Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Test specification for electric propulsion components

This document specifies operating load tests and test criteria for motor and inverter designed as a voltage class B electric propulsion system for electrically propelled road vehicles.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Aug-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
06-Aug-2019
Completion Date
29-Aug-2019
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ISO 21782-6:2019 - Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Test specification for electric propulsion components
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21782-6
First edition
2019-08
Electrically propelled road vehicles —
Test specification for electric
propulsion components —
Part 6:
Operating load testing of motor and
inverter
Reference number
ISO 21782-6:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 21782-6:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 21782-6:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Tests and requirements ................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

4.1 Operation endurance tests of motor .................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1.1 High acceleration/deceleration endurance test ................................................................................... 1

4.1.2 Maximum torque endurance test ...................................................................................................................... 6

4.1.3 Over speed test ...............................................................................................................................................................10

4.2 Operation endurance test of inverter ...............................................................................................................................14

4.2.1 Cyclic test .............................................................................................................................................................................14

4.3 Breakdown strength verification test of rotor ..........................................................................................................17

4.3.1 Spin test ................................................................................................................................................................................17

5 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Test report .......................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 21782-6:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO , also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO /IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO /IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO 's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO /TC 22, Road Vehicles, Subcommittee SC 37,

Electrically propelled vehicles.
A list of all parts in the ISO 21782 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21782-6:2019(E)
Electrically propelled road vehicles — Test specification
for electric propulsion components —
Part 6:
Operating load testing of motor and inverter
1 Scope

This document specifies operating load tests and test criteria for motor and inverter designed as a

voltage class B electric propulsion system for electrically propelled road vehicles.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 21782-1:2019, Electrically propelled road vehicles — Test specification for components for electric

propulsion — Part 1: General test conditions and definitions
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms, definitions and abbreviated terms given in

ISO 21782-1 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
4 Tests and requirements
4.1 Operation endurance tests of motor
4.1.1 High acceleration/deceleration endurance test
4.1.1.1 General

The purpose of this test is to evaluate and rank the strength for the components – bearing, end ring,

motor shaft key, rotor fixture, rotor, and position sensor – which are affected by mechanical fatigue by

repeating the intermittent maximum speed of motor. The test is set considering repeated operations

at the upper specification limits of the motor. Unless otherwise, the test method can be decided by the

supplier and customer.
4.1.1.2 Test diagram

The test diagram is shown in Figure 1. The test motor is operated by opposing dynamometer on the

motor test bench.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 21782-6:2019(E)
Key
1 DUT
2 motor
3 dynamometer
4 torque/speed detector
5 torque/speed meter
6 motor torque (in Nm)
7 motor speed (in min )
Figure 1 — Diagram for high acceleration/deceleration endurance test of motor
4.1.1.3 Test conditions
Test conditions are shown in Table 1.
Table 1 — Conditions for high acceleration/deceleration endurance test of motor
Test conditions Value Remark
Ambient Room temperature (RT) and humidity as defined
conditions in ISO 21782-1:2019, 5.4.

Coolant temperature Maximum temperature for unlimited operating — In case of liquid

capability cooling
— Ethylene glycol and
propylene glycol as
example of coolant
Coolant f low Liquid Minimum flow rate for unlimited operating
rate capability
Air Minimum flow rate for unlimited operating
capability
4.1.1.4 Test procedure

The test pattern is shown in Figure 2. Rotation in clockwise and counter-clockwise direction is repeated

at the maximum speed of the motor specifications. The load is no load.

The number of cycles shall be decided by agreement between the supplier and customer referring to

Table 2 or Table 3.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 21782-6:2019(E)
a) Test pattern for motor with bidirectional rotation
b) Test pattern for motor with single directional rotation
Key
t time (in s)
n motor speed (in min )
n maximum speed (in min )
s 1 cycle
t holding time (in s)
Figure 2 — High acceleration/deceleration endurance test pattern for motor

The acceleration rate in Figure 2 is equivalent to that of the targeted vehicle and is decided between

the supplier and customer. The time "t " at the maximum speed and zero speed shall be reduced to

a technically possible minimum (e.g. 1 s). In case of a motor with single directional rotation, only the

positive speed shall be considered as shown in Figure 2 b).

