Petroleum and natural gas industries — Formulae and calculations for the properties of casing, tubing, drill pipe and line pipe used as casing or tubing

This document illustrates the formulae and templates necessary to calculate the various pipe properties given in International Standards, including — pipe performance properties, such as axial strength, internal pressure resistance and collapse resistance, — minimum physical properties, — product assembly force (torque), — product test pressures, — critical product dimensions related to testing criteria, — critical dimensions of testing equipment, and — critical dimensions of test samples. For formulae related to performance properties, extensive background information is also provided regarding their development and use. Formulae presented here are intended for use with pipe manufactured in accordance with ISO 11960 or API 5CT, ISO 11961 or API 5D, and ISO 3183 or API 5L, as applicable. These formulae and templates can be extended to other pipe with due caution. Pipe cold-worked during production is included in the scope of this document (e.g. cold rotary straightened pipe). Pipe modified by cold working after production, such as expandable tubulars and coiled tubing, is beyond the scope of this document. Application of performance property formulae in this document to line pipe and other pipe is restricted to their use as casing/tubing in a well or laboratory test, and requires due caution to match the heat-treat process, straightening process, yield strength, etc., with the closest appropriate casing/tubing product. Similar caution is exercised when using the performance formulae for drill pipe. This document and the formulae contained herein relate the input pipe manufacturing parameters in ISO 11960 or API 5CT, ISO 11961 or API 5D, and ISO 3183 or API 5L to expected pipe performance. The design formulae in this document are not to be understood as a manufacturing warranty. Manufacturers are typically licensed to produce tubular products in accordance with manufacturing specifications which control the dimensions and physical properties of their product. Design formulae, on the other hand, are a reference point for users to characterize tubular performance and begin their own well design or research of pipe input properties. This document is not a design code. It only provides formulae and templates for calculating the properties of tubulars intended for use in downhole applications. This document does not provide any guidance about loads that can be encountered by tubulars or about safety margins needed for acceptable design. Users are responsible for defining appropriate design loads and selecting adequate safety factors to develop safe and efficient designs. The design loads and safety factors will likely be selected based on historical practice, local regulatory requirements, and specific well conditions. All formulae and listed values for performance properties in this document assume a benign environment and material properties conforming to ISO 11960 or API 5CT, ISO 11961 or API 5D and ISO 3183 or API 5L. Other environments can require additional analyses, such as that outlined in Annex D. Pipe performance properties under dynamic loads and pipe connection sealing resistance are excluded from the scope of this document. Throughout this document tensile stresses are positive.

Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel — Formules et calculs relatifs aux propriétés des tubes de cuvelage, des tubes de production, des tiges de forage et des tubes de conduites utilisés comme tubes de cuvelage et tubes de production

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ISO/TR 10400:2018 - Petroleum and natural gas industries -- Formulae and calculations for the properties of casing, tubing, drill pipe and line pipe used as casing or tubing
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REPORT 10400
Second edition
Petroleum and natural gas
industries — Formulae and
calculations for the properties of
casing, tubing, drill pipe and line pipe
used as casing or tubing
Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel — Formules et calculs relatifs
aux propriétés des tubes de cuvelage, des tubes de production, des
tiges de forage et des tubes de conduites utilisés comme tubes de
cuvelage et tubes de production
Reference number
ISO/TR 10400:2018(E)
ISO 2018

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ISO/TR 10400:2018(E)

© ISO 2018
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may
be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting
on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address
below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved

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ISO/TR 10400:2018(E)

