This document specifies the elements, among those defined in XAdES digital signatures, that enable verification of a digital signature over a long period of time. It does not give new technical specifications about the digital signature itself, nor new restrictions of usage of the technical specifications about the digital signatures which already exist. NOTE     XAdES digital signatures is the widely-used extended specification of “XML-Signature Syntax and Processing”.

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As a connected standard of ISO 19626-1, this document defines the communication interactions between TCP system components and specifies their detailed interfaces — the processes and the APIs of the TCP system components. It provides the common communication interface for deployment and implementation of the system components, and their functions in a specific technology-neutral way to those who consider applying and establishing a TCP system.

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This document: — examines the basic concepts that have been developed for both cloud computing and Open-edi; — identifies key Open-edi concepts relevant to cloud computing; — identifies key cloud computing concepts relevant to Open-edi; — compares Open-edi model and cloud computing architecture and identifies mappings (similarities in whole or in part) between them using formal semantic modelling techniques.

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This CEN Technical Specification (TS) contains the mapping between the semantic data model of an electronic invoice (EN 16931-1)
and the following syntax: UN/CEFACT XML Industry Invoice D16B. For each element in the semantic model (including sub-elements
or supplementary components such as Code List identifiers) it is defined which element in the syntax is to be used to contain its
information contents. Any mismatches between semantics, format, cardinality or structure are indicated.
Any rules to be followed when using the specific syntax are stated informally in this TS. Together with this TS a set of validation
artefacts is published, including formalisation of the rules.
In addition, the deliverable shall unambiguously define the code lists and, where applicable, the subset of codes to be used for each
coded element in the model of EN 16931-1 when using the UN/CEFACT XML Industry Invoice D16B syntax as defined in CEN/TS
16931-3-3. The deliverable must guide the user how and where to apply for additions to these code lists. It will be issued as an annex
to the existing text of CEN/TS 16931-3-3:2017

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This European Standard establishes a semantic data model of the core elements of an electronic invoice. The semantic model includes only the essential information elements that an electronic invoice needs to ensure legal (including fiscal) compliance and to enable interoperability for cross-border, cross sector and for domestic trade. The semantic model may be used by organizations in the private and the public sector for public procurement invoicing. It may also be used for invoicing between private sector enterprises. It has not been specifically designed for invoicing consumers.
This European Standard complies at least with the following criteria:
-   it is technologically neutral;
-   it is compatible with relevant international standards on electronic invoicing;
-   the application of this standard should comply with the requirements for the protection of personal data of Directive 95/46/EC, having due regard to the principles of privacy and data protection by-design, data minimization, purpose limitation, necessity and proportionality;
-   it is consistent with the relevant provisions of Directive 2006/112/EC [2];
-   it allows for the establishment of practical, user-friendly, flexible and cost-efficient electronic invoicing systems;
-   it takes into account the special needs of small and medium-sized enterprises as well as of sub-central contracting authorities and contracting entities;
-   it is suitable for use in commercial transactions between enterprises.

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This CEN Technical Specification (TS) contains the mapping between the semantic data model of an electronic invoice (EN 16931-1)
and the following syntax: UBL 2.1. For each element in the semantic model (including sub-elements or supplementary components
such as Code List identifiers) it is defined which element in the syntax is to be used to contain its information contents. Any
mismatches between semantics, format, cardinality or structure are indicated.
Any rules to be followed when using the specific syntax are stated informally in this TS. Together with this TS a set of validation
artefacts is published, including formalisation of the rules.
In addition, the deliverable shall unambiguously define the code lists and, where applicable, the subset of codes to be used for each
coded element in the model of EN 16931-1 when using the UBL 2.1 syntax as defined in CEN/TS 16931-3-2. The deliverable must
guide the user how and where to apply for additions to these code lists. It will be issued as an annex to the existing text of CEN/TS
16931-3-2:2017

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This document applies in case a CIUS is produced as a specification with the objective of registering it in the appropriate registry. This document also establishes requirements for the steps to be taken in the process of creating Core Invoice Usage Specifications (CIUS) as defined in EN 16931-1. Furthermore this document provides guidance for the creation and implementation of a CIUS.
The following points are the focus:
- steps that need to be taken in consideration to avoid unnecessary proliferation and fragmentation in the use of CIUSs;
-  guidance on the creation and implementation of CIUSs, with a quality control objective.
It should be noted that it is planned to apply the same principles and processes to extensions that are documented in a separate document.

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This CEN Technical Specification (TS) contains the mapping between the semantic data model of an electronic invoice (EN 16931-1) and the following syntax: UN/EDIFACT INVOIC D16B. For each element in the semantic model (including sub-elements or supplementary componentts sucha as Code List identifiers) it is defined which element in the syntax is to be used to contain its information contents. Any mismatches between semantics, format, cardinality or structure are indicated. Any rules to be followed when using the specific syntax are stated informally in this TS. Together with this TS a set of validation artefacts is published, including formalisation of the rules.

