Safety of toys — Part 1: Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties

Sécurité des jouets — Partie 1: Aspects de sécurité relatifs aux propriétés mécaniques et physiques

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Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
22-Mar-2000
Withdrawal Date
22-Mar-2000
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
11-Mar-2009
Completion Date
11-Mar-2009
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ISO 8124-1:2000 - Safety of toys
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8124-1
First edition
2000-04-01
Safety of toys —
Part 1:
Safety aspects related to mechanical and
physical properties
Sécuritédesjouets—
Partie 1: Aspects de sécurité relatifs aux propriétés mécaniques et
physiques
Reference number
ISO 8124-1:2000(E)
ISO 2000
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ISO 8124-1:2000(E)
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ii © ISO 2000 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-1:2000(E)
Contents Page

Foreword......................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ..............................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................................................2

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................3

4 Requirements...............................................................................................................................................10

4.1 Normal use (see E.2)....................................................................................................................................10

4.2 Reasonably foreseeable abuse (see E.3) ..................................................................................................10

4.3 Material .........................................................................................................................................................10

4.4 Small parts (see E.6)....................................................................................................................................10

4.5 Shape, size and strength of certain toys (see E.7)...................................................................................11

4.6 Edges (see E.11)...........................................................................................................................................12

4.7 Points (see E.12) ..........................................................................................................................................13

4.8 Projections (see E.13)..................................................................................................................................14

4.9 Metal wires and rods (see E.14)..................................................................................................................14

4.10 Plastic film or plastic bags in packaging and in toys (see E.15) ............................................................14

4.11 Cords and elastics (see E.16) .....................................................................................................................15

4.12 Folding mechanisms ...................................................................................................................................16

4.13 Holes, clearances and accessibility of mechanisms ...............................................................................18

4.14 Springs (see E.25)........................................................................................................................................19

4.15 Stability and overload requirements..........................................................................................................19

4.16 Enclosures (see E.30)..................................................................................................................................20

4.17 Simulated protective equipment, such as helmets, hats and goggles (see E.31) ................................21

4.18 Projectile toys (see E.32).............................................................................................................................21

4.19 Aquatic toys (see E.33)................................................................................................................................23

4.20 Braking (see E.34)........................................................................................................................................23

4.21 Toy bicycles (see 4.13.3 and E.35)..............................................................................................................23

4.22 Speed limitation of electrically driven ride-on toys (see E.36)................................................................24

4.23 Toys containing a heat source...................................................................................................................25

4.24 Liquid-filled toys (see E.37) ........................................................................................................................25

4.25 Mouth-actuated toys (see E.38)..................................................................................................................25

4.26 Toy roller skates and toy skateboards ......................................................................................................25

4.27 Percussion caps (see E.39).........................................................................................................................26

5 Test methods................................................................................................................................................26

5.1 General..........................................................................................................................................................26

5.2 Small parts test (see 4.3.2, 4.4, 4.18.2 and 4.25)........................................................................................26

5.3 Test for shape and size of certain toys (see 4.5.1)...................................................................................27

5.4 Small balls test (see 4.5.2) ..........................................................................................................................28

5.5 Test for pompoms (see 4.5.3) .....................................................................................................................29

5.6 Test for preschool play figures (see 4.5.4)................................................................................................29

5.7 Accessibility of a part or component (see 4.6, 4.7, 4.13, 4.14 and A.2.3) ...............................................29

5.8 Sharp edge test (see 4.6 and 4.9)................................................................................................................31

5.9 Sharp point test (see 4.7 and 4.9) ...............................................................................................................32

5.10 Determination of thickness of plastic film and sheeting (see 4.10)........................................................34

5.11 Test for cords...............................................................................................................................................34

5.12 Stability and overload tests (see 4.15).......................................................................................................35

5.13 Test for closures and toy chest lids (see 4.16.2)......................................................................................36

5.14 Impact test for toys that cover the face (see 4.17) ...................................................................................37

5.15 Kinetic energy of projectiles, bows and arrows (see 4.18)......................................................................37

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ISO 8124-1:2000(E)

5.16 Free-wheeling facility and brake performance test..................................................................................39

5.17 Determination of speed of electrically driven ride-on toys (see 4.22)....................................................40

5.18 Determination of temperature increases (see 4.23) .................................................................................40

5.19 Leakage of liquid-filled toys (see 4.24) ......................................................................................................40

5.20 Durability of mouth-actuated toys (see 4.25) ............................................................................................40

5.21 Expanding materials (see 4.3.2) .................................................................................................................40

5.22 Folding or sliding mechanisms..................................................................................................................41

5.23 Washable toys (see 4.1)...............................................................................................................................42

5.24 Reasonably foreseeable abuse tests (see 4.2)..........................................................................................42

Annex A (normative) Battery-operated toys...........................................................................................................48

Annex B (informative) Age-grading guidelines ......................................................................................................51

Annex C (informative) Safety-labelling guidelines and manufacturer's markings .............................................55

Annex D (informative) Design guidelines for toys attached to cribs or playpens..............................................60

Annex E (informative) Rationale ..............................................................................................................................61

Annex F (informative) Acoustics..............................................................................................................................70

Bibliography ..............................................................................................................................................................79

iv © ISO 2000 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-1:2000(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO

member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical

committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has

the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in

liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical

Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.

Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this part of ISO 8124 may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard ISO 8124-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 181, Safety of toys.

ISO 8124 consists of the following parts, under the general title Safety of toys:

Part 1: Safety aspects of mechanical and physical properties
Part 2: Flammability
Part 3: Migration of certain elements

Annex A forms a normative part of this part of ISO 8124. Annexes B, C, D, E and F are for information only.

© ISO 2000 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 8124-1:2000(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO 8124 is largely based upon existing standards in the European Union (EN 71-1) and in the United

States (ASTM F963).

However, it should not be construed that a toy manufactured in compliance with this part of ISO 8124 will be in full

compliance with relevant national toy safety requirements in the market where the product is intended to be

distributed. The user of this part of ISO 8124 is therefore advised to be aware of relevant national requirements.

Compliance with the requirements of this part of ISO 8124 will minimize potential hazards associated with toys

resulting from their use in their intended play modes (normal use) as well as unintended play modes (reasonably

foreseeable abuse).

This part of ISO 8124 will not, nor is it intended to, eliminate parental responsibility in the appropriate selection of

toys. In addition, this part of ISO 8124 will not eliminate the need for parental supervision in situations where

children of various ages may have access to the same toy(s).

This part of ISO 8124 includes normative annex A, Battery-operated toys. When IEC 62115 [14] is published,

consideration will be given to replacing annex A by a reference to it. Annexes B, C, D, E and F are for information

only but are crucial for the correct interpretation of the standard.

Pending approval of additional acoustic requirements and test methods in the ASTM standard F963 (expected first

half of year 2000) and experience gained from application of EN 71-1, including further validation of the test

methods, the acoustic requirements and test methods in EN 71-1 are given as information in annex F. When the

levels in the requirements and test methods have been evaluated and validated, the acoustic requirements will be

added, as a normative part, to this part of ISO 8124 as soon as possible.
vi © ISO 2000 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8124-1:2000(E)
Safety of toys —
Part 1:
Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties
1 Scope

The requirements in this part of ISO 8124 apply to all toys, i.e. any product or material designed or clearly intended

for use in play by children under 14 years of age. They are applicable to a toy as it is initially received by the

consumer and, in addition, they apply after a toy is subjected to reasonably foreseeable conditions of normal use

and abuse unless specifically noted otherwise.

The requirements of this part of ISO 8124 specify acceptable criteria for structural characteristics of toys, such as

shape, size, contour, spacing (e.g. rattles, small parts, sharp points and edges, hinge-line clearances) as well as

acceptable criteria for properties peculiar to certain categories of toy (e.g. maximum kinetic energy values for non-

resilient-tipped projectiles, minimum tip angles for certain ride-on toys).

This part of ISO 8124 specifies requirements and test methods for toys intended for use by children in various age

groups from birth to 14 years. The requirements vary according to the age group for which a particular toy is

intended. The requirements for a particular age group reflect the nature of the hazards and the expected mental

and/or physical abilities of the child to cope with them.

This part of ISO 8124 also requires that appropriate warnings and/or instructions for use be given on certain toys or

their packaging. Due to linguistic problems that may occur in different countries, the wording of these warnings and

instructions is not specified but given as general information in annex C. It should be noted that different legal

requirements exist in many countries with regard to such marking.

This part of ISO 8124 does not purport to cover or include every conceivable potential hazard of a particular toy or

toy category. Except for labelling requirements indicating the functional hazards and the age range for which the

toy is intended, this part of ISO 8124 has no requirements for those characteristics of toys that represent an

inherent and recognized hazard that is integral to the function of the toy.

NOTE An example of such a hazard is the sharp point necessary for the proper function of a needle. The needle is a

hazard that is well understood by the purchaser of a toy sewing kit, and the functional sharp point hazard is communicated to

the user as part of the normal educational process as well as at the point of purchase by means of cautionary labelling on the

product’s packaging.

