quality, durability and ease of use, but also safe, environmentally friendly and fair for

the communities affected by the services.

0.6 Although all people have a right of access to services, this will not always be relevant or feasible.

However, it is advisable that service providers consider the needs of all potential users, including children and

those from different cultural and ethnic heritages. This will enable the services to be available to as many

people as possible. The issue of accessibility and usability of products and services has become more critical

with the increasing percentage of older persons in the world's population. While not all older persons have

disabilities, the prevalence of disability or limitations is highest among this demographic group.

0.7 The standardization of services can provide the following benefits:

⎯ build consumer confidence by assuring safety, security, quality, durability and ease of use;

⎯ supply accurate and appropriate information and take into account user requirements;

⎯ support the development of choice and access to a wide range of users;
⎯ provide appropriate and fair forms of redress, where necessary.

0.8 Many national and sectoral codes of practice exist in relation to parts of service delivery which can be

considered when developing standards. However, these are most commonly drawn up from the viewpoint of

the service provider and are thus not necessarily those of the consumer. This Guide seeks to ensure that

consumer needs are addressed. It also allows a common set of criteria for services across countries in which

there can be many differences in the scope and application of national consumer protection legislation.

0.9 It is recognized that when developing service standards, it is advisable to take account of applicable

statutory or regulatory requirements.
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ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
Development of service standards — Recommendations for
addressing consumer issues
1 Scope

This Guide provides general guidance on the issues to be considered in standards for services. On the basis

of this guidance, detailed standards can be prepared for any service. This Guide provides a checklist (see

Clause 9) which can be used by consumer representatives and others participating in the process of

standards development. Use of the checklist enables full consideration to be given to all matters of consumer

interest, including the needs of children, older persons, persons with disabilities and those from different

ethnic and cultural heritages.

This Guide is relevant to the full range of services, whether or not a formal contract is entered into or purchase

price paid, but it also has relevance for public or charitable services in which there is a consumer, a user or a

participant, but not necessarily a purchase, e.g. education, health and care provision.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 9000, Quality management systems — Fundamentals and vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 9000 and the following apply.

3.1
service

result of at least one activity, necessarily performed at the interface between the supplier and customer, that is

generally intangible
NOTE 1 Examples of possible services are given in Annex A.

NOTE 2 In ISO 9000, “product” is defined as the “result of a process” that encompasses four generic product

categories [services (e.g. transport), software (e.g. computer program, dictionary), hardware (e.g. engine mechanical part)

and processed materials (e.g. lubricant)] and that indicates that the product category used is based on the dominant

element. A service can therefore include the delivery of software, hardware and processed materials. For the purposes of

this Guide, a separate definition of “service” is given here.
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ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
3.2
goods
products excluding services

EXAMPLE Software, hardware and processed materials, e.g. domestic appliances, home care articles, food.

NOTE In ISO 9000, “product” is defined as the “result of a process” that encompasses four generic product

categories [services (e.g. transport), software (e.g. computer program, dictionary), hardware (e.g. engine mechanical part)

and processed materials (e.g. lubricant)] and that indicates that the product category used is based on the dominant

element. A service can therefore include the delivery of software, hardware and processed materials. For the purposes of

this Guide, a separate definition of “goods” is given here.
3.3
service provider
entity that offers one or more services
NOTE The entity can be an individual or an organization.
3.4
consumer

individual member of the general public purchasing or using goods, property or services, for personal, family

or household purposes
[26]

NOTE Adapted from the ISO/IEC Statement on Consumer participation in standardization work .

3.5
customer
organization or person that receives a product
EXAMPLE Consumer, client, end-user, retainer, beneficiary or purchaser.

NOTE 1 For the purposes of this Guide, use of the term “customer” includes potential customers in the reference.

NOTE 2 Adapted from ISO 9000.
3.6
customer satisfaction

customer's perception of the degree to which the customer's requirements have been fulfilled

NOTE 1 Customer complaints are a common indicator of low customer satisfaction, but their absence does not

necessarily imply high customer satisfaction.

