Geotechnical investigation and testing — Field testing — Part 4: Prebored pressuremeter test by Ménard procedure

This document specifies equipment requirements, the execution of and reporting on the Ménard pressuremeter test. This document describes the procedure for conducting a Ménard pressuremeter test in natural grounds, treated or untreated fills, either on land or off-shore. The pressuremeter tests results of this document are suited to a quantitative determination of ground strength and deformation parameters. They can yield lithological information in conjunction with measuring while drilling performed when creating the borehole (according to ISO 22476-15). They can also be combined with direct investigation (e.g. sampling according to ISO 22475-1) or compared with other in situ tests (see EN 1997-2).

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais en place — Partie 4: Essai pressiométrique dans un forage préalable selon la procédure Ménard

Le présent document spécifie des exigences relatives à l’appareillage, à l’exécution et aux rapports pour un essai pressiométrique Ménard. Le présent document décrit le mode opératoire pour conduire un essai au pressiomètre Ménard dans des terrains naturels, dans des couches traitées ou non traitées, sur terre ou en milieu maritime. Les résultats des essais pressiométriques du présent document permettent une détermination quantitative de la résistance du terrain et des paramètres de déformation. Ils peuvent fournir des informations lithologiques en conjonction avec les mesures effectuées au cours du forage (selon l'ISO 22476-15). Ils peuvent aussi être combinés avec des investigations directes (par exemple des essais conformes à l’ISO 22475-1) ou comparés à d’autres essais in situ (voir l’EN 1997-2).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-Aug-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
01-Sep-2021
Completion Date
01-Sep-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22476-4
Second edition
2021-09
Geotechnical investigation and
testing — Field testing —
Part 4:
Prebored pressuremeter test by
Ménard procedure
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais en place —
Partie 4: Essai pressiomètrique dans un forage préalable selon la
procédure Ménard
Reference number
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 General description ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Pressuremeter probe ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2.2 Probe with flexible cover .......................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.3 Probe with flexible cover and an additional more rigid protection ..................................... 8

4.2.4 Probe with flexible cover and slotted tube................................................................................................ 9

4.3 Connecting lines and injected fluid ....................................................................................................................................10

4.4 Pressure and volume control unit .......................................................................................................................................11

4.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4.2 Measurement and control .....................................................................................................................................11

4.4.3 Data logger .........................................................................................................................................................................12

5 Test procedure .....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.1 Assembling the parts ......................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2 Calibration and corrections ......................................................................................................................................................13

5.3 Pressuremeter test pocket and probe placing ..........................................................................................................13

5.4 Preparation for testing ..................................................................................................................................................................13

5.5 Establishing the loading programme ...............................................................................................................................14

5.6 Establishing the pressure of the guard cells for tri-cell probes .................................................................15

5.7 Expansion .................................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.7.2 Readings and recordings ........................................................................................................................................15

5.7.3 End of test ...........................................................................................................................................................................16

5.8 Back-filling of the pockets ..........................................................................................................................................................16

5.9 Safety requirements ........................................................................................................................................................................16

6 Test results ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.1 Data sheet and field print-out or display ......................................................................................................................16

6.1.1 Data sheet for type A control unit ..................................................................................................................16

6.1.2 Site print-out for type B and C control units .........................................................................................17

6.1.3 Raw pressuremeter curve .....................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Corrected pressuremeter curve ............................................................................................................................................17

6.3 Calculated results...............................................................................................................................................................................18

7 Reporting ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.2 Field report .............................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.3 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.3.2 Ménard pressuremeter test report ...............................................................................................................19

7.3.3 Pressuremeter tests log ..........................................................................................................................................20

Annex A (normative) Geometrical features of pressuremeter probes ..........................................................................22

Annex B (normative) Calibration and corrections ..............................................................................................................................24

Annex C (normative) Placing the pressuremeter probe in the ground .........................................................................33

Annex D (normative) Obtaining pressuremeter parameters ..................................................................................................41

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 22476-4:2021(E)

Annex E (normative) Uncertainties ....................................................................................................................................................................51

