Information technology -- Automatic identification and data capture techniques

This document defines the crypto suite for SIMON for the ISO/IEC 18000 air interfaces standards for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices. Its purpose is to provide a common crypto suite for security for RFID devices that can be referred by ISO committees for air interface standards and application standards. The crypto suite is defined in alignment with existing air interfaces. SIMON is a symmetric block cipher that is parameterized in both its block length and key length. In this standard, a variety of block/key length options are supported. This document defines various methods of use for the cipher. A Tag and an Interrogator can support one, a subset, or all of the specified options, clearly stating what is supported.

Technologies de l'information -- Techniques automatiques d'identification et de capture de données

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Publication Date
17-Oct-2018
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6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
23-Sep-2018
Completion Date
18-Oct-2018
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 29167-21
First edition
2018-10
Information technology — Automatic
identification and data capture
techniques —
Part 21:
Crypto suite SIMON security services
for air interface communications
Technologies de l'information — Techniques automatiques
d'identification et de capture de données —
Partie 21: Services de sécurité par suite cryptographique SIMON pour
communications par interface radio
Reference number
ISO/IEC 29167-21:2018(E)
ISO/IEC 2018
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ISO/IEC 29167-21:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 29167-21:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms ....................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 Air interface protocol specific information .................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Interrogator conformance and obligations .................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Tag conformance and obligations ........................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Introducing the SIMON cryptographic suite ............................................................................................................................ 4

6 Parameter and variable definitions ................................................................................................................................................. 4

7 Crypto suite state diagram ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8 Initialization and resetting ........................................................................................................................................................................ 6

9 Authentication ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

9.2 Message and response formatting ......................................................................................................................................... 6

9.3 Tag authentication (AuthMethod “00”) ............................................................................................................................. 7

9.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

9.3.2 TAM1 message ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

9.3.3 Intermediate Tag processing ................................................................................................................................. 8

9.3.4 TAM1 response .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

9.3.5 Final Interrogator processing ............................................................................................................................... 8

9.4 Interrogator authentication (AuthMethod “01”) ....................................................................................................... 9

9.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.4.2 IAM1 message .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.4.3 Intermediate Tag processing #1 ......................................................................................................................10

9.4.4 IAM1 response ................................................................................................................................................................10

9.4.5 Intermediate Interrogator processing .......................................................................................................10

9.4.6 IAM2 message .................................................................................................................................................................10

9.4.7 Intermediate Tag processing #2 ......................................................................................................................11

9.4.8 IAM2 response ................................................................................................................................................................11

9.4.9 Final Interrogator processing ............................................................................................................................12

9.5 Mutual authentication (AuthMethod “10”) .................................................................................................................12

9.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

9.5.2 MAM1 message ..............................................................................................................................................................13

9.5.3 Intermediate Tag processing #1 ......................................................................................................................13

9.5.4 MAM1 response .............................................................................................................................................................14

9.5.5 Intermediate Interrogator processing .......................................................................................................14

9.5.6 MAM2 message ..............................................................................................................................................................14

9.5.7 Intermediate Tag processing #2 ......................................................................................................................15

9.5.8 MAM2 response .............................................................................................................................................................15

9.5.9 Final Interrogator processing ............................................................................................................................16

10 Communication ...................................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.2 Message and response formatting ......................................................................................................................................17

10.3 Transforming a payload prior to encapsulation ......................................................................................................17

10.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

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ISO/IEC 29167-21:2018(E)

10.3.2 Encapsulating an Interrogator command ...............................................................................................19

10.3.3 Cryptographically protecting a Tag reply ................................................................................................20

10.4 Processing an encapsulated or cryptographically-protected reply ........................................................20

10.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................20

10.4.2 Recovering an encapsulated Interrogator command ....................................................................21

10.4.3 Recovering a cryptographically-protected Tag response...........................................................22

11 Key table and key update ..........................................................................................................................................................................22

Annex A (normative) Crypto suite state transition table .............................................................................................................24

Annex B (normative) Errors and error handling ..................................................................................................................................25

Annex C (normative) Description of SIMON and SILC v3 ..............................................................................................................26

Annex D (informative) Test vectors ....................................................................................................................................................................31

Annex E (normative) Protocol specific information..........................................................................................................................43

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................46

iv © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 29167-21:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee, SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques

A list of all the parts in the ISO/IEC 29167 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 29167-21:2018(E)
Introduction

This document specifies a variety of security services provided by the lightweight block cipher SIMON.