NOTE 2 Even when customer requirements have been agreed to with the customer and fulfilled, this does not

necessarily ensure high customer satisfaction.
NOTE 3 Adapted from ISO 9000.
3.7
user
participant
person who uses the service(s) of the service provider
3.8
impairment

problem in body function or structure such as a significant deviation or loss which can be temporary due, for

example, to injury, or permanent, slight or severe and can fluctuate over time, in particular, deterioration due

to ageing
[ISO/IEC Guide 71:2001, 3.4]
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ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
3.9
contract

agreement by which one or more parties are obligated towards one or several other parties to provide a

service
3.10
code of conduct
customer promise(s) made by an organization, and related provisions

NOTE 1 The promise(s) are used by the organization for the purpose of maintaining and enhancing customer

satisfaction (3.6) and relate to the organization's products or the interaction of the organization with its existing or

potential customers.
NOTE 2 See also ISO 10001 on guidelines for codes of conduct for organizations.
3.11
customer service

interaction of an organization with the customer throughout the phases of service provision

NOTE Adapted from ISO 10002.
3.12
delivery
action of providing a service
3.13
usability

extent to which a service can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness,

efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use
[ISO/IEC Guide 71:2001, 3.7]
3.14
assistive technology
assistive device

piece of equipment, product system, hardware, software or service that is used to increase, maintain or

improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities

NOTE This can be acquired commercially off-the-shelf, modified or customized. The term includes technical aids for

persons with disabilities. Assistive devices do not eliminate an impairment but may lessen the difficulty an individual has in

carrying out a task or activity in specific environments.
[ISO/IEC Guide 71:2001, 3.3]
3.15
alternative format

different presentation which can make services accessible by the use of another movement or sensory ability

NOTE Adapted from ISO/IEC Guide 71.
3.16
complaint

expression of dissatisfaction made to an organization, related to its products, or the complaints-handling

process itself, where a response or resolution is explicitly or implicitly expected

[ISO 10002:2004, 3.2]
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ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
3.17
complainant
person, organization or its representative, making a complaint
[ISO 10002:2004, 3.1]
3.18
feedback

opinions, comments and expressions of interest in the service or the complaints-handling process

NOTE Adapted from ISO 10002 and from ISO/IEC Guide 51.
3.19
safeguard

precaution taken to prevent or reduce the impact of a failure in some aspect of service provision

4 Key consumer principles
4.1 General

Services cover a wide range of activities (see Annex A). The common features are a service provided by a

commercial, public or private organization, for which claims are made, products or assistance are delivered,

an organization on whose quality of provision consumers rely, often without individual or immediate means to

judge this. The key consumer principles, as described in subclauses 4.2 to 4.10, should be taken into account.

4.2 Information

Information and its communication play a crucial role in the selection, provision and effective use of services

because, unlike products such as shoes and food, there are less tangible elements to assist the consumer in

gauging quality, fitness for purpose, value for money, etc. Communication of information, especially prior to

contract signature, and the manner of doing it (including the attitude of staff) is a fundamental consideration.

The role of communication at every step in the decision-making process is illustrated in Figure 1.

4.3 Access and fairness

Access to services is a function of consumers' ability to afford the things they need or want, and of the

availability of these things to all consumers regardless of location, social and economic considerations and

physical or mental impairment. Thus, to be credible, the interests of the full range of consumers (from children

to older persons, with different cultural and ethnic backgrounds and with all variations in abilities) should be

acknowledged and included from the outset in the development of relevant standards. In maintaining the

principle of fairness, standards should ensure that services do not unreasonably discriminate against any

particular group of consumers.
4.4 Choice

Promoting consumer choice is fundamental to consumer policy. In standardization, this means that a standard

should not favour any one particular supplier or be unnecessarily restrictive of the form of service provision.

Various characteristics of a service will be balanced with the need to maintain value for money and a

competitive market.
4.5 Safety and security

The safety (including hygiene and physical safety) and security (including financial security and privacy)

afforded by services are key priorities, with a particular emphasis on protecting vulnerable people, e.g.

children, older persons, persons with disabilities or persons disadvantaged through poverty or an inability

(perhaps due to language) to access relevant information and assistance.
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ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)

Figure 1 — Service elements and role of communication at all stages of service provision

4.6 Quality

Quality is the extent to which the characteristics of a service fulfil the requirements. Therefore, quality

encompasses the many other intangible features that contribute to “good” service. These include factors

already considered in subclauses 4.2 to 4.5, such as access to helpful and accurate information, good

customer handling and timely provision, but also factors within a framework of environmental impact

assessment and sustainable development, such as sustainable use of resources and the ability to recycle.

Ease of use is a quality feature for the general populace, but also an access factor for those with some form of

impairment. Quality and value for money, as well as safety, are central issues for consumers.

