Wildland firefighting personal protective equipment -- Requirements and test methods

This document specifies the minimum performance requirements and methods of test for personal protective equipment (PPE) face and eye protection, for wildland firefighting. This document covers the general design of the PPE, the minimum levels of performance for the materials employed and the methods of test used. This PPE is not intended to provide protection during fire entrapment. This document does not cover PPE for structural firefighting (see ISO 11999 series), for use against chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear hazards, or for use where a reflective outer surface is required (see ISO 15538). Activities in support of wildland firefighting, such as the cutting of trees and the use of a chainsaw can require additional protection to that provided in this document. Users are directed to those relevant standards for the requirements associated with such protection.

Équipement de protection individuelle pour la lutte contre les feux d'espaces naturels -- Exigences et méthodes d'essai

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Nov-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
12-Oct-2019
Completion Date
15-Nov-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16073-7
First edition
2019-11
Wildland firefighting personal
protective equipment —
Requirements and test methods —
Part 7:
Face and eye protection
Équipement de protection individuelle pour la lutte contre les feux
d'espaces naturels — Exigences et méthodes d'essai —
Partie 7: Protection du visage et des yeux
Reference number
ISO 16073-7:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16073-7:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
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Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16073-7:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Eye protectors .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Design and manufacturing requirements ........................................................................................................................ 2

4.2.1 General construction .................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2.2 Materials ................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.2.3 Headbands ............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.3 Basic, particular and optional requirements for non-mesh eye protectors ....................................... 2

4.3.1 Basic requirements ........................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.3.2 Particular requirements ............................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3.3 Optional requirements ............................................................................................................................................... 7

4.4 Mesh eye and face protectors ..................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.4.1 Basic requirements ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.4.2 Design and manufacture ........................................................................................................................................... 8

4.4.3 Performance ........................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.4.4 Requirements for eye protectors with special characteristics ..............................................10

4.5 Allocation of requirements, test schedules and application .........................................................................10

4.5.1 Requirements, test methods and schedules ..........................................................................................10

4.5.2 Application of eye protector types ................................................................................................................10

5 Marking and labelling ..................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.1 General marking requirements .............................................................................................................................................15

5.2 Legibility ....................................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.3 Conformity marking requirements ....................................................................................................................................15

5.4 Additional marking requirements.......................................................................................................................................16

5.4.1 Eye protectors .................................................................................................................................................................16

6 Manufacturer's information ..................................................................................................................................................................19

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................19

Annex A (normative) Thermal stability of eyewear at elevated temperatures .....................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 16073-7:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 94, Personal safety — Personal protective

equipment, Subcommittee SC 14, Firefighters’ personal equipment.

This first edition of ISO 16073-7, together with ISO 16073-8 and ISO 16073-1 to ISO 16073-6 cancels

and replaces ISO 16073:2011.
The main changes are as follows:
— the content has been reviewed and separated into several parts;
— the respiratory protection has been deleted from the document.
A list of all parts in the ISO 16073 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16073-7:2019(E)
Introduction

Wildland firefighting involves work carried out mostly in summer temperatures and for many hours,

during which the firefighter can develop high levels of metabolic heat. As a consequence, the personal

protective equipment (PPE) is required to be light, flexible and commensurate with the risks to which the

firefighter can be exposed in order to be effective without introducing excessive heat stress to the wearer.

It is important to train firefighters in the selection, use, care and maintenance of the PPE covered by

this document, including an understanding of its limitations.

It is intended that a risk assessment be undertaken to determine if the PPE covered by this document is

suitable for its intended use and the expected exposure.

This document provides minimum performance requirements for wildland firefighters' personal

protective equipment (PPE) face and eye protection, designed for use for extended periods during

wildland firefighting.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16073-7:2019(E)
Wildland firefighting personal protective equipment —
Requirements and test methods —
Part 7:
Face and eye protection
1 Scope

This document specifies the minimum performance requirements and methods of test for personal

protective equipment (PPE) face and eye protection, for wildland firefighting.

This document covers the general design of the PPE, the minimum levels of performance for the

materials employed and the methods of test used. This PPE is not intended to provide protection during

fire entrapment.

This document does not cover PPE for structural firefighting (see ISO 11999 series), for use against

chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear hazards, or for use where a reflective outer surface is

required (see ISO 15538).

Activities in support of wildland firefighting, such as the cutting of trees and the use of a chainsaw can

require additional protection to that provided in this document. Users are directed to those relevant

standards for the requirements associated with such protection.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 18526-2:— , Eye and face protection — Test methods — Part 2: Physical optical properties

ISO 18526-3 , Eye and face protection — Test methods — Part 3: Physical and mechanical properties

ISO 17493, Clothing and equipment for protection against heat — Test method for convective heat

resistance using a hot air circulating oven

ISO/TR 19591, Personal protective equipment for firefighters — Standard terms and definitions

EN 167:2001, Personal eye-protection — Optical test methods

EN 170, Personal eye-protection — Ultraviolet filters — Transmittance requirements and recommended use

EN 172, Personal eye protection — Sunglare filters for industrial use
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions in ISO/TR 19591 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp

1) Under preparation. Stage at the moment of publication ISO/FDIS 18526-2:2019.