As a further example, a toy scooter has inherent and recognized hazards associated with its use (e.g. instability during use,

especially whilst learning). The potential hazards associated with its structural characteristics (sharp edges, pinch hazards, etc.)

will be minimized by compliance with the requirements of this part of ISO 8124.
Products not included within the scope of this part of ISO 8124 are

a) bicycles, except for those considered to be toys, i.e. those having a maximum saddle height of 435 mm (see

E.1);
b) slingshots;
NOTE “Slingshots” are also known as “catapults”
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ISO 8124-1:2000(E)
c) darts with metal points;
d) home and public playground equipment;
e) compressed air and gas operated guns and pistols (see E.1);

f) kites (except for the electric resistance of their strings, which is included);

g) model kits, hobby and craft items in which the finished item is not primarily of play value;

h) sporting goods and equipment, camping goods, athletic equipment, musical instruments and furniture;

however, toys that are their counterparts are included.

It is recognized that there is often a fine distinction between, for example, a musical instrument or a sporting

item and its toy counterpart. The intention of the manufacturer or distributor, as well as normal use and

reasonably foreseeable abuse, determines whether the item is a toy counterpart or not;

i) models of aircraft, rockets, boats and land vehicles powered by combustion engines; however, toys that are

their counterparts are included (see E.1);
j) collectible products not intended for children under 14 years of age;
k) holiday decorations that are primarily intended for ornamental purposes;
l) aquatic equipment intended to be used in deep water;
m) toys installed in public places (e.g. arcades and shopping centres);
n) puzzles having more than 500 pieces or without a picture, for specialists;

o) fireworks including percussion caps, except percussion caps specifically designed for toys;

p) products containing heating elements intended for use under the supervision of an adult in a teaching context;

q) steam engines;

r) video toys that can be connected to a video screen and operated at a nominal voltage greater than 24 V;

s) babies’ pacifiers (dummies);
t) faithful reproduction of firearms;

u) electric ovens, irons or other functional products operated at a nominal voltage greater than 24 V;

v) bows for archery with an overall relaxed length exceeding 120 cm;
w) fashion jewellery for children (see E.1).
2 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of

this part of ISO 8124. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications

do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this part of ISO 8124 are encouraged to investigate the

possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated

references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC maintain

registers of currently valid International Standards.
2 © ISO 2000 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-1:2000(E)

ISO 868:1985, Plastics and ebonite — Determination of indentation hardness by means of a durometer (Shore

hardness).

ISO 4287-2:1997, Surface roughness — Terminology — Part 2: Measurement of surface roughness parameters.

ISO 4593:1993, Plastics — Film and sheeting — Determination of thickness by mechanical scanning.

ISO 6508-1:1999, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 1: Test method (scales A, B, C, D, E, F, G,

H, K, N, T).
3 Terms and definitions

NOTE Whenever the term “months” is used in this part of ISO 8124, it denotes that the designated number of months is

completed (i.e. 18 months means up to and including 18 full months of age).

For the purposes of this part of ISO 8124, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1
accessible

�part or component� describing any area of the toy that can be contacted by any portion forward of the collar of the

accessibility probe as described in 5.7
3.2
aquatic toy

article, whether inflatable or not, intended to bear the mass of a child and used as an instrument of play in shallow

water
NOTE Bathroom toys and beach balls are not considered aquatic toys.
3.3
ball

spherical, ovoid, or ellipsoidal object designed or intended to be thrown, hit, kicked, rolled, dropped or bounced

NOTE 1 This definition includes balls attached to a toy or article by a string, elastic cord or similar tether and also any multi-

sided object formed by connecting planes into, and any novelty item of, a generally spherical ovoid or ellipsoidal shape

designed or intended to be used as a ball.

NOTE 2 This definition does not include dice, or balls permanently enclosed inside pinball machines, mazes, or similar outer

containers. A ball is permanently enclosed if, when tested according to 5.24 (reasonably foreseeable abuse), it is not removed

from the outer container.
3.4
backing
material adhering to flexible plastic sheeting
3.5
battery-operated toy

toy having at least one function dependent on electricity and powered by batteries

3.6
burr
roughness caused by not cleanly severing or finishing the material
3.7
collapse
sudden or unexpected folding of a structure
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ISO 8124-1:2000(E)
3.8
cord
length of slender, flexible material

EXAMPLES Monofilaments, woven and twisted cord, rope, plastic textile tapes, ribbon and those fibrous materials known

as string.
3.9
crushing
injury to part of the body resulting from compression between two rigid surfaces
3.10
discharge mechanism
inanimate system for releasing and propelling a projectile
3.11
driving mechanism

assembly of linked parts or components (e.g. gears, belts, winding mechanisms), at least one of which moves,

powered by a source (e.g. electrical or mechanical means) independent of the child