Annex F (informative) Pressuremeter test records ...........................................................................................................................53

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................60

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182, Geotechnics, in collaboration with

the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 341, Geotechnical

Investigation and Testing, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and

CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 22476-4:2012), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— types of probes;
— correction procedures;
— probe placing techniques in Annex C;
— clarification of D;
— harmonization of terms and symbols.
A list of all parts in the ISO 22476 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
Introduction

The Ménard pressuremeter test is performed by the radial expansion of a cylindrical probe of a

minimum slenderness of 6, placed in the ground (see Figure 1). During the injection of the fluid volume

in the probe, the inflation of the measuring cell first brings the outer cover of the probe into contact

with the pocket wall and then producing ground displacement. Pressure applied to and the associated

radial expansion of the probe are measured either by volume or radial transducers and recorded so as

to obtain the stress-strain relationship of ground as tested.
Key
1 ground surface p applied pressure
2 ground A-A axial section
3 pressuremeter test pocket B-B cross section
4 expanding pressuremeter probe
Figure 1 — Principle of a Ménard pressuremeter test

Together with results of investigations with ISO 22475-1 being available or at least with identification and

description of the ground according to ISO 14688-1 and ISO 14689 obtained during the pressuremeter

vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22476-4:2021(E)

test operations, the tests are performed in order to obtain the quantitative determination of a ground

profile, including
— the Ménard pressuremeter modulus E ,
— the Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure p , and
— the Ménard creep pressure p .

NOTE 1 This document fulfils the requirement for the Ménard pressuremeter test, as part of geotechnical

investigation and testing according to EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2.

NOTE 2 This document refers to a probe historically described as the “60 mm (also called BX) G type probe”,

that corresponds to a 58 mm diameter probe with a drilling diameter between 60 mm and 66 mm with a pressure

limitation of 5 MPa. If specified by the relevant authority or agreed for a specific project by the relevant parties, a

different pressure, not higher than 8 MPa, can be set.

NOTE 3 G type probe refers to probes with an external cover creating guard cells (see 4.2).

NOTE 4 Ménard pressuremeter tests can be carried out with other diameter probes such as 32 mm, 44 mm and

76 mm probes.

NOTE 5 Examples of other probe and pocket drilling dimensions are indicated in Table 1.

Table 1 — Probe and pocket drilling dimensions
Probe Probe Drilling diameter
(mm)
Designation Diameter Min Max
AX 44 46 52
NX 70/74 74 80
NOTE 6 Tests with maximum pressures higher than 8 MPa are dealt by ISO 22476-5.

NOTE 7 For the scope of this document (and the associated measuring device and maximum uncertainties

given in Table E.1), E values up to 500 MPa (that can be determined by calculation) can be commonly obtained.

Enhancement of equipment to reduce uncertainties can be implemented to increase the range of measurements.

For example, use of GA type equipment and of a shunt for volume measurement can allow measuring E values

up to 10 000 MPa. Uncertainty calculation can be used to confirm the relevance of these pressuremeter moduli.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Field testing —
Part 4:
Prebored pressuremeter test by Ménard procedure
1 Scope

This document specifies equipment requirements, the execution of and reporting on the Ménard

pressuremeter test.

This document describes the procedure for conducting a Ménard pressuremeter test in natural grounds,

treated or untreated fills, either on land or off-shore.

The pressuremeter tests results of this document are suited to a quantitative determination of ground

strength and deformation parameters. They can yield lithological information in conjunction with

measuring while drilling performed when creating the borehole (according to ISO 22476-15). They can

also be combined with direct investigation (e.g. sampling according to ISO 22475-1) or compared with

other in situ tests (see EN 1997-2).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14688-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification and classification of soil — Part 1:

Identification and description

ISO 14689, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification, description and classification of rock

ISO 22475-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing – Sampling by drilling and excavation and ground

water measurements – Part 1: Technical principles for execution

ISO 22476-15, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Field testing — Part 15: Measuring while drilling

3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply:

