Management of terminology resources -- TBX-compliant representation of concept relations and subject fields

This document provides requirements and recommendations for representing subject fields and concept relations in TBX-compliant terminological document instances. Examples in this document utilize the DCA style of TBX markup.

Gestion des ressources terminologiques -- Représentation des relations conceptuelles et des domaines conforme à TBX

Upravljanje terminoloških virov - Predstavitev konceptualnih razmerij in predmetnih področij skladna s TBX

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
02-Nov-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
27-Sep-2021
Completion Date
06-Oct-2021

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ISO/TS 24634:2021 - Management of terminology resources -- TBX-compliant representation of concept relations and subject fields
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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 24634
First edition
2021-11
Management of terminology
resources — TBX-compliant
representation of concept relations
and subject fields
Gestion des ressources terminologiques — Représentation des
relations conceptuelles et des domaines conforme à TBX
Reference number
ISO/TS 24634:2021(E)
© ISO 2021
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ISO/TS 24634:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 24634:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Subject fields ............................................................................................................................................................................................................3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Specifying the name of the subject-field classification ....................................................................................... 3

4.3 Defining the scope of subject-field values ...................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Hierarchy of subject fields ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.5 Representing subject-field values in concept entries ........................................................................................... 6

4.5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.5.2 Referencing the backmatter ..................................................................................................................................... 7

4.5.3 Expressing the position of the subject-field value in each entry ............................................. 7

4.6 Using a publicly available subject-field classification .......................................................................................... 7

5 Representing subject-field classifications in the backmatter ............................................................................. 8

6 Concept relations ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.1 Typology of concept relations ................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 TBX markup .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

Annex A (informative) Typology of associative concept relations....................................................................................11

Annex B (informative) Markup samples .......................................................................................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

iii
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 24634:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 3, Management of terminology resources.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 24634:2021(E)
Introduction

This document describes best practices for specifying subject fields and concept relations in terminology

databases (termbases). It also demonstrates how to represent subject fields and concept relations in

terminological document instances in a way that is compliant with ISO 30042.

Concept relations for specific TBX dialects are specified in the form of dedicated TBX modules. Subject

fields can be declared in the TBX backmatter or implemented through an XML namespace. This

document is intended to maximize interoperability of these types of information.

Throughout this document, reference is made to data categories (DCs). To maximize interoperability,

it is essential that termbases use the same DCs, as described in this document, for the same purposes.

[2]

DatCatInfo is a publicly available electronic repository of data category specifications. Data categories

used in the examples in this document are taken from DatCatInfo.
This document complements ISO 30042.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 24634:2021(E)
Management of terminology resources — TBX-compliant
representation of concept relations and subject fields
1 Scope

This document provides requirements and recommendations for representing subject fields and

concept relations in TBX-compliant terminological document instances. Examples in this document

utilize the DCA style of TBX markup.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1087, Terminology work and terminology science — Vocabulary

ISO 12620-1 , Management of terminology resources — Data categories — Part 1: Specifications

ISO 12620-2 , Management of terminology resources — Data categories — Part 2: Repositories

ISO 30042, Management of terminology resources — TermBase eXchange (TBX)

W3C, SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System Reference, W3C Recommendation 18 August 2009.

Available at: https:// www .w3 .org/ TR/ skos -reference/
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1087, ISO 12620-1, ISO 12620-2,

ISO 30042 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
concept relation
relation between concepts
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.11]
3.2
hierarchical relation
hierarchical concept relation
generic relation (3.3) or partitive relation (3.4)
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.12]
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 12620-1:2021.
2) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 12620-2:2021.
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ISO/TS 24634:2021(E)
3.3
generic relation
generic concept relation
genus-species relation

concept relation (3.1) between a generic concept and a specific concept where the intension of the

specific concept includes the intension of the generic concept plus at least one additional delimiting

characteristic
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.13, modified — Example and Notes to entry omitted.]
3.4
partitive relation
partitive concept relation
part-whole relation
part-of relation
concept relation (3.1) between a comprehensive concept and a partitive concept
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.14, modified — Example omitted.]
3.5
associative relation
associative concept relation
pragmatic relation
non-hierarchical concept relation (3.1)
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.23, modified — Example omitted.]
3.6
concept entry
terminological entry

part of a terminological data collection which contains the terminological data related to one concept

[SOURCE: ISO 30042:2019, 3.5, modified — Term “entry” omitted.]
3.7
data category

class of data items that are closely related from a formal or semantic point of view

EXAMPLE /part of speech/, /subject field/, /definition/.