This test aims to evaluate mechanical endurance. Endurance is displayed according to the rank in

Table 2 in case of a motor with bidirectional rotation, and in Table 3 in case of a motor with single

directional rotation.
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ISO 21782-6:2019(E)

Table 2 — Number of cycles in high acceleration/deceleration endurance test for motor with

bidirectional rotation
Ranks Number of cycles
S 500 000
A 300 000
B 200 000
C 100 000

Table 3 — Number of cycles in high acceleration/deceleration endurance test for motor with

single directional rotation
Ranks Number of cycles
S 1 000 000
A 600 000
B 400 000
C 200 000
4.1.1.5 Test requirements
4.1.1.5.1 General

The cyclic test shall be started from C rank which is listed in Table 2 and Table 3 with the motor phases

open. Confirmation by energizing and disassembling shall be conducted after the high acceleration/

deceleration endurance test, in order to analyse and confirm that changes before and after energizing

are within the respective criteria listed in Table 4. If it is confirmed by agreement between the supplier

and customer that this motor is clearly of a higher proof than C rank, continue cyclic test to the next

upper rank. If the target cycle has been achieved, disassembling shall be conducted and the criteria

for disassembling are listed in Table 5. If failure has occurred during a cyclic test, the motor shall be

disassembled and analysed by agreement between the supplier and customer. The rank of the motor

shall be decided based on the results of energizing and post-test analysis. If changes before and after

energizing are not within the criteria listed in Table 5 or any failure or anomaly occurs post-test

analysis, the motor shall belong to a lower rank.
4.1.1.5.2 Energizing

Before conducting this test, the data of the test listed in Table 4 shall be obtained in order to be able to

compare the data before and after this test.
— Back electromotive force (back-EMF) measurement

The back-EMF of the motor is measured at the 10 % of maximum speed driven externally. They

shall be within ±5 % difference before and after the test.

NOTE If the type of DUT is different from a permanent magnet motor, this measurement can be omitted.

— Measurement of origin position and waveform of position sensor

The difference in the back-EMF waveform of the reference phase and the origin position of the

position sensor at the 10 % of maximum speed driven externally shall be measured. They shall be

within ±5° difference in electrical angle before and after the test.
— Torque – speed characteristics

The motor torque, motor input voltage, inverter output current, and motor speed shall be measured

using the load test bench at the operating point "a" and "c" of ISO 21782-1:2019, Figure 1. The

difference in torque before and after the test shall be within ±5 %.
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 21782-6:2019(E)
— Measurement of vibration

The generated vibrations of the motor during acceleration by the inverter to the maximum speed

shall be measured. The acceleration rate shall be adequately slow. The vibration data before and

after the test shall be compared to determine if there has been no significant increase. The changes

in the vibration values shall be judged by an agreement between the supplier and customer.

Criteria of energizing is shown in Table 4.
Table 4 — Criteria of energizing
Measurement items Condition Criteria
Back-EMF 10 % of maximum speed Within ±5 % difference before
and after the test
Origin position and waveform Specified speed Within ±5° difference in electri-
of position sensor cal angle before and after the test

Torque - speed characteristics Operating point "a" and "c" Within ±5 % difference in the

torque before and after the test
Vibration During acceleration to the max- No significant increase
imum speed by inverter
(acceleration rate: adequately
slow)
4.1.1.5.3 Disassembling

The motor shall be disassembled, and each part shall be investigated. The items and criteria are shown

in Table 5.

Differences which adversely affect motor performance shall not occur after disassembling. Details of

criteria shall be agreed by the supplier and customer.