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
pressuremeter probe

cylindrical flexible probe which can be expanded by the application of hydraulic pressure and/or

pressurised gas
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
3.1.2
pressuremeter control unit

set of suitable devices capable of supplying fluid and/or gas pressure to the probe, to adjust pressure

steps and take readings of the probe’s pressure and the volume or radius of the measuring cell

3.1.3
connecting line

cable that connects the control unit to the probe, delivers fluid and/or gas pressure in the measuring

and guard cells
3.1.4
pressuremeter test pocket

circular cylindrical cavity formed in the ground to receive a pressuremeter probe (3.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: See Annex C.
3.1.5
pressuremeter borehole

borehole in which pressuremeter test pockets (3.1.4) with circular cross sections are made in the ground,

and into which the pressuremeter probe (3.1.1) is to be placed
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.6
Ménard pressuremeter test

process during which a pressuremeter probe (3.1.1) is inflated in the pressuremeter test pocket (3.1.4) and

the resulting pocket expansion is measured as a function of time and pressure increments according to

a defined programme
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 4.
3.1.7
pressuremeter sounding

sequence of Ménard pressuremeter tests (3.1.6) executed from the same station in the pressuremeter

borehole (3.1.5)
3.1.8
pressure reading

pressure as read at the control unit (CU) elevation in the fluid and/or gas circuit supplying the

measuring cell
3.1.9
pressure loss

difference between the pressure inside the probe and the pressure applied to the pressuremeter test

pocket (3.1.4) wall
3.1.10
volume loss

volume readings on the control unit while probe is kept at constant external diameter

Note 1 to entry: They are due to system compressibility (including membrane, probe, tubing, fluid and control

unit).
3.1.11
raw pressuremeter curve

graphical plot of the injected volumes recorded at time 60 s, noted V , versus the applied pressure at

each pressure step, p
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
3.1.12
corrected pressuremeter curve

graphical plot of the corrected volumes V or radial displacements versus the corrected pressure p

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 5.
3.1.13
pressuremeter creep

difference in volumes recorded at 60 s and at 30 s at each pressure step: V – V = V

60 30 60/30
3.1.14
corrected pressuremeter creep curve

graphical plot of the corrected pressuremeter creep versus the corrected applied pressure at each

pressure step
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 5.
3.1.15
pressuremeter log

graphical report of the results of the pressuremeter sounding (3.1.7), together with all the information

gathered during the drilling
Note 1 to entry: See F.3.
3.1.16
Ménard pressuremeter modulus

modulus obtained from the section between (p V ) and (p V ) of the pressuremeter curve

1, 1 2, 2
Note 1 to entry: See Figure D.6.
3.1.17
Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure

pressure at which the volume of the pressuremeter test pocket (3.1.4) at the depth of the measuring cell

has doubled its original volume
Note 1 to entry: See Figure D.5.
3.1.18
pressuremeter creep pressure

pressure defined as the intersection of two straight lines fitted on the creep curve

Note 1 to entry: See Figure D.4.
3.1.19
operator
person who carries out the test
3.1.20
casing

lengths of tubing inserted into a borehole to prevent the hole caving in or to prevent the loss of flushing

medium to the surrounding formation, above pocket location
3.2 Symbols
For the purposes of this document, the symbols in Table 2 apply:
Table 2 — Symbols
Symbol Description Unit
3 3
A, B Parameters for reciprocal curve fitting method cm , cm /MPa
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Symbol Description Unit
A to A Parameters for hyperbolic curve fitting methods variable
1 6
a Apparatus volume loss coefficient cm /MPa
Parameters of power law type interpolation for the probe pressure loss correc-
b, c variable
tion

d, e Parameters of linear type interpolation for the probe volume loss correction variable

Outside diameter of the central measuring cell, including any additional protec-
d mm
tion such as a slotted tube
d Outside diameter of the inner part of the probe with slotted tube mm
d Outside diameter of the guard cells mm

d Inside diameter of the calibration cylinder used for the volume loss calibration mm