2) Under preparation. Stage at the moment of publication ISO/FDIS 18526-3:2019.

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ISO 16073-7:2019(E)
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
4 Eye protectors
4.1 General

Wildland firefighters' eyes are exposed to irritants, such as smoke particles and off-gassing chemicals,

which cause severe irritation and discomfort to the eyes. Eye protectors should protect the eyes from

the ingress of smoke particles and other irritants. The complete eye protector should also resist fogging.

Activities associated with wildland firefighting, such as chainsaw use, may require alternative forms of

eye protection, such as mesh visors.

Eye protectors may need to interface with other items of PPE used for wildland firefighting, e.g. Helmet.

NOTE For more information, see ISO/TS 11999-2.
4.2 Design and manufacturing requirements
4.2.1 General construction

Eye protectors shall be free from projections, sharp edges or other defects, which are likely to cause

discomfort or injury during use.
4.2.2 Materials

No part of the eye protector in contact with the wearer shall be made of materials that are known to

cause any skin irritation.
4.2.3 Headbands

Headbands, if used as the principal means of retention, shall be at least 10 mm wide over any portion

which may come into contact with the wearer's head. Headbands shall be adjustable or self-adjusting.

4.3 Basic, particular and optional requirements for non-mesh eye protectors
4.3.1 Basic requirements
4.3.1.1 General

All non-mesh eye protectors shall meet the basic requirements given in this subclause.

Furthermore, according to their intended use, non-mesh eye protectors shall, if appropriate, meet one

or more of the particular requirements given in 4.3.2.

Optional requirements related to additional properties of non-mesh eye protectors are given in 4.3.3.

4.3.1.2 Field of vision

The size of the field of vision shall be defined in conjunction with the appropriate headform described

in EN 168:2001, Clause 17.

Eye protectors shall exhibit a minimum field of vision defined by the two ellipses in Figure 1, when

placed and centred at a distance of 25 mm from the surface of the eyes of the appropriate headform.

The horizontal axis shall be parallel to, and 0,7 mm below, the height of the line connecting the centres

of the two eyes. The horizontal length of the ellipses shall be 22,0 mm; the vertical width of the ellipses

shall be 20,0 mm. The centre distance of the two ellipses shall be d = c + 6 mm, where c is the pupillary

2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16073-7:2019(E)

distance. The pupillary distance is 64 mm for the medium headform and 54 mm for the small headform,

if not specified differently by the manufacturer.
The test shall be carried out in accordance with EN 168:2001, Clause 18.
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 1 — Definition of the field of vision
4.3.1.3 Optical requirements
4.3.1.3.1 Spherical, astigmatic and prismatic refractive powers

The refractive powers of oculars shall be measured by the reference methods specified in

EN 167:2001,Clause 3. This Clause 3 also refers to an optional method for use in specific circumstances;

the details of this method are given in EN 167:2001, Annex A.
4.3.1.3.2 Mounted oculars and unmounted oculars covering both eyes

The refractive power characteristics of mounted oculars or unmounted oculars covering both eyes

shall be measured by the method specified in EN 167:2001, 3.2, at the visual centre of the ocular.

The permissible tolerances for oculars without corrective effect are given in Table 1.

The difference in prismatic refractive power specified for an eye protector depends not only on the

prismatic refractive power of each ocular, but also on the position of the optical axis of the ocular in

relation to the axis of vision and, therefore, the shape of the frame. It is, therefore, necessary to use

replacement oculars for which the difference in prismatic power remains within the permissible

tolerance limits for the frame in question.

Table 1 — Permissible tolerances for refractive powers of mounted oculars without corrective

effect and unmounted oculars without corrective effect covering both eyes
Spherical Difference in prismatic refractive power
Astigmatic re-
refractive power cm/m
fractive power
DD+
Optical class
|D − D |
Horizontal
1 2
2 Vertical
−1 −1
m m Base out Base in
1 ±0,06 ±0,06 0,75 0,25 0,25
2 ±0,12 ±0,12 1,00 0,25 0,25
NOTE D and D are the refractive powers in the two principal meridians.
1 2
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ISO 16073-7:2019(E)
4.3.1.3.3 Transmittance
4.3.1.3.3.1 Oculars without filtering action

Oculars intended to protect the eyes against mechanical or chemical hazards only, and cover plates,

shall have a luminous transmittance greater than 74,4 % when measured as given in EN 167:2001,

Clause 6 [based on CIE source A (2 856 K)].