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This document: — provides method(s) for identifying, in Open-edi modelling technologies and development of scenarios, the additional requirements in business operational view (BOV) specifications for identifying the additional external constraints to be applied to recorded information in business transactions relating to personal information of an individual, as required by legal and regulatory requirements of applicable jurisdictional domains; — integrates existing normative elements in support of privacy and data protection requirements as are already identified in ISO/IEC 14662 and ISO/IEC 15944-1, ISO/IEC 15944-2, ISO/IEC 15944-4, ISO/IEC 15944-5, ISO/IEC 15944-8, ISO/IEC 15944-9, and ISO/IEC 15944-10; — provides overarching, operational ?best practice' statements for associated (and not necessarily automated) processes, procedures, practices and governance requirements that act in support of implementing and enforcing technical mechanisms which support the privacy/data protection requirements necessary for implementation in Open-edi transaction environments; — focuses on the life cycle management of personal information i.e., the contents of SPIs (and their SRIs) related to the business transaction interchanged via EDI as information bundles and their associated semantic components among the parties to a business transaction. NOTE Privacy protection requirements (PPR) on information life cycle management (ILCM) and EDI of personal information as stated in this document serve as a minimum set of ILCM policy and operational requirements for all recorded information pertaining to a business transaction in particular, as well as ILCM implementation in any organization in general. This document does not specify the technical mechanisms, i.e., functional support services (FSV) which are required to support BOV-identified requirements. Detailed exclusions to the scope of this document are provided in Annex H.

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This document specifies three business requirements for the visibility of logistics traffic flow based on the use cases and gap analysis in Annex A. It includes 1) LISS network architecture requirements, 2) visibility data interchange requirements between LISSs, and 3) visibility data interface and process requirements for an LISS network. These three business requirements are described further in Clause 6, Clause 7 and Clause 8 respectively. Furthermore, Clause 8 describes the requirement for a guideline for business participants and stakeholders in an LISS network such as logistics information service providers, single window/SSP operators, data providers and logistics data users. This document does not include standardization 1) at the level of logistics devices (areas of standardisation covered by ISO/TC 104, ISO/TC 204), 2) for ships, navigation and marine technologies (areas of standardisation covered by ISO/TC 8), or 3) related to international data exchange such as standards developed, published and maintained by UN/CEFACT, GS1, WCO which are referenced as appropriate in this document.

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This document defines the requirements about trusted communication in legal, administrative and technical considerations. This document shows a TCP system architecture to guarantee trusted communication and promote trusted services by providing trusted communication evidence as the proof. This document focuses on TCP at the view of 7th application layer of OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model. The audiences are the policy makers for IT innovation such as dematerialization, legal experts regarding electronic activities, IT planners for single windows and secure transactions, IT service providers related to distributed networking and ledger, trusted system auditors, trusted communication concerned parties and so on.

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***Access to this CEN and SIST technical publication has been sponsored by the European Commission.***
This European Standard establishes a semantic data model of the core elements of an electronic invoice. The semantic model includes only the essential information elements that an electronic invoice needs to ensure legal (including fiscal) compliance and to enable interoperability for cross-border, cross sector and for domestic trade. The semantic model may be used by organizations in the private and the public sector for public procurement invoicing. It may also be used for invoicing between private sector enterprises. It has not been specifically designed for invoicing consumers.
This European Standard complies at least with the following criteria:
-   it is technologically neutral;
-   it is compatible with relevant international standards on electronic invoicing;
-   the application of this standard should comply with the requirements for the protection of personal data of Directive 95/46/EC, having due regard to the principles of privacy and data protection by-design, data minimization, purpose limitation, necessity and proportionality;
-   it is consistent with the relevant provisions of Directive 2006/112/EC [2];
-   it allows for the establishment of practical, user-friendly, flexible and cost-efficient electronic invoicing systems;
-   it takes into account the special needs of small and medium-sized enterprises as well as of sub-central contracting authorities and contracting entities;
-   it is suitable for use in commercial transactions between enterprises.

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This European Standard establishes a semantic data model of the core elements of an electronic invoice. The semantic model includes only the essential information elements that an electronic invoice needs to ensure legal (including fiscal) compliance and to enable interoperability for cross-border, cross sector and for domestic trade. The semantic model may be used by organizations in the private and the public sector for public procurement invoicing. It may also be used for invoicing between private sector enterprises. It has not been specifically designed for invoicing consumers.
This European Standard complies at least with the following criteria:
-   it is technologically neutral;
-   it is compatible with relevant international standards on electronic invoicing;
-   the application of this standard should comply with the requirements for the protection of personal data of Directive 95/46/EC, having due regard to the principles of privacy and data protection by-design, data minimization, purpose limitation, necessity and proportionality;
-   it is consistent with the relevant provisions of Directive 2006/112/EC [2];
-   it allows for the establishment of practical, user-friendly, flexible and cost-efficient electronic invoicing systems;
-   it takes into account the special needs of small and medium-sized enterprises as well as of sub-central contracting authorities and contracting entities;
-   it is suitable for use in commercial transactions between enterprises.

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This document provides a set of requirements, functionality and criteria for ensuring reliability and safety of mobile e-business. The specification of this document covers overall use cases for mobile e-business including simple inquiry of electronic documents, exchange of electronic documents for general transaction and even exchange of contract and payment documents. This can be applied to the most wireless protocols such as 3G, 4G and Wi-Fi, etc. This could be also used in the general mobile e-business area such as logistics, electronic trades, financing, manufacturing and service, and can be referenced by system developers of electronic transaction using mobile devices, mobile network service providers and users.