4.7 Redress

Consumers need to feel confident of service delivery and of the fact that, should something go wrong, there

are appropriate provisions in place to handle any concerns or claims, irrespective of whether the service is

provided nationally or from another country.
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ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)
4.8 Environmental issues

Environmental considerations are of increasing importance to consumers and may affect their decision-

making. Factors include promoting respect for the natural and human environment through reduction of waste,

odours, noise and visual pollution, and conservation of the physical, cultural and human heritage.

4.9 Representation

Standards development organizations should ensure that consumers are represented in all technical

committees or working groups where the subject matter has an effect on consumers. If this is not feasible,

they should use other ways to ensure that consumer interests are taken into account, e.g. through

consultation. Where appropriate, the standards themselves should make provision for consumer

representation, e.g. through consultation when developing new services.
4.10 Compliance with laws and regulations

Service providers should ensure compliance and proper consideration of applicable statutory and regulatory

requirements, from the earliest planning and design stages of the service to service delivery and redress.

5 Using this Guide

5.1 This Guide provides an overview on how consumer interests should be identified and taken into

account in the development of standards for services. Standards include international, regional and national

standards, as well as sectoral and organizational or company standards. This Guide indicates the areas in

which detailed requirements may be drawn up for particular sector-specific standards.

5.2 The documents listed below should all form part of the toolkit for the standards developer.

a) The ISO/IEC Policy Statement, Addressing the needs of older persons and people with disabilities in

[24]
, and the complementary guide, ISO/IEC Guide 71, provide standards developers
standardization work

and others with a systematic approach to addressing ageing and disability issues in the writing and

revision of International Standards. These documents also help Technical Committees to evaluate how

they are addressing such issues in their Work Programmes.

b) ISO/IEC Guide 51 provides guidance on general safety considerations. ISO/IEC Guide 50 provides more

specific guidelines for child safety.

c) Detailed guidance on specific aspects of service delivery, such as the internationally agreed criteria for

customer satisfaction given in ISO 10001, ISO 10002 and ISO 10003, constitutes useful guidance on

global customer care.

NOTE ISO 10001 provides guidelines on codes of conduct; ISO 10002 provides guidelines on complaints

handling; ISO 10003 provides guidelines on external customer dispute resolution.

5.3 Clause 6 outlines a process which standards developers may use to address the key areas of

consumer interest, including the needs of older persons and persons with disabilities.

5.4 Clause 7 identifies the key consumer questions that may be asked when selecting, purchasing or

engaging with a service, and indicates the link with the various “service elements” listed in Table 1.

5.5 The service elements, identified from the key consumer questions, may be considered when developing

organizational or company standards, or sector-specific standards. Within each service element, there are a

number of “topic areas”. Clause 8 describes the various topic areas for each service element. Taking all topic

areas into account should ensure that consumers' needs are addressed when developing a standard. In the

delivery of any service, there may be a sequence of phases in the provision of the service, all involving

interaction between the service provider and customer.

NOTE See Figure 2 for an example related to a sporting event; this figure also shows that there can be associated

support activities.
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ISO/IEC GUIDE 76:2008(E)

5.6 In Clause 9, Tables 2 to 6 provide checklists of the topic areas identified in Clause 8 as a quick way of

enabling standards developers to ensure that all relevant aspects are covered.

5.7 Annex B illustrates how different service elements may assume greater or lesser significance when this

systematic checklist approach is used to develop standards in very different service sectors (i.e. hair care

providers, hotels and life insurance).

NOTE Annex B gives examples rather than exhaustive lists of all necessary requirements for each of these services.

5.8 The Bibliography provides a list of sources that standards developers can use to investigate more

detailed and specific guidance materials.

5.9 In developing a new service standard, the expectation should be to identify the criteria required to

ensure best practice, regardless of the size or location of the service provider. However, the more complex the

service, the more optional features there may be to consider. To facilitate the use of standards by even the

smallest organization, it is recommended that issues of overriding importance for the particular service being

standardized should be identified by means of checklists, from which should be formulated a set of the key

criteria with which a small organization should comply. This may be included as an annex (e.g. Annex A of

ISO 10002:2004).