While SIMON supports various key and block sizes, the cipher versions that are supported in this

cryptographic suite take the following block/key sizes in bits: 64/96, 96/96, 64/128, 128/128, and

128/256.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical

Commission (IEC) draw attention to the fact that it is claimed that compliance with this document may

involve the use of patents concerning radio-frequency identification technology given in the clauses

identified below.

ISO and IEC take no position concerning the evidence, validity and scope of these patent rights. The

holders of these patent rights have assured the ISO and IEC that they are willing to negotiate licences

under reasonable and non-discriminatory terms and conditions with applicants throughout the world.

In this respect, the statements of the holders of these patent rights are registered with ISO and IEC.

Information may be obtained from:
Contact details
Impinj, Inc.
400 Fairview Ave N, # 1200
Seattle, WA 98109 USA

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights other than those identified above. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying

any or all such patent rights.

The latest information on IP that may be applicable to this document can be found at www .iso

.org/patents.
vi © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 29167-21:2018(E)
Information technology — Automatic identification and
data capture techniques —
Part 21:
Crypto suite SIMON security services for air interface
communications
1 Scope

This document defines the crypto suite for SIMON for the ISO/IEC 18000 air interfaces standards

for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices. Its purpose is to provide a common crypto suite

for security for RFID devices that can be referred by ISO committees for air interface standards and

application standards. The crypto suite is defined in alignment with existing air interfaces.

SIMON is a symmetric block cipher that is parameterized in both its block length and key length. In this

standard, a variety of block/key length options are supported.
This document defines various methods of use for the cipher.

A Tag and an Interrogator can support one, a subset, or all of the specified options, clearly stating what

is supported.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies..

ISO/IEC 18000-63, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 63: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type C

ISO/IEC 19762, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19762 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
bit string
ordered sequence of 0s and 1s
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ISO/IEC 29167-21:2018(E)
3.1.2
block cipher

family of permutations that is parameterized by a cryptographic key (3.1.4) and, optionally, the block

size (3.1.3)
3.1.3
block size

number of bits in a data block (3.1.6) that is an input (or output) of the block cipher (3.1.2)

3.1.4
cryptographic key

string of bits of length given by key size (3.1.7) that is used by the block cipher (3.1.2) to transform some

data block (3.1.6)
3.1.5
command

data that the Interrogator sends to the Tag with "Message" as parameter

3.1.6
data block

string of bits whose length is given by the block size (3.1.3) of the block cipher (3.1.2)

3.1.7
key size

length in bits of the cryptographic key (3.1.4) that is used by the block cipher (3.1.2)

3.1.8
message
part of the command (3.1.5) that is defined by the crypto suite
3.1.9
nonce

data block (3.1.6) that, within the parameters of typical use, can be assumed to be non-repeating

3.1.10
SIMON-b/k-ENC(key, data)

SIMON encryption of a b-bit data block (3.1.6) using a k-bit cryptographic key (3.1.4)

3.1.11
SIMON-b/k-DEC(key, data)

SIMON decryption of a b-bit data block (3.1.6) using a k-bit cryptographic key (3.1.4)

3.1.12
Reply

data that the Tag returns to the Interrogator with "Response" (3.1.13) as parameter

3.1.13
Response

part of the “Reply” (3.1.12) (stored or sent) that is defined within the crypto suite

3.2 Symbols
XXXX Binary notation
XXXX Hexadecimal notation
‖ Concatenation of syntax elements, transmitted in the order written

∅ The empty string, typically used to indicate a deliberately empty input or omitted field