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This document specifies the elements defined in the international standards of ISO/ITU-T, ETSI and IETF RFC that enable at least a proof of existence of data objects and digital signatures and the preservation of the validity status of digital signatures over a long period of time used in validation. It provides the definitions of the proof of existence (PoE) attributes and clarification of the usage of (external) PoE objects, with digital signatures and trusted time values, which have already existed and can be used by the PoE attributes pointing to (external) PoE objects used in long term signature validation or preservation.

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This document considers requirements of the eIDAS regulation and use cases for qualified electronic seal creation devices and how these requirements may be met by standards.
These use cases will take into account differences in articles 26 and 36 of eIDAS on (sole) control of the signatory and seal creator on its signature / seal creation data, whilst also recognizing the commonalities.
This may possibly lead to identifying requirements for updates to existing standards.
The proposed table of content is the following:
1 Scope
2 References
3 Terms and definitions
3.1 Terminology
3.2 Abbreviations
4 A Consideration of Relevant Regulatory Requirements
5 Use cases
6 Analysis of features of Standard and Use cases
6.1 EN 419 211-x
6.1.1 Main Features relating to use cases
6.1.2 Applicability to use cases
6.2 EN 419 221-5
6.2.1 Main Features relating to use cases
6.2.2 Applicability to use cases
6.3 EN 419 241-1 / -2
6.3.1 Main Features relating to use cases
7 Summary of Conclusions

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This document considers requirements of the eIDAS regulation and use cases for qualified electronic seal creation devices and how these requirements may be met by standards.
These use cases will take into account differences in articles 26 and 36 of eIDAS on (sole) control of the signatory and seal creator on its signature / seal creation data, whilst also recognizing the commonalities.
This may possibly lead to identifying requirements for updates to existing standards.
The proposed table of content is the following:
1 Scope
2 References
3 Terms and definitions
3.1 Terminology
3.2 Abbreviations
4 A Consideration of Relevant Regulatory Requirements
5 Use cases
6 Analysis of features of Standard and Use cases
6.1 EN 419 211-x
6.1.1 Main Features relating to use cases
6.1.2 Applicability to use cases
6.2 EN 419 221-5
6.2.1 Main Features relating to use cases
6.2.2 Applicability to use cases
6.3 EN 419 241-1 / -2
6.3.1 Main Features relating to use cases
7 Summary of Conclusions

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This document  provides  an overview  of  standards in the set  Business  Interoperability Interfaces (BII) for public  procurement. It covers the first part of the e- procurement chain. BII focus  on exchange of information between  business  partners. This brings in  scope all  electronic  communication between a contracting authority and an economic operator. Back-office information processing is out of scope.
To ensure interoperability each electronic communication will be described as follows:
- A choreography describes the sequence of transactions;
- A transaction describes all information elements exchanged between business partners;
- A syntax implementation guideline (SIG) provides the syntax bindings needed to implement the transaction
- A procurement procedure guideline identifies the position of the transactions in a procedure.

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This document provides an overview of e-ordering standards in the set Business Interoperability Inter-
faces (BII) for public procurement. E-ordering covers the e-sourcing and e-ordering business areas of the
e-procurement chain,  starting  from  the awarding of  the  contract  or  the  receiving  of  a  quotation  to the receipt of a despatch advise or a receiving advice for the goods or services that have been ordered.

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This document  provides  an overview  of  standards in the set  Business  Interoperability Interfaces (BII) for public  procurement. It covers the first part of the e- procurement chain. BII focus  on exchange of information between  business  partners. This brings in  scope all  electronic  communication between a contracting authority and an economic operator. Back-office information processing is out of scope.
To ensure interoperability each electronic communication will be described as follows:
- A choreography describes the sequence of transactions;
- A transaction describes all information elements exchanged between business partners;
- A syntax implementation guideline (SIG) provides the syntax bindings needed to implement the transaction
- A procurement procedure guideline identifies the position of the transactions in a procedure.

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This document provides an overview of e-ordering standards in the set Business Interoperability Inter-
faces (BII) for public procurement. E-ordering covers the e-sourcing and e-ordering business areas of the
e-procurement chain,  starting  from  the awarding of  the  contract  or  the  receiving  of  a  quotation  to the receipt of a despatch advise or a receiving advice for the goods or services that have been ordered.

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The  CEN/TC  440/WG5  has  developed  a  set  of  deliverables  to  support  interoperability  in  the  pre- and  post-award areas of public procurement. In particular, the deliverables cover the exchange of electronic product catalogues and related  documents  between  contracting  bodies  and  economic  operators  respectively  buyers  and  sellers.  An  electronic product catalogue contains specifications of products (goods and services) with their pricing. A catalogue is used to serve as a basis for ordering and all other following post-award processes. To ensure interoperability each electronic communication will be described as follows:
• A choreography describes the sequence of transactions;
• A transaction describes all information elements exchanged between business partners;
• A syntax implementation guideline (SIG) provides the syntax bindings needed to implement the transaction.

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This document provides an overview of eTendering standards in the set Business Interoperability Interfaces (BII) for public procurement. BII eTendering covers the tendering part of the e-procurement chain, starting from subscribing interest in a business opportunity till concluding the contract.
BII focus on exchange of information between business partners. This brings in scope all electronic communication between a contracting authority and an economic operator. Back-office information processing, like the evaluation of tenders, is out of scope.
To ensure interoperability each electronic communication will be described as follows:
- A procurement procedure guideline identifies the position of the transactions  in a procedure;
- A choreography describes the sequence of transactions;
- A transaction describes all  information elements exchanged between business partners;
- A syntax implementation guideline (SIG) provides the syntax bindings needed to implement the transaction.