Figure 2 illustrates the provision of services by a professional soccer club, where the spectator is the

customer . Several services may be offered during each phase of the experience. For example, during half-

time, music may be played, spectators may buy a drink or snack, or go to the toilet. Support activities include

other provision for the same customers, but not directly related to the match, e.g. selling club articles or

issuing a magazine. All of these activities need to be planned for and done well if the resulting service is to

provide customer satisfaction.

1) The Bibliography is not exhaustive. Users are encouraged to check for current updates and future publications and

investigate websites for further material.
[27]
...

GUIDE 76
Élaboration des normes de
service — Recommandations
pour répondre aux attentes des
consommateurs
Première édition 2008
ISO/CEI 2008
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GUIDE ISO/CEI 76:2008(F)
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ii © ISO/CEI 2008 – Tous droits réservés
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GUIDE ISO/CEI 76:2008(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos..................................................................................................................................................... iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Domaine d'application.......................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ........................................................................................................................ 1

3 Termes et définitions............................................................................................................................ 1

4 Principes clés des consommateurs.................................................................................................... 4

4.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................ 4

4.2 Informations .......................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Accès et équité...................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Choix ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5 Sûreté et sécurité.................................................................................................................................. 4

4.6 Qualité.................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.7 Réparation ............................................................................................................................................. 6

4.8 Questions environnementales ............................................................................................................ 6

4.9 Représentation...................................................................................................................................... 6

4.10 Conformité à la loi et à la réglementation .......................................................................................... 6

5 Utilisation du présent Guide................................................................................................................ 6

6 Prise en considération des attentes des consommateurs lors de l'élaboration des normes ...... 8

7 Questions clés des consommateurs à prendre en compte............................................................ 10

8 Analyse détaillée des éléments de service et des thèmes y afférents.......................................... 12

8.1 Généralités .......................................................................................................................................... 12

8.2 Prestataire de service......................................................................................................................... 12

8.3 Fournisseur(s)..................................................................................................................................... 14

8.4 Personnel............................................................................................................................................. 14

8.5 Client .................................................................................................................................................... 14

8.6 Contrat ................................................................................................................................................. 15

8.7 Facturation .......................................................................................................................................... 15

8.8 Prestation ............................................................................................................................................ 16

8.9 Service réalisé..................................................................................................................................... 17

8.10 Environnement du service................................................................................................................. 17

8.11 Équipement ......................................................................................................................................... 17

8.12 Clauses de sauvegarde...................................................................................................................... 18

8.13 Communication entre le prestataire de service et le client............................................................ 19

8.14 Communication au sein de l'organisme prestataire de service..................................................... 20

9 Liste de contrôle ................................................................................................................................. 20

Annexe A (informative) Exemples de services possibles............................................................................ 26

Annexe B (informative) Illustration de la pertinence de la liste de contrôle pour différents types de

services................................................................................................................................................ 27

Bibliographie .................................................................................................................................................... 32

© ISO/CEI 2008 – Tous droits réservés iii
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GUIDE ISO/CEI 76:2008(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes nationaux de

normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est en général confiée

aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude a le droit de faire partie du

comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales, gouvernementales et non

gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux. L'ISO collabore étroitement avec

la Commission électrotechnique internationale (CEI) en ce qui concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les Normes internationales sont rédigées conformément aux règles données dans les Directives ISO/CEI,

Partie 2.

Les projets de Guides adoptés par le comité ou le groupe responsable sont soumis aux comités membres

pour vote. Leur publication comme Guides requiert l'approbation de 75 % au moins des comités membres

votants.

L'attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable de ne

pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence.

Le Guide ISO 76 a été élaboré par le Comité ISO pour la politique en matière de consommation (COPOLCO).

iv © ISO/CEI 2008 – Tous droits réservés
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GUIDE ISO/CEI 76:2008(F)
Introduction

0.1 Le nombre de normes relatives aux services est en constante augmentation. Le présent Guide a été

élaboré pour aider les rédacteurs de normes traitant de ces domaines à tenir compte des exigences des

consommateurs. Il approfondit les objectifs des normes de service qui sont établis dans la publication ISO/CEI

Les consommateurs et les normes — Lignes directrices et principes relatifs à la participation des

[25]

consommateurs à l'élaboration des normes . Pour répondre aux principales préoccupations des

consommateurs, les normes peuvent se révéler utiles dans la mesure où elles représentent un consensus sur

les meilleures connaissances et expériences disponibles dans le monde.