Outside diameter of the central measuring cell during expansion as read on the
d cm
CU, before data correction
d Drilling tool diameter mm
E Ménard pressuremeter modulus MPa
K Factor to determine the differential pressure for tri-cell probes -
Length of the central measuring cell of the probe, when the cell membrane is
l mm
fixed on the probe steel core
l Length of each guard cell mm
l Length along the tube axis of the slotted section of the slotted tube mm
l Length of the calibration cylinder used for the volume loss calibration mm
l Length of the cover mm

m Parameter of power law type interpolation for the probe pressure loss correction -

m Minimum value, strictly positive, of the m slopes cm /MPa
E i
Slope of the corrected pressuremeter curve between the two points with coordi-
m cm /MPa
nates (p , V ) and (p , V )
i-1 i-1 i i
p Pressure applied to the ground after correction MPa
p Fluid or gas pressure in the measuring cell of the pressuremeter probe. MPa
p Correction for probe pressure loss MPa
p Pressure at the origin of the segment exhibiting the slope m MPa
E E
p' Pressure at the end of the segment exhibiting the slope m MPa
E E
p Ultimate pressure loss of the probe MPa
p Pressuremeter creep pressure MPa
p Pressure in the guard cells, read at the CU transducer elevation -
Hydrostatic pressure between the control unit indicator and the central measur-
p MPa
ing cell of the pressuremeter probe
p Pressuremeter corrected pressure MPa
p Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure of the ground MPa
Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure as extrapolated by the double hyperbolic
p MPa
lMDH
method

p Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure as extrapolated by the hyperbolic method MPa

lMH
Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure as extrapolated by the reciprocal curve
p MPa
lMR
method

p Pressure loss of the central measuring cell membrane for a specific expansion MPa

Pressure in the measuring cell fluid or gas circuit, read at the CU transducer
p MPa
elevation
p Target pressure for each pressure step according to loading program MPa
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Symbol Description Unit
p Pressuremeter horizontal at rest pressure MPa

p Corrected pressure at the origin of the pressuremeter modulus pressure range MPa

p Corrected pressure at the end of the pressuremeter modulus pressure range MPa
t Time s
t Time the loading pressure level is held s
u Pore water pressure in the ground at the depth of the test MPa
Value, after zeroing and data correction, of the volume injected in the central
V cm
measuring cell and measured 60 s after starting a pressure step

Original volume of the central measuring cell, including the slotted tube, if appli-

V cm
cable

Value, after data correction, of the volume injected in the central measuring cell

V cm
for pressure p

Value, after data correction, of the volume injected in the central measuring cell

V’ cm
for pressure p’
V Correction for volume loss of the whole equipment
V Corrected volume cm

Value, after data correction, of the volume injected in the central measuring cell

V cm
when the original volume of the pressuremeter cavity has doubled
V The average corrected volume between V and V cm
m 1 2

Volume corresponding is the intercept on the volume axis of the straight line best

V fitting the data points on the p-V curve obtained in the volume loss calibration cm

test (see Figure B.2)
V Volume injected in the probe as read on the CU, before data correction cm
V Volume of the central measuring cell including the slotted tube cm
V Corrected volume at the origin of the pressuremeter modulus pressure range cm
V Corrected volume at the end of the pressuremeter modulus pressure range cm

Volume injected in the central measuring cell as read 30 s after the beginning of

V cm
the pressure step

Volume injected in the central measuring cell as read 60 s after the beginning of

V cm
the pressure step
Injected volume change from 30 s to 60 s after reaching the pressure step, also
V cm
60/30
called pressuremeter creep
V 60 s injected volume change between two successive pressure steps cm
60/60
z Elevation, positively counted above datum m
Elevation of the pressure measuring device for the fluid and/or gas injected in
z m
the probe

z Elevation of the ground surface at the location of the pressuremeter sounding m

z Elevation of the measuring cell centre during testing m
Elevation of the ground water table (or free water surface in a marine or river
z m
environment)
β Coefficient used to determine the pressuremeter modulus pressure range ---
γ Unit weight of ground at the time of testing kN/m
γ Unit weight of the liquid injected in the central measuring cell kN/m
γ Unit weight of water kN/m
Δp Loading pressure increment MPa
Δp Initial pressure increment MPa
r Radius of the measuring cell for transducer i m
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 22476-4:2021(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Symbol Description Unit
Δt Duration to achieve pressure step i s
δV Tolerance for volume measurement cm
λ Rate of change of pressure head of gas at p per metre depth m
g k
ν Poisson’s ratio -
σ Total horizontal stress in the ground at test elevation kPa
σ Total vertical stress in the ground at test depth kPa
4 Equipment
4.1 General description
The pressuremeter shown schematically in Figure 2 shall include:
— the pressuremeter probe;
— the string of rods to handle the probe;
— the control unit (CU);
— the connecting lines between the control unit and the probe.