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This document provides an overview of eTendering standards in the set Business Interoperability Interfaces (BII) for public procurement. BII eTendering covers the tendering part of the e-procurement chain, starting from subscribing interest in a business opportunity till concluding the contract.
BII focus on exchange of information between business partners. This brings in scope all electronic communication between a contracting authority and an economic operator. Back-office information processing, like the evaluation of tenders, is out of scope.
To ensure interoperability each electronic communication will be described as follows:
- A procurement procedure guideline identifies the position of the transactions  in a procedure;
- A choreography describes the sequence of transactions;
- A transaction describes all  information elements exchanged between business partners;
- A syntax implementation guideline (SIG) provides the syntax bindings needed to implement the transaction.

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The  CEN/TC  440/WG5  has  developed  a  set  of  deliverables  to  support  interoperability  in  the  pre- and  post-award areas of public procurement. In particular, the deliverables cover the exchange of electronic product catalogues and related  documents  between  contracting  bodies  and  economic  operators  respectively  buyers  and  sellers.  An  electronic product catalogue contains specifications of products (goods and services) with their pricing. A catalogue is used to serve as a basis for ordering and all other following post-award processes. To ensure interoperability each electronic communication will be described as follows:
• A choreography describes the sequence of transactions;
• A transaction describes all information elements exchanged between business partners;
• A syntax implementation guideline (SIG) provides the syntax bindings needed to implement the transaction.

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This Technical Report specifies the result of the test of the European standard on the semantic data model for the core elements of an electronic invoice. The test focusses on its practical application for an end user.

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0.1   Introduction
Directive 2014/55/EU states the following: "The standard shall be tested as to its practical application for an end user. The Commission shall retain overall responsibility for the testing and shall ensure that, during the performance of the test, special account be taken of the respect for the criteria of practicality, user-friendliness and possible implementation costs in accordance with the second subparagraph of paragraph 1.
0.2   In scope
This CEN Technical Report describes the methodology used for testing at a semantic level and at the syntax level, as well as describing the semantic testing, the syntax testing and testing of the validation artefacts that represent EN 16931-1 and the test results. The testing of the validation artefacts will ensure they can be used to automatically check conformance with EN 16931-1.
0.3   Out of scope
During meetings with the European Commission they agreed to supplement the testing activities as the need arises. This included the provision of a hosted GITB (Global eBusiness Interoperability Test Beds) environment for syntax testing and to run separate studies such as assessment of implementation costs. The results of these studies will be published separately by CEF.
It was agreed at earlier meetings that piloting was out of scope i.e. perform live transactions, because resources were unavailable to undertake this in the time allowed. Instead we could simulate scenarios by leveraging on the experience of our experts.
Working Group 3 (hereafter WG3) in CEN/TC 434 has produced the syntax bindings and validation artefacts, and the task of quality assurance of these deliverables has been the responsibility of WG3.
VAT issues are complex and require juridical or legal expertise. VAT is also sometimes very sectoral or even country specific. Certain sections, in the VAT Directive, apply to all trades, others deal with special cases. The model should facilitate, but cannot be seen as an enforcement model. Therefore, VAT compliance would have to be checked on a case by case basis, and is deemed out of scope. The Commission had taken this up and given the draft to their VAT experts. The result was that no issues were discovered.
Article 226(B) of the VAT Directive [2] describes the simplified invoice. There are significantly fewer requirements for this invoice. It can only be used when the value is below a specific total amount. The requirement is to provide a model for low value purchases such as train tickets, receipts etc. The key difference is that it doesn’t require the Buyer to be identified. Due to limited resources the simplified invoice requirements were not checked and so are being considered as an extension to be developed at a future stage.
The changing between form and format was discussed. It was generally agreed, based on the VAT Directive, that an eInvoice cannot change form i.e. transformed to paper, however it can change format i.e. syntax. This is common in EDI systems and for legal reasons the original needs to be clarified. This means if it is in paper form it shall be archived in paper form and if it is electronic it shall stay in electronic form. An electronic invoice may change format, provided this is documented in an audit trail. However, in Norway and France the legislation states that the format received from the Supplier is the original and no other. Also, general practice in Germany requires that the invoice received from the Supplier be archived and considered as the original. There may be other exceptions in some Member States. This was also considered to be out of scope for this document and would be dealt with by the Member State involved.
It was agreed at an initial Plenary session that we should test all four syntaxes as the decision to select syntaxes had not yet been made. However ultimately the group concluded, based on our research, that the ISO 20022 Financial Invoice was not in sufficient use to justify being included.

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ISO 14533-3:2017 specifies the elements, among those defined in PDF Advanced Electronic Signatures (PAdES), that enable verification of a digital signature over a long period of time. It does not give new technical specifications about the digital signature itself, nor new restrictions of usage of the technical specifications about the digital signatures which already exist.

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This Technical Report gives guidelines on interoperability of electronic invoices at the transmission level, taking into account the need of ensuring the authenticity of the origin and the integrity of the electronic invoices.