0.2 Le présent Guide est destiné aux personnes impliquées dans l'élaboration et la révision de Normes

internationales ou nationales applicables aux services, dans les pays développés et en développement. À

travers sa liste de contrôle et les exemples donnés, il contient également des informations qui peuvent être

utiles à d'autres personnes, telles que les prestataires de services et les éducateurs.

0.3 La prestation de service peut impliquer des relations et des organisations complexes, auxquelles

participent souvent de nombreux organismes différents. En outre, les consommateurs ont recours à une

grande diversité de services publics, tels que les prestations de santé ou l'éducation, pour lesquels des

contrats formels et le paiement direct peuvent ne pas être applicables.

0.4 Dans un marché mondial, les consommateurs estiment généralement pouvoir bénéficier de l'accès à un

vaste choix de services et de prestataires de services. On observe également une demande permanente de

prix plus bas qui ne pénaliseraient pas forcément certains marchés et collectivités. Indépendamment du mode

de règlement direct ou non pour un service, le consommateur recherche avant tout la qualité, l'économie et

l'efficacité. La préoccupation du consommateur eu égard à la nécessité de favoriser le développement

durable est également croissante.

0.5 L'internet permet de multiplier les comparaisons et d'enrichir les connaissances en assurant l'accès aux

informations de base sur lesquelles fonder ses choix. De manière générale, les consommateurs considèrent

que les services qu'ils utilisent, par voie de souscription, de contrat ou d'achat, doivent répondre à leurs

exigences en matière de qualité, de durabilité et de facilité d'utilisation, mais également être sûrs, respectueux

de l'environnement et équitables envers le public concerné par ces services.

0.6 Bien que tous les individus disposent du droit d'accès aux services, cela ne sera pas toujours pertinent

ou réaliste. Il convient cependant que les prestataires de services prennent en considération les besoins de

tous les utilisateurs potentiels, y compris les enfants et les personnes d'origines culturelles et ethniques

différentes, afin que les services soient à la disposition d'un maximum de personnes. La question de

l'accessibilité et de la facilité d’utilisation des produits et des services est devenue plus critique du fait de

l'augmentation du pourcentage de personnes âgées dans la population mondiale. Les personnes âgées ne

présentent pas toutes des contraintes, mais c'est au sein de ce groupe démographique que les incapacités ou

les limitations sont les plus importantes.
0.7 La normalisation des services peut apporter les avantages suivants:

⎯ établir la confiance du consommateur en garantissant la sécurité, la sûreté, la qualité, la durabilité et la

facilité d'utilisation;

⎯ fournir des informations précises et appropriées et tenir compte des exigences de l'utilisateur;

⎯ favoriser le développement du choix et de l'accès à une large gamme d'utilisateurs;

⎯ fournir des formulaires appropriés et équitables pour réparation, si nécessaire.

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GUIDE ISO/CEI 76:2008(F)

0.8 Il existe de nombreux codes de bonnes pratiques, nationaux et sectoriels, relatifs à des phases de la

prestation de service et qui peuvent être pris en considération lors de l'élaboration des normes. Cependant,

ces codes sont le plus souvent établis du point de vue du prestataire de service et n'adoptent pas

nécessairement celui du consommateur. Le présent Guide vise à s'assurer que les besoins des

consommateurs sont pris en considération. Il prévoit également un ensemble commun de critères applicables

aux services fournis dans des pays où la portée et l'application de la législation nationale relative à la

protection des consommateurs peuvent varier considérablement.

0.9 Il est reconnu, lors de l'élaboration de normes de service, qu'il est préférable de prendre en

considération les exigences légales ou réglementaires applicables.
vi © ISO/CEI 2008 – Tous droits réservés
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GUIDE ISO/CEI 76:2008(F)
Élaboration des normes de service — Recommandations pour
répondre aux attentes des consommateurs
1 Domaine d'application

Le présent Guide fournit des directives générales relatives aux questions à traiter dans les normes pour les

services. Ces directives peuvent servir de base à l'élaboration de normes détaillées pour tout service. Le

Guide propose une liste de contrôle (voir Article 9) qui peut être utilisée par les représentants des

consommateurs et par toute autre personne participant au processus d'élaboration de normes. L'utilisation de

cette liste de contrôle permet de pleinement prendre en considération tous les sujets présentant un intérêt

pour les consommateurs, y compris les besoins des enfants, des personnes âgées, des personnes présentant

des incapacités et celles d'origines ethniques et culturelles différentes.