Contents Page
Foreword .vi
Introduction .vii
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 2
3 Terms and definitions . 2
4 Symbols . 4
5 Conformance .13
5.1 References .13
5.2 Units of measurement . .13
6 Triaxial yield of pipe body .13
6.1 General .13
6.2 Assumptions and limitations .13
6.2.1 General.13
6.2.2 Concentric, circular cross-sectional geometry .14
6.2.3 Isotropic yield . .14
6.2.4 No residual stress .14
6.2.5 Cross-sectional instability (collapse) and axial instability (column buckling) .14
6.3 Data requirements .14
6.4 Design formula for triaxial yield of pipe body .14
6.5 Application of design formula for triaxial yield of pipe body to line pipe .16
6.6 Example calculations .16
6.6.1 Initial yield of pipe body, Lamé formula for pipe when external pressure,
bending and torsion are zero .16
6.6.2 Yield design formula, special case for thin wall pipe with internal pressure
only and zero axial load .18
6.6.3 Pipe body yield strength .18
6.6.4 Yield in the absence of bending and torsion .19
7 Ductile rupture of the pipe body .20
7.1 General .20
7.2 Assumptions and limitations .20
7.3 Data requirements .21
7.3.1 General.21
7.3.2 Determination of the hardening index.21
7.3.3 Determination of the burst strength factor, k .
a 22
7.4 Design formula for capped-end ductile rupture .23
7.5 Adjustment for the effect of axial force and external pressure .24
7.5.1 General.24
7.5.2 Design formula for ductile rupture under combined loads .25
7.5.3 Design formula for ductile necking under combined loads .26
7.5.4 Boundary between rupture and necking .27
7.5.5 Axisymmetric wrinkling under combined loads .27
7.6 Example calculations .28
7.6.1 Ductile rupture of an end-capped pipe .28
7.6.2 Ductile rupture for a given true axial load .28
8 External pressure resistance .29
8.1 General .29
8.2 Assumptions and limitations .29
8.3 Data requirements .29
8.4 Design formula for collapse of pipe body .30
8.4.1 General.30
8.4.2 Yield strength collapse pressure formula .30
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ISO/TR 10400:2018(E)

8.4.3 Plastic collapse pressure formula .31
8.4.4 Transition collapse pressure formula .33
8.4.5 Elastic collapse pressure formula .34
8.4.6 Collapse pressure under axial tensile stress .35
8.4.7 Collapse pressure under axial stress and internal pressure .35
8.5 Formulae for empirical constants .35
8.5.1 General.35
8.5.2 SI units .36
8.5.3 USC units .36
8.6 Application of collapse pressure formulae to line pipe .37
8.7 Example calculations .37
9 Joint strength .37
9.1 General .37
9.2 API casing connection tensile joint strength .37
9.2.1 General.37
9.2.2 Round thread casing joint strength .38
9.2.3 Buttress thread casing joint strength.40
9.3 API tubing connection tensile joint strength .42
9.3.1 General.42
9.3.2 Non-upset tubing joint strength .42
9.3.3 Upset tubing joint strength .43
9.4 Line pipe connection joint strength .44
10 Pressure performance for couplings .44
10.1 General .44
10.2 Internal yield pressure of round thread and buttress couplings .44
10.3 Internal pressure leak resistance of round thread or buttress couplings .45
11 Calculated masses .48
11.1 General .48
11.2 Nominal linear masses .48
11.3 Calculated plain-end mass .48
11.4 Calculated finished-end mass.49
11.5 Calculated threaded and coupled mass .49
11.5.1 General.49
11.5.2 Direct calculation of e , threaded and coupled pipe .50
11.6 Calculated upset and threaded mass for integral joint tubing .50
11.6.1 General.50
11.6.2 Direct calculation of e , upset and threaded pipe .51
11.7 Calculated upset mass .51
11.7.1 General.51
11.7.2 Direct calculation of e , upset pipe .52
11.8 Calculated coupling mass .52
11.8.1 General.52
11.8.2 Calculated coupling mass for line pipe and round thread casing and tubing .52
11.8.3 Calculated coupling mass for buttress thread casing .55
11.9 Calculated mass removed during threading .56
11.9.1 General.56
11.9.2 Calculated mass removed during threading pipe or pin ends .56
11.9.3 Calculated mass removed during threading integral joint tubing box ends .58
11.10 Calculated mass of upsets .59
11.10.1 General.59
11.10.2 Calculated mass of external upsets .59
11.10.3 Calculated mass of internal upsets .60
11.10.4 Calculated mass of external-internal upsets .61
12 Elongation .61
13 Flattening tests .62
13.1 Flattening tests for casing and tubing .62
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ISO/TR 10400:2018(E)