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This CEN Technical Specification (TS) contains the methodology for syntax bindings of the core elements of an electronic invoice. Any rules to be followed when using one of the syntaxes specified in parts CEN/TS 16931-3-2 up to and including CEN/TS 16931-3-5 are stated informally in this TS. Together with this TS a set of validation artefacts is published, including formalisation of the rules.

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***Access to this CEN and SIST technical publication has been sponsored by the European Commission.***
This Technical Specification provides in Clause 7 the list of syntaxes that complies with and allows to express syntactically the core invoice model as specified in FprEN 16931-1:2016, according to the selection criteria provided by the Standardization Request [1].
The selection of the syntaxes also derived from the Standardization Request [1]. It states that, to limit costs on public authorities, the list should ideally not exceed five syntaxes. Four syntaxes were taken into account and assessed according to criteria provided by the Standardization Request [1].

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This Technical Report gives guidelines on the optional use of sector or country extensions in conjunction with the European Norm on the semantic data model for the core elements of an electronic invoice, including a methodology to be applied in the real environment.

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This Technical Report describes how trading partners may extend the core invoice model and the related business rules and code lists, in order to support business cases that are specific to their trading environment, while at the same time maintaining semantic interoperability with the core invoice model.
This Technical Report does not define a methodology for creation of core invoice usage specification, nor does it describe the detailed process of syntax binding.

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This Technical Report recommends a set of Guidelines to ensure interoperability at the transmission level to be used in conjunction with the European Norm (EN) for the semantic data model of the core elements of an electronic invoice and its other associated deliverables. The Guidelines are by nature non-prescriptive and non-binding.
These Guidelines take into account the following aspects:
1)   recommending best practices for use at the transmission level;
2)   supporting interoperability between all the parties and systems that need to interact and within the various operating models in common use;
3)   ensuring a level playing field for the various operating models and bi-lateral implementations and for the use of existing and future infrastructures, which support e-Invoicing;
4)   promoting a common terminology and non-proprietary standards for transmission and related areas;
5)   ensuring the authenticity of origin and integrity of electronic invoice content;
6)   providing guidance on data protection, on the enablement of format conversion, and on e-invoice legibility, including the use of a readable visual presentations, as required;
7)   providing guidance for identification, addressing and routing;
8)   identifying requirements for robust legal frameworks and governance arrangements;
9)   recognizing the roles of trading parties, solution and service providers and related infrastructure providers.
The Objectives of the Guidelines are:
10)   to support the implementation of the EU Directive 2014/55/EU on e-Invoicing and the core invoice model;
11)   to propose best practices and recommendations for standards to enable electronic exchange of e-Invoices and related data between participants by providing a basis for interoperability at the transmission level, based on common requirements and scenarios;
12)   to facilitate Straight Through Processing (STP) by the key actors in the supply chain (Buyers, Sellers, Tax Authorities, Agents, Banks, Service and Solution Providers, etc.);
13)   to provide a set of non-prescriptive and non-binding Guidelines and recommendations that are applicable to all common operating models for e-invoice exchange and transmission whilst also providing recommendations specific to each of the common operating models.
To accomplish these objectives, the Guidelines are based on the following Requirements and Guiding Principles:
14)   the need to cover the transmission of e-invoices and related documents from the system of the sending trading party to the system of the receiving trading party, including transmission issues for any intermediary platforms;
15)   the need to allow any seller in any European (EU, EEA and Switzerland) country to deliver invoices to any buyer in any location in another European country (EU, EEA and Switzerland);
16)   the need to support all common invoicing processes and modes of operation;
17)   the need to be compatible with the current legislative and regulatory environment for the exchange of e-Invoices and related data;
18)   the need to support the European Norm and other commonly accepted content standards;
19)   the need to ensure that other document exchanges beyond e-Invoicing can be supported;
20)   the need to establish clear boundaries between the collaborative and competitive domains;
21)   the need to enable competition between business models, solutions and service providers and foster innovation;
22)   the need to ensure that European supply chains remain an integrated and competitive part of the global economy;
23)   the need to promote network effects leading to the development of critical mass as e-Invoicing becomes the dominant mode of invoicing (network effects result in a service becoming more valuable as more trading parties use it, thus creating a virtuous circle and further momentum for adoption).
The following items are considered to be in the competitive domain and therefore out of scope of the Recommendations:
(....)

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  • Technical report
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This Technical Specification (TS) specifies the methodology of the mapping between the semantic model of an electronic invoice, included in EN 16931-1 and a syntax. For each element in the semantic model (including sub-elements or supplementary components such as Identification scheme identifiers) it should be defined which element in the syntax is to be used to contain its information contents. Any mismatches between semantics, format, cardinality or structure are indicated.

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This Technical Specification provides in Clause 7 the list of syntaxes that complies with and allows to express syntactically the core invoice model as specified in EN 16931 1:2017, according to the selection criteria provided by the Standardization Request [1].
The selection of the syntaxes also derived from the Standardization Request [1]. It states that, to limit costs on public authorities, the list should ideally not exceed five syntaxes. Four syntaxes were taken into account and assessed according to criteria provided by the Standardization Request [1].