Le présent Guide s'applique à l'ensemble de la gamme des services, qu'ils soient assurés par conclusion d'un

contrat formel ou par règlement direct du prix d'achat. Il concerne également les services publics et de

bienfaisance qui impliquent un consommateur, un utilisateur ou un participant, mais pas nécessairement un

achat, par exemple dans le domaine de l'éducation, de la santé et des soins.
2 Références normatives

Les documents de référence suivants sont indispensables pour l'application du présent document. Pour les

références datées, seule l'édition citée s'applique. Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du

document de référence s'applique (y compris les éventuels amendements).

ISO 9000, Systèmes de management de la qualité — Principes essentiels et vocabulaire

3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l'ISO 9000 ainsi que les

suivants s'appliquent.
3.1
service

résultat d'au moins une activité, nécessairement réalisée à l'interface entre le fournisseur et le client, et qui est

généralement immatériel
NOTE 1 Des exemples de services possibles sont fournis à dans l'Annexe A.

NOTE 2 Dans l'ISO 9000, «produit» est défini comme le «résultat d'un processus» et identifie quatre catégories

génériques de produits: les services (par exemple le transport), les «software» (par exemple logiciel, dictionnaire), le

matériel (par exemple pièces mécaniques de moteur) et les produits issus de processus à caractère continu (par exemple

lubrifiant) et indique que la catégorie de produit utilisée est fonction de l'élément dominant; par conséquent, un service

peut inclure la fourniture de logiciels, de matériels et de produits issus de processus à caractère continu. Pour les besoins

du présent Guide, des définitions distinctes pour les services et les biens figurent ci-après.

3.2
biens
produits à l'exclusion des services

EXEMPLE Logiciels, matériels et produits issus de processus à caractère continu, par exemple les appareils

électroménagers, les articles de soins à domicile, les produits alimentaires.
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3.3
prestataire de service
entité qui propose un ou des services
NOTE L'entité peut être une personne ou un organisme.
3.4
consommateur

individu membre du grand public qui achète ou qui utilise des biens, des biens immobiliers ou des services à

des fins personnelles, familiales ou domestiques
[26]

NOTE Adapté de l'ISO/CEI relative à la participation des consommateurs à l'élaboration des normes .

3.5
client
organisme ou personne qui reçoit un produit

EXEMPLE Consommateur, client, utilisateur final, détaillant, bénéficiaire ou acheteur.

NOTE 1 Pour les besoins du présent Guide, l'utilisation du terme «client» inclut les clients potentiels.

NOTE 2 Adapté de l'ISO 9000:2005, définition 3.3.5.
3.6
satisfaction du client
perception du client sur le niveau de réalisation de ses exigences

NOTE 1 Les réclamations des clients sont un indicateur habituel d'un faible niveau de satisfaction du client, mais leur

absence n'implique pas nécessairement un niveau élevé de satisfaction du client.

NOTE 2 Même lorsque les exigences du client ont été convenues avec lui et satisfaites, cela n'entraîne pas

nécessairement une forte satisfaction du client.
NOTE 3 Adapté de l'ISO 9000:2005, définition 3.1.4.
3.7
utilisateur
participant
personne qui utilise le(s) service(s) du prestataire de service
3.8
déficience

problème d'une fonction ou d'une structure corporelle, comme une déviation ou une perte significative, qui

peut être temporaire (dû à une blessure, par exemple) ou permanent, léger ou grave, et qui peut fluctuer dans

le temps, en particulier la détérioration en raison du vieillissement
[ISO/CEI Guide 71:2001, définition 3.4]
3.9
contrat

accord par lequel une ou plusieurs parties se sont engagées envers une ou plusieurs autres parties à fournir

un service
3.10
code de conduite
promesse(s) faite(s) au client par un organisme et dispositions correspondantes

NOTE 1 Ces promesses permettent à l'organisme de maintenir et d'accroître la satisfaction du client (3.6) et

concernent les produits de l'organisme ou l'interaction avec ses clients existants ou potentiels.

NOTE 2 Voir également l'ISO 10001 sur les lignes directrices relatives aux codes de conduite des organismes.