Some means of measuring the depth of the test with appropriate measurement error shall be provided

(see
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 22476-4
Deuxième édition
2021-09
Reconnaissance et essais
géotechniques — Essais en place —
Partie 4:
Essai pressiométrique dans un forage
préalable selon la procédure Ménard
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Field testing —
Part 4: Prebored pressuremeter test by Ménard procedure
Numéro de référence
ISO 22476-4:2021(F)
© ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22476-4:2021(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2021

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

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être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

ISO copyright office
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Publié en Suisse
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 22476-4:2021(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ..................................................................................................................................................................................1

3 Termes, définitions et symboles ......................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Termes et définitions ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1

3.2 Symboles ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Appareillage .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.1 Description générale ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 Sonde pressiométrique ................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2.2 Sonde à gaine souple ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.3 Sonde à gaine souple avec protection additionnelle plus rigide .............................................. 9

4.2.4 Sonde à gaine souple et tube fendu .................................................................................................................... 9

4.3 Tubulure et fluide injecté ........................................................................................................................................................... 10

4.4 Contrôleur pression-volume .................................................................................................................................................... 11

4.4.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 11

4.4.2 Moyens de mesure et de contrôle .....................................................................................................................12

4.4.3 Enregistreur de données ..........................................................................................................................................12

5 Mode opératoire d’essai ............................................................................................................................................................................13

5.1 Assemblage ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 13

5.2 Étalonnage et corrections.......................................................................................................................................................... 13

5.3 Réalisation de la cavité pressiométrique et introduction de la sonde ...............................................13

5.4 Préparation d’un essai .................................................................................................................................................................. 13

5.5 Établissement du programme de chargement ........................................................................................................ 14

5.6 Établissement de la pression des cellules de garde pour les sondes tricellulaires .................15

5.7 Dilatation .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 15

5.7.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................15

5.7.2 Relevés et enregistrements ................................................................................................................................... 15

5.7.3 Fin de l’essai ......................................................................................................................................................................... 16

5.8 Remblaiement du forage ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

5.9 Exigences de sécurité .................................................................................................................................................................... 16

6 Résultats des essais .......................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.1 Fiche de données et imprimé sur le terrain ............................................................................................................... 17

6.1.1 Fiche de données pour le CPV de type A ................................... .................................................................. 17

6.1.2 Imprimé sur le terrain pour les CPV de types B et C ....................................................................... 17

6.1.3 Courbe pressiométrique brute............................................................................................................................ 17

6.2 Courbe pressiométrique corrigée ....................................................................................................................................... 18

6.3 Résultats calculés.............................................................................................................................................................................. 19

7 Consignation dans un rapport ............................................................................................................................................................19

7.1 Généralités .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 19

7.2 Rapport de terrain ........................................................................................................................................................................... 19

7.3 Rapport d’essai .................................................................................................................................................................................... 20

7.3.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................20

7.3.2 Rapport d’essai au pressiomètre Ménard ................................................................................................. 20

7.3.3 Registre d’essai pressiométrique ..................................................................................................................... 21

Annexe A (normative) Caractéristiques géométriques des sondes pressiométriques ...............................22

Annexe B (normative) Étalonnage et correction .................................................................................................................................24

Annexe C (normative) Introduction de la sonde pressiométrique dans le sol .....................................................33

Annexe D (normative) Détermination des paramètres pressiométriques..............................................................43

iii
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22476-4:2021(F)

Annexe E (normative) Incertitudes ....................................................................................................................................................................53

Annexe F (informative) Rapport d’essai pressiométrique ........................................................................................................55

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................62

© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22476-4:2021(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier, de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a

été rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir

www.iso.org/directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www.iso.org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www.iso.org/avant-propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 182, Géotechnique, en collaboration

avec le comité technique CEN/TC 341, Recherches et essais géotechniques, du Comité européen de

normalisation (CEN), conformément à l’Accord de coopération technique entre l’ISO et le CEN (Accord

de Vienne).

Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition (ISO 22476-4:2012), qui a fait l’objet

d’une révision technique.
Les principaux changements par rapport à l’édition précédente sont les suivants:
— types de sondes;
— procédures de correction;
— techniques de mise en place des sondes en Annexe C;
— clarification de l’Annexe D;
— harmonisation des termes et symboles.

Une liste de toutes les parties de la série ISO 22476 est disponible sur le site web de l’ISO.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www.iso.org/fr/members.html.
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22476-4:2021(F)
Introduction

L’essai au pressiomètre Ménard est réalisé par la dilatation radiale d’une sonde cylindrique, d’un

élancement minimal de 6, introduite dans le sol (voir Figure 1). Au cours de l’injection de fluide dans la

sonde, la dilatation de la cellule de mesure provoque d’abord la mise en contact de la partie externe de

la sonde avec la paroi de la cavité, puis un refoulement du terrain. La pression appliquée à la sonde et la

dilatation radiale associée de cette dernière sont mesurées par des capteurs volumiques ou radiaux et

enregistrées de manière à déterminer la relation contrainte-déformation du sol lors de l’essai.

Légende
1 surface du terrain p pression appliquée
2 sol A-A section axiale
3 cavité pressiométrique B-B section transverse
4 sonde pressiométrique en dilatation
Figure 1 — Principe d’un essai pressiométrique Ménard

Conjointement avec les résultats des investigations conformes à l’ISO 22475-1 disponibles, ou au moins

avec l’identification et la description du sol conformément à l’ISO 14688-1 et à l’ISO 14689 obtenues lors

© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22476-4:2021(F)

des opérations d’essai pressiométrique, les essais sont réalisés de manière à obtenir la caractérisation

quantitative du profil de sol, qui inclut:
— le module pressiométrique Ménard E ,
— la pression limite pressiométrique Ménard p , et
— la pression de fluage Ménard p .

NOTE 1 Le présent document répond aux exigences d’un essai au pressiomètre Ménard, en tant que partie de

la reconnaissance et des essais géotechniques conformément à l’EN 1997-1 et à l’EN 1997-2.

NOTE 2 Le présent document fait référence à une sonde décrite historiquement comme la sonde de type G de

60 mm (également appelée BX), qui correspond à une sonde de 58 mm de diamètre dont le diamètre de forage

est compris entre 60 mm et 66 mm, avec une pression limitée à 5 MPa. Si l’autorité compétente le précise ou si

les parties concernées en conviennent d’un commun accord pour un projet spécifique, une pression différente ne

dépassant pas 8 MPa peut être définie.

NOTE 3 Les sondes de type G sont dotées d’une gaine externe créant des cellules de garde (voir 4.2).

NOTE 4 Les essais au pressiomètre Ménard peuvent être réalisés avec d’autres diamètres de sonde, notamment

32 mm, 44 mm et 76 mm.

NOTE 5 Des exemples d’autres dimensions de sonde et de cavités sont indiqués dans le Tableau 1.

Tableau 1 — Dimensions de sonde et de cavités
Sonde Sonde Diamètre de forage
(mm)
Désignation Diamètre en Min. Max.
AX 44 46 52
NX 70/74 74 80

NOTE 6 Les essais réalisés à des pressions maximales supérieures à 8 MPa sont traités dans la norme

ISO 22476-5.