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This European Standard establishes a uniform format for reporting accidents where the following equipment are involved:
—   agricultural and forestry tractors (NACE code 09.02.03.01);
—   equipment fitted on tractors (e.g. a front – end loader) (NACE code 09.02.99.00);
—   equipment mounted on the tractor (front and/or rear) (NACE code 09.02.99.00);
—   equipment towed by tractors (trailers and machinery) (NACE code 09.02.04.99);
—   self-propelled machinery (NACE code 09.02.03.02);
—   telescopic loaders (NACE code 09.02.03.02);
—   lawn and gardening equipment (NACE code 09.02.99.00);
—   powered hand-held machinery used in agriculture (NACE code 09.02.99.00).
Accidents with this equipment on road use are also covered by this document.
Are excluded from the scope of this document:
—   the above-mentioned equipment when used in another environment than agriculture, forestry and landscape gardening (e.g. tractors used on construction sites);
—   material handling equipment other than telescopic loaders, skid steer loaders, wheel loaders and front-end loaders mounted on tractors.
All profiles of harmed persons should be in the scope. There should be no distinction/exemption between employers, employees, self-employed persons, bystanders or other persons involved in the accident.
Situations that are excluded from the scope of this document:
—   near-miss accidents and other incidents, not resulting in harm;
—   chronic diseases as a result of physical agents.
Fire hazards are only in the Scope for those fire accidents that have caused physical harm.

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ISO/IEC 15944-20:2015 specifies the properties of Base Functional Specification View (FSV) Standards in order to best meet the requirements of the Business Operational View (BOV) with interoperable implementations. Base FSV standards exhibiting these properties support business transactions beyond those that are in compliance with Open-edi scenarios (OeS). Additional beneficial business transactions may also be supported between a given IT system and IT system(s) outside of the Open-edi scenarios for which they were designed. These base FSV standards address those aspects of interoperability between IT systems used among Parties of the Open-edi Community participating in the scenario. Examples of such standards include the choreography of interchanges among systems, and the foundational structure and syntax used to express Information Bundles (IB) in the interchanges.

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ISO/IEC 15944-2:2015 specifies procedures to be followed in establishing, maintaining, and publishing registers of unique, unambiguous and permanent identifiers and meanings that are assigned to Open-edi scenarios and scenario components. In order to accomplish this purpose, ISO/IEC 15944-2:2015 specifies elements of information that are necessary to provide identification and meaning to the registered items and to manage the registration of these items. ISO/IEC 15944-2:2015 defines the procedures to be applied by qualified JTC1 Registration Authority(ies) appointed by the ISO and IEC council to maintain a register(s) of Open-edi scenarios and/or scenario components for the purpose of their reusability.

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ISO/IEC 15944-9:2015 presents a framework consisting of several models, including a reference model, a model of concepts, a content model, an information model, as well as rules, templates and other technical specifications for traceability requirements based on internal or external constraints as applicable to a business transaction. The internal constraints are imposed in Open-edi due to mutual agreements among parties to a business transaction and the external constraints are invoked by the nature of a business transaction due to applicable laws, regulations, policies, etc. of jurisdictional domains which need to be considered in Open-edi business transactions. All requirements in ISO/IEC 15944-9:2015 originate from external constraints. However, parties to a business transaction may well by mutual agreement apply external constraints of this nature as internal constraints. The focus therefore of this traceability framework standard is on commitment exchange among autonomous parties to a business transaction. As such, this statement of scope includes the ability of the traceability framework to specify a group of structured and inter-related concepts pertaining to traceability as a legal or regulatory requirement in the Open-edi context, in addition to concepts that appear in other Parts of ISO/IEC 15944 these concepts having the characteristics of cultural adaptability through the use of multilingual terms and definitions; provide additional specifications for Open-edi scenarios and scenario components from the perspective of traceability as required by internal or external constraints in business transactions; provide a more detailed specification for business transactions regarding aspects of traceability, including refined models of Person, Data and Process in support of the ability for Open-edi to incorporate elements or characteristics of traceability in its information bundles (including their semantic components) and business processes; realize specifications and descriptions from the traceability requirements as rules and guidelines, to provide recommendations or guidance on Open-edi practices; and, provide revised primitive Open-edi scenario templates for traceability, integrating the modifications to the template from other existing Parts of ISO/IEC 15944. ISO/IEC 15944-9:2015 can be used by Open-edi implementers (including business modellers and system designers) and Open-edi standard developers in specifying Open-edi scenarios, developing Open-edi related standards, and implementing Open-edi rules and guidelines for Open-edi activities.

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This part of ISO/IEC 15944 discusses and describes the following three topics of eBusiness modelling: — fundamentals of business transaction modelling that describe the conceptual aspects of eBusiness; — principles of eBusiness modelling that specify the semantic aspect of business transactions and their components and relationships involved in the business transaction; — classification scheme of Open-edi scenarios based on eBusiness modelling.

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ISO/IEC 15944-4:2015 provides a set of UML class diagrams and conceptual explanations that circumscribe the Open-edi Business Transaction Ontology (OeBTO). It explains the mechanics of a business transaction state machine, the procedural component of an OeBTO, and the (internal) constraint component of OeBTO, its repository for business rules. ISO/IEC 15944-4:2015 addresses collaborations among independent trading partners as defined in ISO/IEC 15944‑1. ISO/IEC 15944-4:2015 applies to both binary collaborations (buyer and seller) and mediated collaborations (buyer, seller, third-party). The ontological features described herein propose standards only for the Business Operational View (BOV), that is, the business aspects of business transactions as they are defined in ISO/IEC 15944‑1.

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ISO 9735-10:2014 specifies the syntax service directories of all parts of ISO 9735.