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3.11
service au client

interaction entre un organisme et le client tout au long des phases de la fourniture du service

NOTE Adapté de l'ISO 10002, 2004, définition 3.5.
3.12
prestation
action de fournir un service
3.13
facilité d'utilisation

degré selon lequel un service peut être utilisé, par des utilisateurs identifiés, pour atteindre des buts définis

avec efficacité, efficience et satisfaction, dans un contexte d'utilisation spécifié

NOTE Adapté de l'ISO/CEI Guide 71:2001, définition 3.7.
3.14
technologie d'aide
aide technique

pièce d'équipement, système, matériel informatique, logiciel ou service utilisé pour augmenter, maintenir ou

améliorer les capacités fonctionnelles des individus ayant des incapacités

NOTE Cette technologie peut être disponible dans le commerce ou résulter d'une modification ou d'une

personnalisation. Ce terme inclut les aides techniques destinées aux personnes ayant des incapacités. Les aides

techniques ne suppriment pas une déficience, mais peuvent réduire la difficulté qu'a un individu à accomplir une tâche ou

à mener une activité dans des environnements spécifiques.
[ISO/CEI Guide 71:2001, définition 3.3]
3.15
autre support

présentation différente permettant de rendre des services accessibles en faisant appel à une autre mobilité ou

à une autre capacité sensorielle
NOTE Adapté de l'ISO/CEI Guide 71:2001, définition 3.8.
3.16
réclamation

toute expression de mécontentement adressée à un organisme, concernant ses produits ou le processus

même de traitement des réclamations, duquel une réponse ou une solution est explicitement ou implicitement

attendue
[ISO 10002:2004, définition 3.2]
3.17
réclamant
plaignant
personne, organisme ou leur représentant qui formule une réclamation
[ISO 10002:2004, définition 3.1]
3.18
retour d'informations

opinions, commentaires et expressions de l'intérêt dans les services ou le processus de traitement des

réclamations
NOTE Adapté de l'ISO 10002:2004, définition 3.6 et de l'ISO/CEI Guide 51:1999.
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3.19
clause de sauvegarde

précaution prise pour prévenir ou réduire l'impact d'une défaillance dans un aspect de la fourniture de service

4 Principes clés des consommateurs
4.1 Généralités

Les services recouvrent une large gamme d'activités (voir Annexe A). Ces activités présentent les

caractéristiques communes suivantes: le service est assuré par un organisme commercial, public ou privé,

faisant l'objet de revendications; des produits ou une assistance sont fournis et les consommateurs, en qualité

de clients ou de simples utilisateurs, se fondent sur la qualité de la prestation, souvent sans disposer de

moyens individuels ou directs pour en juger. Il convient que les principes clés des consommateurs, tels que

décrits de 4.2 à 4.10, soient pris en considération.
4.2 Informations

Les informations et leur communication jouent un rôle essentiel dans la sélection, la fourniture et l'utilisation

effective des services. En effet, à la différence de produits tels que des chaussures ou des produits

alimentaires, le consommateur dispose de moins d'éléments matériels pour l'aider à déterminer la qualité,

l'aptitude à l'emploi, la valeur d'achat, etc. La communication des informations et la manière dont elles sont

divulguées (y compris les comportements du personnel) constituent des éléments fondamentaux. Le rôle de

la communication à chaque étape du processus de prise de décision est illustré à la Figure 1.

4.3 Accès et équité

L'accès aux services dépend de l'aptitude des consommateurs à déterminer leurs besoins ou leurs désirs et

de la disponibilité des services pour tous les consommateurs, indépendamment des considérations d'ordre

géographique, social et économique, et des déficiences physiques ou mentales. Par conséquent, pour être

crédible, il convient de reconnaître et de considérer les intérêts de l'ensemble des consommateurs (enfants,

personnes âgées, personnes d'origines culturelles et ethniques différentes ou présentant des aptitudes

variées) dès le début de l'élaboration des normes correspondantes. Pour garantir le principe d'équité, il

convient que les normes garantissent que les services ne présentent aucune discrimination abusive contre un

groupe particulier de consommateurs.
4.4 Choix

La politique en matière de consommation se fonde essentiellement sur la promotion du choix du

consommateur. Dans le domaine de la normalisation, cela signifie qu'il convient qu'une norme ne favorise

aucun fournisseur particulier ni qu'elle soit inutilement restrictive concernant la forme sous laquelle un service

est fourni. Il convient de parvenir à un équilibre entre les diverses caractéristiques d'un service et la nécessité

de maintenir la valeur d'achat et la compétitivité sur le marché.
4.5 Sûreté et sécurité