NOTE 7 Pour le domaine d’application du présent document (et le dispositif de mesure associé ainsi que les

incertitudes maximales données dans le Tableau E.1), les valeurs de E jusqu’à 500 MPa (qu’il est possible de

déterminer par le calcul) peuvent être obtenues par une méthode courante. Une amélioration de l’appareillage

visant à réduire les incertitudes peut être mise en œuvre afin d’accroître la plage de mesures. Par exemple,

l’utilisation d’un appareillage de type GA et d’un shunt pour la mesure du volume peut permettre de mesurer des

valeurs de E allant jusqu’à 10 000 MPa. Le calcul de l’incertitude peut être utilisé pour confirmer la pertinence

de ces modules pressiométriques.
vii
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 22476-4:2021(F)
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais en
place —
Partie 4:
Essai pressiométrique dans un forage préalable selon la
procédure Ménard
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document spécifie des exigences relatives à l’appareillage, à l’exécution et aux rapports pour

un essai pressiométrique Ménard.

Le présent document décrit le mode opératoire pour conduire un essai au pressiomètre Ménard dans

des terrains naturels, dans des couches traitées ou non traitées, sur terre ou en milieu maritime.

Les résultats des essais pressiométriques du présent document permettent une détermination

quantitative de la résistance du terrain et des paramètres de déformation. Ils peuvent fournir des

informations lithologiques en conjonction avec les mesures effectuées au cours du forage (selon

l'ISO 22476-15). Ils peuvent aussi être combinés avec des investigations directes (par exemple des

essais conformes à l’ISO 22475-1) ou comparés à d’autres essais in situ (voir l’EN 1997-2).

2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont cités dans le texte de sorte qu’ils constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur

contenu, des exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique.

Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s'applique (y compris les

éventuels amendements).

ISO 14688-1, Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Dénomination, description et classification des

sols — Partie 1: identification et description

ISO 14689, Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Dénomination, description et classification des

roches

ISO 22475-1, Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Méthodes de prélèvement et mesurages

piézométriques — Partie 1: principes techniques des travaux

ISO 22476-15, Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais de sol — Partie 15: enregistrement des

paramètres de forages
3 Termes, définitions et symboles
3.1 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22476-4:2021(F)
3.1.1
sonde pressiométrique

sonde cylindrique flexible qui peut être dilatée par l’application d’une pression hydraulique et/ou d’un

gaz pressurisé
3.1.2
contrôleur pression-volume

ensemble de dispositifs appropriés capables d’appliquer une pression de fluide et/ou de gaz à la sonde,

de régler les paliers de pression et de mesurer la pression de la sonde et le volume ou le rayon de la

cellule de mesure
3.1.3
tubulure

tube flexible qui relie le contrôleur pression-volume à la sonde et achemine le fluide et/ou le gaz sous

pression dans les cellules de mesure et de garde
3.1.4
cavité d’essai pressiométrique

cavité cylindrique de section circulaire formée dans le terrain pour y recevoir une sonde pressiométrique

(3.1.1)
Note 1 à l'article: Voir l’Annexe C.
3.1.5
forage pressiométrique

forage dans lequel est réalisée une série de cavités pressiométriques (3.1.4) de section circulaire et à

l’intérieur desquelles est placée la sonde pressiométrique (3.1.1)
Note 1 à l'article: Voir Figure 1.
3.1.6
essai pressiométrique Ménard

processus qui consiste à gonfler une sonde pressiométrique (3.1.1) dans la cavité pressiométrique (3.1.4)

et à mesurer l’expansion en résultant en fonction du temps et des paliers de pression conformément à

un programme défini
Note 1 à l'article: Voir Figure 4.
3.1.7
sondage pressiométrique

séquence d’essais au pressiomètre Ménard (3.1.6) exécutés au même emplacement dans le forage

pressiométrique (3.1.5)
3.1.8
pression lue

pression dans le circuit d’injection du fluide et/ou gaz alimentant la cellule de mesure, lue au niveau du

contrôleur pression-volume (CPV)
3.1.9
perte de pression

différence entre la pression dans la sonde et la pression appliquée à la paroi de la cavité pressiométrique

(3.1.4)
3.1.10
perte de volume

différence entre le volume de la sonde mesuré au CPV et le volume de la cavité pressiométrique