NOTE Disassembling is optional and is agreed by the supplier and customer in case of abnormalities in the

non-destructive examinations.
Table 5 — Criteria of disassembling
Parts/places Details of investigation Criteria
Bearing Transferred side scratch, grease degra- Scratch not leading to noise
dation, creep
Grease degradation < reference value
No creep
End ring Deformation, crack No large deformation
No crack
Motor shaft key Deformation, wear No large deformation
No large wear
Rotor fixture Peeling off of adhesive deformation No peeling
(magnet, cage, etc.)
Outer circumference of Deformation, wear No large deformation
rotor
No large wear
(According to external size)

Position sensor Deviation of position (number of poles Allowable thrust displacement

is also indicated)
Allowable concentricity
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ISO 21782-6:2019(E)
4.1.2 Maximum torque endurance test
4.1.2.1 General

The purpose of this test is to evaluate and rank the strength for the components – motor shaft key, rotor

fixture, shaft tightening part, and stator fixtures – which are affected by mechanical fatigue by repeating

the intermittent maximum torque of the motor. The test is set considering repeated operations at the

upper specification limits of the motor. The test method can be decided by the supplier and customer.

4.1.2.2 Test diagram

The test diagram is shown in Figure 3. The test motor shall be operated at constant speed at the rated

voltage outlined in ISO 21782-1 on the motor test bench.
Key
1 DUT 7 motor torque (in Nm)
2 motor 8 motor speed (in min )
3 inverter 9 power meter
4 load 10 motor input current (in A)
5 torque/speed detector 11 thermometer
6 torque/speed meter 12 motor temperature (in °C)
Figure 3 — Diagram for maximum torque endurance test of motor
4.1.2.3 Test conditions
Test conditions are shown in Table 6.
Table 6 — Conditions for maximum torque endurance test of motor
Test conditions Value Remark
Ambient RT and humidity as defined in ISO 21782-
conditions 1:2019, 5.4.

Coolant temperature Maximum temperature for unlimited operating — In case of liquid

capability cooling
— Ethylene glycol and
propylene glycol as
example of coolant
6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 21782-6:2019(E)
Table 6 (continued)
Test conditions Value Remark
Coolant flow Liquid Minimum flow rate for unlimited operating
rate capability
Air Minimum flow rate for unlimited operating
capability
4.1.2.4 Test procedure

The test pattern is shown in Figure 4. The constant speed shall be set between operating point "d"

and "a" of ISO 21782-1:2019, Figure 1. The motor torque shall be operated on M and –M as shown

t=2 t=2

in Figure 4. Time parameter t , t and t in Figure 4 shall be as listed in Table 7. The tests shall be

1 2 3

conducted by repeating the number of cycles according to the corresponding rank shown in Table 8.

The temperature of each part of the motor shall be controlled so that they are substantially equal to the

saturation temperature during operation at permissible continuous load as shown in Figure 5.

NOTE To protect the torque meter, the test can be performed without it, after setting up the maximum

torque. In that case, torque meter can be replaced by power meter to measure motor input currents.

Key
t time (in s)
M torque (in Nm)
M maximum motoring torque for duration of t = 2 (in Nm)
t=2 0
-M maximum regenerating torque for duration of t = 2 (in Nm)
t=2 0
s 1 cycle
t , t , t time parameter
1 2 3
Figure 4 — Maximum torque endurance pattern for motor
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ISO 21782-6:2019(E)
Table 7 — Description of time parameter in Figure 4
Time
Requirements
parameters
t This shall be reduced to technically possible minimum.
t This should be shorter than 1 s.

t This shall be controlled so that the average output power becomes the same as the per-

missible continuous load of the motor.
Key
t time (in s)
M torque (in Nm)
T temperature (in °C)
M maximum motoring torque for duration of t = 2 (in Nm)
t=2 0
-M maximum regenerating torque for duration of t = 2 (in Nm)
t=2 0
T saturation temperature during rated output power operation (in °C)
1 motor torque
2 temperature of motor
Figure 5 — Long time span view of Figure 4
Table 8 — Number of cycles in maximum torque endurance test for motor
Ranks Number of cycles
S 2 000 000
A 1 000 000
B 500 000
C 300 000
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ISO 21782-6:2019(E)
4.1.2.5 Test requirements
4.1.2.5.1 General

The cyclic test shall be started from C rank which is listed in Table 8. Confirmation by energizing and

disassembling
...

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