4.3.1.3.3.2 Oculars with filtering action (filters) and housings for oculars with filtering action

The transmittance of oculars with filtering action shall meet the requirements given in the specific

standards relating to the various types of ocular, i.e. EN 170 or EN 172.

Housings of goggles and face shields which claim to provide protection against optical radiation shall

provide at least the same level of protection against optical radiation as given by a filter of any scale

number declared usable with the eye protector by the manufacturer or supplier. Testing shall be in

accordance with EN 167:2001, Clause 6.
4.3.1.3.3.3 Variations in transmittance — Oculars without corrective effect
NOTE Oculars without filtering action are exempt from this requirement.

Variations in luminous transmittance shall be measured in accordance with EN 167:2001, Clause 7.

The relative variations of the luminous transmittance around the visual centre(s) P1 and P2 shall not

exceed the values of Table 2. The relative difference in luminous transmittance P3 between left and

right eye shall not exceed the values of Table 2 or 20 %, whichever is the greater.

Table 2 — Variations in luminous transmittance
Luminous transmittance
Permissible relative
variation
less than up to
% %
100 17,8 ±5
17,8 0,44 ±10
0,44 0,023 ±15
0,023 0,001 2 ±20
0,001 2 0,000 023 ±30
4.3.1.3.4 Scattering of light

The percentage value of wide angle scatter (haze) shall not exceed 3,0 %, when measured according to

ISO 18526-2:—, 14.1.
4.3.1.4 Quality of material and surface

Except for a marginal area 5 mm wide, oculars shall be free from any significant defects likely to impair

vision in use, such as bubbles, scratches, inclusions, dull spots, pitting, mould marks, scouring, grains,

pocking, scaling and undulation.

The assessment shall be carried out in accordance with the method specified in EN 167:2001, Clause 5.

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ISO 16073-7:2019(E)
4.3.1.5 Resistance to ageing
4.3.1.5.1 Stability at an elevated temperature

Assembled eye protectors shall show no apparent deformation when tested by the method specified

in A.4 (test 1).
4.3.1.5.2 Resistance to ultraviolet radiation — Oculars only

Oculars shall be subjected to the test for resistance to ultraviolet radiation in accordance with the

method specified in EN 168:2001, Clause 6. At the end of the test, oculars shall meet the following

requirements.

a) The relative change of luminous transmittance shall not be greater than the values specified in

Table 3.

b) The value of the reduced luminance factor shall not exceed the permissible limits given in 4.3.1.3.4.

Table 3 — Permissible relative change in luminous transmittance following
the ultraviolet radiation test
Luminous transmittance
Permissible relative
change
less than up to
% %
100 17,8 ±5
17,8 0,44 ±10
0,44 0,023 ±15
0,023 0,001 2 ±20
0,001 2 0,000 023 ±30
4.3.1.6 Resistance to corrosion

After having undergone the test for resistance to corrosion specified in EN 168:2001, Clause 8, all metal

parts of the eye protector shall display smooth surfaces, free from corrosion, when examined by a

trained observer.
4.3.1.7 Resistance to ignition

Eye protectors shall be tested in accordance with the method specified in EN 168:2001, Clause 7 and

shall be considered to be satisfactory if no part of the eye protector ignites or continues to glow after

removal of the steel rod.
4.3.2 Particular requirements
4.3.2.1 Protection against high-speed particles

Eye protectors intended to provide protection against high-speed particles shall withstand the impact

of a 6 mm nominal diameter steel ball of 0,86 g minimum mass, striking the oculars and the lateral

protection at one of the speeds given in Table 4.
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ISO 16073-7:2019(E)
Table 4 — Requirements relating to protection against high-speed particles
Impact speed of ball
Low-energy impact Medium-energy impact High-energy impact
Type of eye protector
F B A
+15, +3 +5
120 m/s 190 m/s
45 m/s
0 0
Goggles + + Not applicable
Face shields + + +

The test shall be in accordance with the method specified in EN 168:2001, Clause 9.

It shall not be possible for the ball to strike the lateral impact point without first striking the lateral

protection.
On so testing, the following defects shall not occur.

a) Ocular fracture: an ocular shall be considered to have fractured if it cracks through its entire

thickness into two or more pieces, or if more than 5 mg of the ocular material becomes detached

from the surface away from the one struck by the ball, or if the ball passes through the ocular.

b) Ocular deformation: an ocular shall be considered to have been deformed if a mark appears on the

white paper on the opposite side to that struck by the ball.

c) Ocular housing or frame failure: an ocular housing or frame shall be considered to have failed if it

separates into two or more pieces, or if it is no longer capable of holding an ocular in position, or if

an unbroken ocular detaches from the frame, or if the ball passes through the housing or frame.

d) Lateral protection failure: the lateral protection shall be considered to have failed if it fractures

through its entire thickness into two or more separate pieces, or if one or more particles becomes

detached from the surface remote from the impact point, or if it allows the ball to penetrate

completely, or if it partially or totally detaches from the eye protector, or if its component parts

become separated.