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ISO 14533-1:2014 specifies the elements, among those defined in CMS Advanced Electronic Signatures (CAdES), that enable verification of a digital signature over a long period of time. It does not give new technical specifications about the digital signature itself, nor new restrictions of usage of the technical specifications about the digital signatures which have already existed.

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The primary purpose of ISO/IEC 15944-10:2013 is to provide, in a single consolidated document, an integrated approach for the key concepts and their definitions as well as rules pertaining to "coded domains" as they already exist in the multipart ISO/IEC 15944 eBusiness standard, especially Parts 1, 2, 5 and 8. It does so in a systematic and rules-based manner. As such, ISO/IEC 15944-10:2013 serves as a methodology and tool for an IT-enabled approach to existing widely used standards, specifications, authority files, pick-lists, etc., of a "codes representing X" nature, i.e. as ISO/IEC 15944-10:2013 compliant coded domains, involving the making of (legally-binding) commitments, based on common business practices. ISO/IEC 15944-10:2013 specifies the five key characteristics of coded domains and identifies twelve benefits of the use of coded domains. A key purpose of ISO/IEC 15944-10:2013 is to maximize and state very explicitly the level of "intelligence" at the highest and most precise required level with respect to the semantics of the actual data being interchanged among autonomous parties in a business transaction. Here the use of coded domains presents a simple and very pragmatic approach at the data element, i.e. semantic component level. It focuses on the development of intelligently coded data elements as part of coded domains. This involves rule-based, structured and pre-defined values whose purpose and use has been clearly stated and unambiguously defined (thereby facilitating an IT-enabled approach). In an Open-edi and eBusiness context ISO/IEC 15944-10:2013 supports the use of coded domains as re-useable business objects among participating parties in any type of business transaction. Coded domains can be used is support of any type of scenario component, i.e. "roles", and "Information Bundles (IBs)", and "semantic components (SCs)", as well as scenario attributes. Re-use of coded domains is supported through coded domains being registered through procedures specified in ISO/IEC 15944-2. The semantics of the data values in a coded domain are identified and referenced via unique and unambiguous "ID codes", i.e. as unique identifiers. With such unambiguous and unique ID codes, in ISO/IEC 15944-10:2013 compliant coded domains can be associated multiple human interface equivalents (HIEs) in many forms and languages. The approach taken here is that of the separation of the (single) IT interface requirements of semantic interoperability from their (multiple) human interface (linguistic) equivalents (required by the jurisdictional domains of the participating parties as well as those of an individual accessibility nature). Use of ISO/IEC 15944-10:2013 therefore facilitates semantic interoperability requirements of both jurisdictional domains and all kinds of parties to a business transaction [including where the buyer is an individual, and public policy requirements apply (e.g. consumer protection, privacy protection, individual accessibility, etc.)]. In addition to its twelve normative clauses and two normative annexes, ISO/IEC 15944-10:2013 provides extensive informative text in its Clause 0 "Introduction" and six informative annexes.

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This European Standard specifies requirements on the structure and semantics of food datasets and of interchange of food data for various applications. Food data refers to information on various food properties and includes various steps in the generation and publication of such data, e.g. sampling, analysis, food description, food property and value description. The standard regards food data as datasets covering: - identification, description and classification of foods including food ingredients, - qualitative and quantitative food properties that can be measured, calculated or estimated, - data quality values and other metadata, - specifications of methods used for obtaining these values, - references to sources for the information reported. This standard includes requirements on: semantics and data structure for food data, - content of referenced controlled vocabularies, - XML encoding for interchange of food data. This standard does not include: - food description methods, - quality assessment methods, - content of controlled vocabularies, for example controlled vocabularies for nutrients, - database implementation.

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This European Standard specifies requirements on the structure and semantics of food datasets and of interchange of food data for various applications.
Food data refers to information on various food properties and includes various steps in the generation and publication of such data, e.g. sampling, analysis, food description, food property and value description.
The standard regards food data as datasets covering:
-   identification, description and classification of foods including food ingredients,
-   qualitative and quantitative food properties that can be measured, calculated or estimated,
-   data quality values and other metadata,
-   specifications of methods used for obtaining these values,
-   references to sources for the information reported.
This standard includes requirements on:
-   semantics and data structure for food data,
-   content of referenced controlled vocabularies,
-   XML encoding for interchange of food data.
This standard does not include:
-   food description methods,
-   quality assessment methods,
-   content of controlled vocabularies, for example controlled vocabularies for nutrients,
-   database implementation.

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ISO/IEC 15944-8:2012 has been developed to support modelling generic international requirements for identifying and providing privacy protection of personal information throughout any kind of information and communications technology (ICT) based business transaction where the individual has the role of a buyer. It provides users and designers with a methodology and tools addressing requirements imposed by jurisdictional domains. ISO/IEC 15944-8:2012 takes the "business operational view" (BOV) aspects developed in ISO/IEC 14662, together with, in particular, ISO/IEC 15944-1 and ISO/IEC 15944-5 as well as many other international references. ISO/IEC 15944 models the requirements of jurisdictional domains as external constraints upon the creation, use, interchange, and information life-cycle management of data. ISO/IEC 15944-8:2012 addresses the wider context of the public policy requirements of jurisdictional domains controlling the use of personal information (PI). These include regulations for consumer protection, privacy protection, individual accessibility, etc. ISO/IEC 15944-8:2012 identifies and expands upon eleven generic, primitive, international principles that have been associated with privacy protection by international, regional, and UN member states' requirements. It models them with respect to the "collaboration space" of a business transaction and commitment exchange involving an individual acting in the role of a "buyer". It provides principles and rules governing the establishment, management and use of identifiers of that individual, including the use of legally recognized names (LRNs), recognized individual identity (rii), and methods of non-identification such as the use of anonymization and pseudonymization of personal information. ISO/IEC 15944-8:2012 also sets out principles governing information life-cycle management (ILCM) as well as the rules and associated coded domains for obtaining informed consent for collection, specifying state changes, records retention, record deletion and related matters in support of privacy protection requirements.