3.12
edge
line, formed at the junction of two surfaces, whose length exceeds 2,0 mm
3.12.1
curled edge

edge in which the portion of the sheet adjacent to the edge is bent into an arc and forms an angle of less than 90�

with the base sheet
SeeFigure1.
3.12.2
hemmed edge

edge in which the portion of the sheet adjacent to the edge is folded back on the sheet itself through an angle of

approximately 180�, so that the portion of the sheet adjacent to the edge is approximately parallel to the main sheet

SeeFigure1.
3.12.3
rolled edge

edge in which the portion of the sheet adjacent to the edge is bent into an arc and forms an angle between 90� and

120� with the main sheet
SeeFigure1.
3.13
expanding material
material whose volume expands when exposed to water
3.14
fastener
mechanical device which attaches two or more elements together
EXAMPLE Screws, rivets, staples.
3.15
feathering

bevelling of an edge (or decrease in thickness moving toward the edge) caused during shearing or cutting of

material
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ISO 8124-1:2000(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
b) Hemmed (folded) edge
a) Rolled edge
d) Typical lap joint
c) Curled edge
No limit.
Figure 1 — Edges
3.16
flash
excess material that escapes between the mating parts of a mould assembly
3.17
folding mechanism

hinged, pivoted, folding or sliding assembly that could crush, scissor, pinch or shear during operation

EXAMPLE Toy ironing boards, toy pushchairs.
3.18
functional toy

toy which performs and is used in the same way as, and is often a scale model of, a certain product, appliance or

installation intended for adults
EXAMPLE Stove with heating properties.
3.19
fuzz

bits of fibrous-type material that can be readily removed from toys with a pile surface

3.20
glass

hard, brittle, amorphous substance produced by fusion, usually consisting of mutually dissolved silica and silicates

that also contain soda and lime
3.21
harm

physical injury or damage to the health of people or damage to property or the environment

3.22
hazard
potential source of harm

NOTE The term hazard can be qualified in order to define its origin or the nature of the expected harm (i.e. electric shock

hazard, crushing hazard, cutting hazard, toxic hazard, fire hazard, drowning hazard).

© ISO 2000 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 8124-1:2000(E)
3.23
hazardous projection

projection that, because of its material or configuration or both, may present a puncture hazard should a child step

on or fall onto it

NOTE 1 Excluded from this definition are puncture hazards to the eyes and/or mouth, because of the impossibility of

eliminating puncture hazards to those areas of the body by product design.

NOTE 2 If the projection is on a small toy which topples over when pressure is applied to the end of the projection, it is

unlikely to present a hazard.
3.24
hazardous sharp edge

accessible edge of a toy that presents an unreasonable risk of injury during normal use and reasonably

foreseeable abuse
3.25
hazardous sharp point

accessible point of a toy that presents an unreasonable risk of injury during normal use or reasonably foreseeable

abuse
3.26
hinge-line clearance

distance between the stationary portion of a toy and the movable portion along or adjacent to a line projected

through the axis of rotation
SeeFigure2.
3.27
intended use

use of a product, process or service in accordance with information provided by the supplier

Key
1 Hinge line l = Hinge-line clearance
2Lid
3Box
Figure 2 — Hinge-line clearance
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ISO 8124-1:2000(E)
3.28
lap joint

joint in which an edge overlaps a parallel surface but is not necessarily mechanically attached to it at all points

along the length
SeeFigure1.
3.29
large and bulky toy
2 3

toy that has a projected base area of more than 0,26 m or a volume of more than 0,08 m calculated without

regard to minor appendages

NOTE The base area for toys having permanently attached legs is measured by calculating the area enclosed by straight

lines connecting the outermost edge of each leg of the perimeter.
3.30
marble

sphere made of hard material, such as glass, agate, marble or plastic, that is used in various children’s games,

generally as a playing piece or marker
3.31
metal
material comprising elemental metal and/or metal alloys
3.32
normal use

play modes that conform to the instructions that accompany the toy, that have been established by tradition or

custom, or that are evident from an examination of the toy
3.33
packaging

material accompanying the toy when purchased, but having no intended play function

3.34
paper

material, marketed as either paper or paperboard, with a maximum areic mass of 400 g/m

3.35
play furniture

furniture intended for use by a child and intended to, or likely to, support the mass of a child

3.36
pompom

lengths or strands of fibre, yarns or threads clamped or secured and tied in the centre, and brushed up to form a

spherical shape

NOTE 1 This definition includes spherical-shaped attachments made of stuffed materials (see Figure 3).

NOTE 2 Tassels with long strands are not considered pompoms (see Figure 4).
Figure 3 — Regular and rounded pompoms
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ISO 8124-1:2000(E)
Figure 4 — Tassel with long strands
3.37
projectile
object intended to be launched into free flight, or a trajectory, in the air
3.38
projectile toy with stored energy

toy with a projectile propelled by means of a discharge mechanism capable of storing and releasing energy

...

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