13.2 Flattening tests for line pipe.62
14 Hydrostatic test pressures .63
14.1 Hydrostatic test pressures for plain-end pipe and integral joint tubing .63
14.2 Hydrostatic test pressure for threaded and coupled pipe .64
15 Make-up torque for round thread casing and tubing .64
16 Guided bend tests for submerged arc-welded line pipe.65
16.1 General .65
16.2 Background .67
16.2.1 Values of ε .67
16.2.2 Values of A .67
17 Determination of minimum impact specimen size for API couplings and pipe .67
17.1 Critical thickness .67
17.2 Calculated coupling blank thickness .68
17.3 Calculated wall thickness for transverse specimens .71
17.4 Calculated wall thickness for longitudinal specimens .71
17.5 Minimum specimen size for API couplings .71
17.6 Impact specimen size for pipe .73
17.7 Larger size specimens .73
17.8 Reference information .74
Annex A (informative) Discussion of formulae for triaxial yield of pipe body .75
Annex B (informative) Discussion of formulae for ductile rupture .88
Annex C (informative) Rupture test procedure .126
Annex D (informative) Discussion of formulae for fracture .128
Annex E (informative) Discussion of historical collapse formulae .135
Annex F (informative) Development of probabilistic collapse performance properties.149
Annex G (informative) Calculation of design collapse strength from collapse test data .188
Annex H (informative) Calculation of design collapse strengths from production quality data.191
Annex I (informative) Collapse test procedure .205
Annex J (informative) Discussion of formulae for joint strength .211
Annex K (informative) Tables of calculated performance properties in SI units .219
Annex L (informative) Tables of calculated performance properties in USC units .221
Bibliography .223
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ISO/TR 10400:2018(E)

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards
bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out
through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical
committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International
organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.
ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of
electrotechnical standardization.
The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are
described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the
different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the
editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of
any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or
on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).
Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not
constitute an endorsement.
For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and
expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the
World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso
.org/iso/foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 67, Materials, equipment and offshore
structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries, Subcommittee SC 5, Casing, tubing
and drill pipe.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/TR 10400:2007), which has been
technically revised.
Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A
complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved

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ISO/TR 10400:2018(E)

Performance design of tubulars for the petroleum and natural gas industries, whether it is formulated
by deterministic or probabilistic calculations, compares anticipated loads to which the tubular can
be subjected to the anticipated resistance of the tubular to each load. Either or both of the load and
resistance can be modified by a design factor.
Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches to performance properties are addressed in this
document. The deterministic approach uses specific geometric and material property values to calculate
a single performance property value. The probabilistic method treats the same variables as random
and thus arrives at a statistical distribution of a performance property. A performance distribution in
combination with a defined lower percentile determines the final design formula.
Both the well design process itself and the definition of anticipated loads are currently outside the scope
of standardization for the petroleum and natural gas industries. Neither of these aspects is addressed
in this document. Rather, it serves to identify useful formulae for obtaining the resistance of a tubular
to specified loads, independent of their origin. It provides limit state formulae (see annexes) which are
useful for determining the resistance of an individual sample whose geometric and material properties
are given, and design formulae which are useful for well design based on conservative geometric and
material parameters.
Whenever possible, decisions on specific constants to use in a design formula are left to the discretion
of the reader.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved vii

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Petroleum and natural gas industries — Formulae and
calculations for the properties of casing, tubing, drill pipe
and line pipe used as casing or tubing
1 Scope
This document illustrates the formulae and templates necessary to calculate the various pipe properties
given in International Standards, including
— pipe performanc

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