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ISO/IEC 29167-21:2018(E)
|A| The bit-wise length of the string A expressed as an integer
Example 1: |0000 | = 4.
Example 2: |0000 | = 16.
Example 3: |∅| = 0.
fix1(A) The string obtained by fixing the first (leftmost) bit to 1
Example 1: fix1(0000 ) = 1000 .
2 2
Example 2: fix1(0000 ) = 8000 .
h h
Example 3: fix1(∅) = ∅.

msb (A) The n-bit binary string obtained by taking the first (leftmost) n bits of the binary repre-

sentation of A
Example 1: msb (1010 ) = 101 .
3 2 2
Example 2: msb (ABCD ) = 1010101 .
7 h 2
Example 3: msb (∅) = ∅.
Field [a:b] Selection of bits from a string of bits denoted Field

The selection ranges from bit "a" through to, and including, bit "b" where Field [0] rep-

resents the least significant or rightmost bit.

Example 1: Field [2:0] represents the selection of the three least significant bits of Field.

Example 2: Field, without a specified range, indicates the entirety of Field.
Example 3: Field [-1:0] is an alternative representation of the empty string ∅.

Key.KeyID The cryptographic key identified and indexed by the numerical value KeyID.

3.3 Abbreviated terms
CS Crypto Suite
CSI Crypto Suite Indicator
RFU Reserved for future use
4 Conformance
4.1 Air interface protocol specific information

An Interrogator or Tag shall comply with all relevant clauses of this document, except those marked as

“optional”.
4.2 Interrogator conformance and obligations

An Interrogator shall implement the mandatory commands defined in this document and conform to

the relevant part of ISO/IEC 18000.

An Interrogator may implement any subset of the optional commands defined in this document.

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ISO/IEC 29167-21:2018(E)
The Interrogator shall not:
— implement any command that conflicts with this document; or

— require the use of an optional, proprietary or custom command to meet the requirements of this

document.
4.3 Tag conformance and obligations

A Tag shall implement the mandatory commands defined in this document for the supported types and

conform to the relevant part of ISO/IEC 18000.

A Tag may implement any subset of the optional commands defined in this document.

A Tag shall not:
— implement any command that conflicts with this document; or

— require the use of an optional, proprietary, or custom command to meet the requirements of this

document.
5 Introducing the SIMON cryptographic suite

SIMON is a lightweight Feistel block cipher that is suitable for extremely constrained environments

such as RFID Tags. The details of the operation of the SIMON cipher are described in Annex C.

The background for the development of SIMON and its design principles are described in Reference [3].

SIMON is parameterized in terms of the block size, denoted b, and the key size, denoted k. A particular

variant of SIMON will be denoted SIMON-b/k throughout this document. While Reference [3] offers

many different choices to the block and key size, this cryptographic suite only supports the five

parameter combinations given in Table 1:
Table 1 — Variants of SIMON-b/k supported in this document
SIMON-64/96 SIMON-64/128 SIMON-96/96 SIMON-128/128 SIMON-128/256
Block size (b
64 64 96 128 128
bits)
Key size
96 128 96 128 256
(k bits)

It is possible that not all variants of SIMON will be cryptographically suited to all applications. Guidance

on the appropriate variant for a given application lies outside the scope of this document and a thorough

security and risk assessment is advised before deployment.
Test vectors for the components of this document are provided in Annex D.
6 Parameter and variable definitions
Table 2 lists the variables and constants that are used in this document.
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ISO/IEC 29167-21:2018(E)
Table 2 — SIMON cryptographic suite variables and constants
Parameter Description
A challenge generated at random by the Interrogator. The length of
IChallenge-b/k
IChallenge-b/k depends on the values of b and k.
A challenge generated at random by the Tag. The length of TChallenge-b/k
TChallenge-b/k
depends on the values of b and k.
A salt value generated at random by the Tag. The length of TRnd-b/k de-
TRnd-b/k
pends on the values of b and k.
A salt value generated at random by the Interrogator. The length of IRnd-
IRnd-b/k
b/k depends on the values of b and k.
A pre-defined constant. The length and value of C_TAM-b/k depends on the
C_TAM-b/k
values of b and k.
A pre-defined constant. The length and value of C_IAM-b/k depends on the
C_IAM-b/k
values of b and k.
A pre-defined constant. The length and value of C_MAM-b/k depends on
C_MAM-b/k
the values of b and k.
A set of up to 256 keys Key.0 through to Key.255.
Key.0 … Key.255
Not all key values need to be specified. However Key.j shall not be specified
when there remain unspecified Key.i with i

Table 3 gives the values of C_TAM-b/k, C_IAM-b/k, and C_MAM-b/k, that are used in this document. For

a given choice of operational parameters, the length of these constants depends on the block size b.