Note 1 to entry: A data category can be viewed as a generalization of the notion of a field in a database.

Note 2 to entry: In running text, such as in this document, data categories are enclosed in forward slashes

(e.g. /part of speech/).
[SOURCE: ISO 30042:2019, 3.8]
3.8
picklist
list of permissible values of a closed data category (3.7)
3.9
subject field
domain
field of special knowledge

[SOURCE: ISO 10241-1:2011, 3.3.1, modified — “subject field” is the preferred term, and Notes to entry

omitted.]
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ISO/TS 24634:2021(E)
3.10
subject-field classification

organization of the subject fields (3.9) and subfields dealt with in a terminological data collection (3.12)

into a logical structure
3.11
termbase
terminology database
database comprising a terminological data collection (3.12)
[SOURCE: ISO 30042:2019, 3.28]
3.12
terminological data collection

resource consisting of concept entries (3.6) with associated metadata and documentary information

EXAMPLE A TBX document instance.

[SOURCE: ISO 30042:2019, 3.29, modified — Admitted term “TDC” omitted, and example “ISO 1087”

omitted.]
4 Subject fields
4.1 General

Terminology databases (termbases), particularly large ones, frequently need to be organized according

to subject fields. In this case, there may be a /subject field/ data category at the concept level (this is

implemented as a element).

A picklist shall be used as the content model for subject fields. If the organization in question has a

taxonomy that reflects its field of activity, the subject-field classification should reflect that taxonomy

if appropriate.

Subject-field classifications can be declared in the backmatter of a TBX document instance, or through

an XML namespace. In this document, the backmatter approach is described. The XML namespace

approach requires a DCT style of TBX markup and can be modelled in parallel to the backmatter method.

A given TBX document instance can use more than one subject-field classification.

4.2 Specifying the name of the subject-field classification

The name of the subject-field classification used in a TBX document instance shall be declared in the

TBX header.
EXAMPLE 1



Termbase from ABC company


ABC Subject-Field Classification




Additional information about the subject field shall be provided in the backmatter, as described in

subsequent sections of this document. For this purpose, the id attribute acts as a unique pointer to the

relevant section in the backmatter.
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ISO/TS 24634:2021(E)

When more than one subject-field classification is used in a TBX document instance, the additional

name declaration shall be provided.
EXAMPLE 2



Termbase from ABC company


ABC Subject-Field Classification

DEF Subject-Field Classification




If the additional subject-field classification is a result of the merging of two termbases, the name of the

termbase may also be provided.
EXAMPLE 3



Termbase from ABC company


ABC Subject-Field Classification

Termbase from DEF company


DEF Subject-Field Classification




4.3 Defining the scope of subject-field values

Terminologists and other users of termbases often find it difficult to determine which subject field a

concept should be assigned to. This is largely because historically the scope and meaning of subject

fields themselves have not been defined for the users. Therefore, it is recommended that a clear

description of the scope of each subject field be available to users of the termbase. In this document, a

method is described for recording this information in the backmatter of a TBX document instance.

[3] [4]

Some termbases use a publicly available subject-field classification, such as EuroVoc or Lenoch .

These sources provide descriptions of the scope and meaning of their subject fields, and therefore, it is

recommended to avoid duplicating this information in a termbase.

Termbases that adopt a unique subject-field classification should include information about the scope of

the subject-field values in the backmatter of the TBX document instance.

In all cases, the subject-field description should be available or known to termbase users when they are

assigning a subject-field value to a terminological entry. Figure 1 shows an example of a subject-field

description from an existing termbase.
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ISO/TS 24634:2021(E)
Figure 1 — Sample description of a subject field
4.4 Hierarchy of subject fields

Frequently it is not sufficient to have a simple list of subject-field values without any parent/child

relationships (referred to as a “flat” list). For subsetting and search purposes, large termbases benefit

from a multi-level hierarchy of subject fields. Figure 2 shows a multi-level subject-field classification,

with Energy having two subordinate levels, and Environment and Natural Resources having one

subordinate level. Figure 3 shows another example from the field of mining.
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ISO/TS 24634:2021(E)
Figure 2 — Multi-level subject-field classification, sample 1
Figure 3 — Multi-level subject-field classification, sample 2
4.5 Representing subject-field values in concept entries
4.5.1 General

In a TBX document instance, the value of a subject field in a specific concept entry is indicated as the

content of a element with the "subjectField" type attribute value.
EXAMPLE 1
...

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