La sécurité (y compris l'hygiène et l'intégrité physique) et la sûreté (y compris la sécurité financière et le

respect de la vie privée) associées aux services constituent des priorités essentielles pour accéder aux

informations et à l'assistance correspondantes, en prêtant une attention toute particulière à la protection des

personnes vulnérables, telles que les enfants, les personnes âgées, handicapées ou défavorisées du fait de

la pauvreté ou d'une incapacité, voire de problème lié au langage.
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Figure 1 — Éléments de service et rôle de la communication à toutes les étapes de la fourniture

de service
4.6 Qualité

La qualité est l'aptitude des caractéristiques d'un service à satisfaire aux exigences. Par conséquent, la

qualité comprend les nombreuses autres caractéristiques immatérielles qui contribuent à un «bon» service.

Ces caractéristiques englobent les facteurs mentionnés ci-dessus, tels que l'accès à des informations utiles et

précises, les bonnes relations avec les clients et la fourniture du service dans les délais. Ces caractéristiques

comprennent également les facteurs établis dans un contexte d'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement et

de développement durable, tels que l'utilisation durable des ressources et l'aptitude à recycler. La facilité

d'utilisation représente une caractéristique de qualité pour la population en général, mais également un

facteur d'accès pour les personnes présentant certains types de déficience. La qualité et la valeur d'achat

sont, avec la sécurité, des questions centrales pour les consommateurs.
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4.7 Réparation

Les consommateurs ont besoin de se sentir en confiance lors de la prestation de service et avoir l'assurance

qu'en cas d'anomalie ou autre dysfonctionnement, des dispositions appropriées sont prises pour résoudre tout

problème ou traiter toute réclamation, que le service soit fourni au niveau national ou depuis un autre pays.

4.8 Questions environnementales

Les questions environnementales ont une importance croissante pour les consommateurs et peuvent affecter

leur prise de décision. Ces facteurs incluent de promouvoir le respect de l'environnement naturel et humain,

en réduisant les déchets, la pollution olfactive, sonore et visuelle, et la préservation du patrimoine physique,

culturel et humain.
4.9 Représentation

Il convient que les organismes de normalisation s'assurent que les consommateurs sont représentés dans

tous les comités techniques ou les groupes de travail dont le thème affecte les consommateurs. Si cela n'est

pas possible, il convient d'utiliser d'autres moyens pour s'assurer que les intérêts des consommateurs sont

pris en compte, par exemple par voie de consultation. Le cas échéant, il convient que les normes elles-

mêmes prévoient des dispositions pour la représentation des consommateurs, par exemple par voie de

consultation pour le développement de nouveaux services.
4.10 Conformité à la loi et à la réglementation

Il convient que les prestataires de services s'assurent de la conformité et de la prise en compte des exigences

légales et réglementaires, depuis les premières étapes de la planification et de la conception du service

jusqu'à la prestation du service et la réparation.
5 Utilisation du présent Guide

5.1 Le présent Guide fournit un aperçu de la manière dont il convient d'identifier les intérêts et les attentes

des consommateurs et de les prendre en considération lors de l'élaboration des normes pour les services.

Ces normes incluent les Normes internationales, régionales et nationales, ainsi que les normes sectorielle ou

d'organisation ou des standards d'entreprise. Le présent Guide indique les domaines dans lesquels des

exigences détaillées peuvent être établies pour des normes dédiées à un secteur.

5.2 Il convient que l'ensemble des documents suivants fasse partie intégrante des outils mis à la disposition

des rédacteurs de normes:

a) La déclaration politique ISO/CEI, Prise en compte dans la normalisation des besoins des personnes

[24]

âgées et de celles ayant des incapacités et les lignes directrices complémentaires (ISO/CEI Guide 71)

fournissent aux rédacteurs de normes et aux autres personnes concernées une approche systématique

pour prendre en considération les problèmes liés au vieillissement et aux incapacités lors de la rédaction

et de la révision des Normes internationales. Elles aident également les Comités techniques à évaluer

leur réponse à ces questions dans leurs programmes de travail.

b) L'ISO/CEI Guide 51 fournit des recommandations sur des considérations générales en matière de

sécurité et l'ISO/CEI Guide 50 fournit des lignes directrices plus spécifiques pour la sécurité des enfants.

c) Des recommandations détaillées sur des aspects spécifiques de la prestatio
...

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