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The Open-edi Reference Model (ISO/IEC 14662:2010, Clause 4) states: "The intention is that the sending, by an Open-edi Party, of information from a scenario, conforming to Open-edi standards, shall allow the acceptance and processing of that information in the context of that scenario by one or more Open-edi Parties by reference to the scenario and without the need for agreement. However, the legal requirements and/or liabilities resulting from the engagement of an organization in any Open-edi transaction may be conditioned by the competent legal environment(s) or the formation of a legal interchange agreement between the participating organizations. Open-edi Parties need to observe rule-based behaviour and possess the ability to make commitments in Open-edi (e.g., business, operational, technical, legal, and/or audit perspectives)." ISO/IEC 15944-1:2011 addresses the fundamental requirements of the commercial and legal frameworks and their environments on business transactions, and also integrates the requirements of the information technology and telecommunications environments. In addition to the existing strategic directions of "portability" and "interoperability", the added strategic direction of ISO/IEC JTC 1 of "cultural adaptability" is supported in ISO/IEC 15944-1:2011. It also supports requirements arising from the public policy/consumer environment, cross-sectorial requirements and the need to address horizontal issues. It integrates these different sets of requirements. ISO/IEC 15944-1:2011 allows constraints [which include legal requirements, commercial and/or international trade and contract terms, public policy (e.g. privacy/data protection, product or service labelling, consumer protection), laws and regulations] to be defined and clearly integrated into Open-edi through the BOV. This means that terms and definitions in ISO/IEC 15944-1:2011 serve as a common bridge between these different sets of business operational requirements, allowing the integration of code sets and rules defining these requirements to be integrated into business processes electronically. ISO/IEC 15944-1:2011 contains a methodology and tool for specifying common business practices as parts of common business transactions in the form of scenarios, scenario attributes, roles, Information Bundles and Semantic Components. It achieves this by 1) developing standard computer processable specifications of common business rules and practices as scenarios and scenario components; and thus 2) maximizing the re-use of these components in business transactions.

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ISO/IEC 15944-5:2008 is directed at being able to identify and reference laws and regulations impacting eBusiness scenarios and scenario components as external constraints. The primary source of such external constraints is jurisdictional domains. ISO/IEC 15944-5:2008 focuses on addressing the simple, i.e. definable, aspects of external constraints for which the source is a jurisdictional domain. A useful characteristic of external constraints is that at the sectoral, national and international levels, etc. focal points and recognized authorities often already exist. The rules and common business practices in many sectoral areas are already known. Use of ISO/IEC 15944-5:2008 (and related standards) will facilitate the transformation of these external constraints (business rules) into specified, registered and reusable scenarios and scenario components. The Business Transaction Model, explained in ISO/IEC 15944-1, has two classes of constraints, namely: those which are self-imposed and agreed to as commitments among the parties themselves, i.e. internal constraints; and those which are imposed on the parties to a business transaction based on the nature of the good, service and/or rights exchanged, and the nature of the commitment made among the parties (including ability to make commitments, the location, etc.), i.e. external constraints. The focus of ISO/IEC 15944-5:2008 is on external constraints. Jurisdictional domains are the primary source of external constraints. ISO/IEC 15944-5:2008 provides the key concepts required for addressing the legal environment in developing the Business Operational View of business transactions and scenarios which involve and are required to support external constraints. It begins with an exploration of the jurisdictional domain as a source of external constraint on the business process, both from the perspective of a Person and as a Public Administration. It then presents key constraints governing ISO/IEC 15944-5:2008 through principles and rules. It examines a key element in business transactions, that of the use of language. Jurisdictions can identify and, in some cases, impose the use of language in a business transaction. In this regard, the ISO/IEC 15944-5:2008 looks at the relationship of the constraint imposed by a jurisdictional domain on the choice of language used. Public policy constraints are also examined and key requirements for their inclusion in external constraints are identified, especially where they can affect the modelling of Open-edi scenarios and the business transaction components of Persons, data and processes. In particular, there is a set of rules that govern the identification and categories of jurisdictional domains as individual states as well as sets of entities, both regional and international. ISO/IEC 15944-5:2008 also focuses on the identification of rules governing the formation and identification of jurisdictional domains. It identifies the more primitive subtypes of jurisdictional domains and includes two approaches for the unambiguous identification of referencing of (subtypes of) jurisdictional domain. ISO/IEC 15944-5:2008 also provides checklists, through the use of templates, to guide the user through the mechanics of determining the source of the external constraint(s) where these are jurisdictional domains and determining the adequacy of the scenario specification as well as those of the scenario components. Annexes provide elaboration on the points raised in the main body.

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