Table 3 — Values of C_TAM-b/k, C_IAM-b/k, and C_MAM-b/k for different values of b and k and

different parameter sets PS
b/k 64/96 64/128 96/96 128/128 128/256
C_TAM-b/k 11 11 FF FFFF FFFF
2 2 h h h
C_IAM-b/k 10 10 FE FFFE FFFE
2 2 h h h
C_MAM-b/k for PS=00 01 01 FD FFFD FFFD
2 2 2 h h h
C_MAM-b/k for PS=01 1 1 D FD FD
2 h h h h h
7 Crypto suite state diagram

After power-up and after a reset, the Cryptographic Suite shall transition into the Initial state, state

transitions shall be defined by Annex A, and error handling shall be defined by Annex B. See Figure 1.

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ISO/IEC 29167-21:2018(E)
Figure 1 — Crypto suite state diagram
8 Initialization and resetting

After power-up and after a reset, the cryptographic state machine transitions into the Initial state.

Implementations of this suite shall ensure that all memory used for any intermediate results is cleared:

— after the completion of each cryptographic protocol,
— if some cryptographic protocol is abandoned or incomplete, and
— after reset.
9 Authentication
9.1 General

This document supports Tag authentication, Interrogator authentication and Mutual authentication.

This clause describes the details of the messages and responses that are exchanged between the

Interrogator and Tag for each of the authentication methods.
9.2 Message and response formatting

Messages and responses are part of the security commands described in the air interface specification.

The following subclauses of this document describe the formatting of message and response for a

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ISO/IEC 29167-21:2018(E)

Tag authentication method, an Interrogator authentication method and a Tag-Interrogator mutual

authentication method.
9.3 Tag authentication (AuthMethod “00”)
9.3.1 General
Tag authentication uses a challenge-response protocol. See Figure 2.
Figure 2 — Tag authentication via a challenge-response scheme

The parameter set PS defined in Table 4 gives the lengths of different fields for different block and

key sizes.

NOTE The parameter set PS=00 closely matches other parts of the ISO/IEC 29167 series, most notably

29167-10. This provides some drop-in compatibility between SIMON-128/128 and AES-128.

Table 4 — Parameter set PS = 00 for Tag authentication
Parameter set PS= 00
b/k 64/96 64/128 96/96 128/128 128/256
t = │ IChallenge-b/k │ 42 42 56 80 80
r = │ TRnd-b/k │ 20 20 32 32 32
c = │ C_TAM-b/k │ 2 2 8 16 16
9.3.2 TAM1 message

The Interrogator shall generate a random Interrogator challenge (IChallenge-b/k) that is carried in the

TAM1 message. The Interrogator shall also indicate the variant of SIMON to be used.

NOTE 1 The variant(s) of SIMON deployed on a device is (are) manufacturer dependent.

NOTE 2 Mechanisms to generate the random Interrogator challenge lie outside the scope of this document.

Table 5 — TAM1 message format
Payload
Field AuthMethod Step RFU BlockSize KeySize KeyID PS Challenge
Length (bits) 2 2 2 2 2 8 2 t
00 : b=64 00 : k=96
2 2
01 : b=96 01 : k=128
2 2
Value 00 00 00 variable 00 IChallenge-b/k
2 2 2 2
10 : b=128 10 : k=256
2 2
11 : RFU 11 : RFU
2 2
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ISO/IEC 29167-21:2018(E)
9.3.3 Intermediate Tag processing

The Tag shall accept the TAM1 message at any time (unless occupied by internal processing and not

capable of receiving messages); i.e. upon receipt of the message with valid parameters, the Tag shall

abort any cryptographic protocol that has not yet been completed and shall remain in the Initial state.

The Tag shall check if the
...

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