Eye protectors offering protection against high-speed particles shall provide lateral protection.

4.3.2.2 Protection against droplets and splashes of liquids

Eye protectors for use against droplets (goggles) and splashes of liquids (face shields) shall be tested in

accordance with the methods specified in EN 168:2001, Clause 12. The results shall be considered to be

satisfactory if:

a) no pink or crimson colouration appears in the ocular regions defined by the two circles when

assessing goggles for protection against droplets; no account shall be taken of any such coloration

up to a distance of 6 mm inside the edges of the eye protector;

b) face shields cover the eye-region rectangle of the appropriate headform, as described in

EN 168:2001, 10.2.2.2 and as assessed in accordance with EN 168:2001, 10.2.

Additionally, face shields for protection against splashes of liquids shall have a viewing area with a

minimum vertical centreline depth of 150 mm when mounted in the appropriate housing.

4.3.2.3 Protection against large dust particles

Eye protectors for use against large dust particles shall be tested in accordance with the method

specified in EN 168:2001, Clause 13. The result shall be considered to be satisfactory if the reflectance

after the test is not less than 80 % of its value before the test.
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ISO 16073-7:2019(E)
4.3.2.4 Protection against gases and fine dust particles

Eye protectors for use against gases and fine dust particles shall be tested in accordance with the

method specified in EN 168:2001, Clause 14. They shall be regarded as satisfactory if no pink or

crimson coloration appears in the area covered by the eye protector. No account shall be taken of any

such coloration up to a distance of 6 mm inside the edges of the eye protector.
4.3.2.5 Lateral protection

Eye protectors claiming to provide lateral protection shall pass the lateral region coverage assessment

detailed in EN 168:2001, Clause 19.
4.3.3 Optional requirements
4.3.3.1 General

Optional requirements are specified for additional characteristics of eye protectors which can be found

to be beneficial to the user for operational reasons.
4.3.3.2 Resistance to surface damage by fine particles

If the surface of the lens or filter is claimed to be resistant to surface damage by flying fine particles,

the resulting values for wide angle scatter (haze) shall not exceed 8 % when tested in accordance with

ISO 18526-3:—, 7.4, and ISO 18526-2:—, 14.1.
NOTE This procedure does not assess resistance to abrasion.
4.3.3.3 Resistance to fogging of oculars

If oculars are described as resistant to fogging, they shall remain free from fogging for a minimum of

8 s when tested in accordance with EN 168:2001, Clause 16.

NOTE This test applies to the surface properties of the ocular material only and cannot provide a reliable

measure of eye protector performance in real use. Methods that assess the performance of complete devices are

under development and can be incorporated in a future revision of this document.
4.3.3.4 Oculars with enhanced reflectance in the infrared

Oculars that are claimed to have enhanced reflectance in the infrared shall have a mean spectral

reflectance greater than 60 % within the wavelength range 780 nm to 2 000 nm when measured in

accordance with EN 167:2001, Clause 8.
4.3.3.5 Protection against high-speed particles at extremes of temperature

Eye protectors intended to provide protection against high-speed particles at extremes of temperature

shall withstand the impact of a 6 mm nominal diameter steel ball of 0,86 g minimum mass, striking

the oculars and the lateral protection at one of the speeds given in Table 4. The impacts are carried

out within one minute after the eye protectors have been conditioned at extremes of temperature

(55 ± 2) °C and (−5 ± 2) °C using the method specified in EN 168:2001, Clause 9.

It shall not be possible for the ball to strike the lateral impact point without first striking the lateral

protection.
On so testing, the following defects shall not occur.

a) Ocular fracture: an ocular shall be considered to have fractured if it cracks through its entire

thickness into two or more pieces, or if more than 5 mg of the ocular material becomes detached

from the surface away from the one struck by the ball, or if the ball passes through the ocular.

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ISO 16073-7:2019(E)

b) Ocular deformation: an ocular shall be considered to have been deformed if a mark appears on the

white paper on the opposite side to that struck by the ball.

c) Ocular housing or frame failure: an ocular housing or frame shall be considered to have failed if it

separates into two or more pieces, or if it is no longer capable of holding an ocular in position, or if

an unbroken ocular detaches from the frame, or if the ball passes through the housing or frame.

d) Lateral protection failure: the lateral protection shall be considered to have failed if it fractures

through its entire thickness into two or more separate pieces, or if one or more particles becomes

detached from the surface remote from the impact point, or if it allows the ball to penetrate

completely, or if it partially or totally detaches from the eye protector, or if its component parts

become separated.
Eye protectors offering protection against high-
...

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