Note 1 à l'article: Elles sont dues à la compressibilité du système (notamment la membrane, la sonde, la tubulure,

le fluide et le contrôleur pression-volume).
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ISO 22476-4:2021(F)
3.1.11
courbe pressiométrique brute

représentation graphique des valeurs du volume injecté V dans la sonde, en fonction de la pression

appliquée, notée 60 s après le début de chaque palier de pression, p
3.1.12
courbe pressiométrique corrigée

représentation graphique des volumes corrigés V ou des déplacements radiaux en fonction de la

pression corrigée p
Note 1 à l'article: Voir Figure 5.
3.1.13
fluage pressiométrique

différence des volumes enregistrés à 60 s et à 30 s lors de chaque palier de pression: V – V = V

60 30 60/30
3.1.14
courbe de fluage pressiométrique corrigée

représentation graphique du fluage pressiométrique corrigé en fonction de la pression appliquée

corrigée à chaque palier de pression
Note 1 à l'article: Voir Figure 5.
3.1.15
procès-verbal de sondage pressiométrique

rapport graphique des résultats du sondage pressiométrique (3.1.7), ainsi que toutes les informations

recueillies pendant le forage
Note 1 à l'article: Voir F.3.
3.1.16
module pressiométrique Ménard

module déterminé sur le segment entre (p V ) et (p V ) de la courbe pressiométrique

1, 1 2, 2
Note 1 à l'article: Voir Figure D.6.
3.1.17
pression limite pressiométrique Ménard

pression correspondant au doublement du volume initial de la cavité pressiométrique (3.1.4) à la

profondeur de la cellule de mesure
Note 1 à l'article: Voir Figure D.5.
3.1.18
pression de fluage pressiométrique

pression définie comme l’abscisse l’intersection de deux droites ajustées sur la courbe de fluage

Note 1 à l'article: Voir Figure D.4.
3.1.19
opérateur
personne qualifiée réalisant l’essai
3.1.20
tubage

longueurs de tube introduites dans un forage pour empêcher le trou de s’ébouler ou pour éviter la

perte de fluide de forage vers la formation environnante, au-dessus de la cavité pressiométrique

3.2 Symboles
Pour les besoins du présent document, les symboles du Tableau 2 s’appliquent:
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22476-4:2021(F)
Tableau 2 — Symboles
Symbole Description Unité
3 3
A, B Paramètres de la méthode d’ajustement avec une courbe inverse cm , cm /MPa
A à A Paramètres des méthodes d’ajustement avec une courbe hyperbolique variable
1 6
a Coefficient de dilatation propre de l’appareillage cm /MPa

Paramètres de l’interpolation de type « loi de puissance » pour la correction due à

b, c variable
la résistance propre de la sonde
Paramètres de l’interpolation linéaire pour la correction due à la dilatation
d, e variable
propre de la sonde
Diamètre extérieur de la cellule de mesure centrale, y compris toute protection
d mm
additionnelle tel qu’un tube fendu
d Diamètre extérieur de la partie interne de la sonde avec tube fendu mm
d Diamètre extérieur des cellules de garde mm

Diamètre intérieur du cylindre utilisé pour l’étalonnage lors de l’essai de dilata-

d mm
tion propre de l’appareillage
Diamètre extérieur de la cellule de mesure centrale pendant l’expansion, indiqué
d cm
par le CPV avant correction des données
d Diamètre de l’outil de forage mm
E Module pressiométrique Ménard MPa

Coefficient pour la détermination de la pression différentielle des sondes tricellu-

K -
laires
Longueur de la cellule centrale de mesure de la sonde, quand la membrane de la
l mm
cellule est fixée sur l’âme métallique de la sonde
l Longueur de chaque cellule de garde mm
l Longueur projetée sur l’axe longitudinal de la partie fendue du tube fendu mm
Longueur du cylindre d’étalonnage utilisé pour l’étalonnage de dilatation propre
l mm
de l’appareillage
l Longueur de la gaine mm

Paramètre de l’interpolation de type « loi de puissance » pour la correction due à

m -
la résistance propre de la sonde
m Valeur minimale, strictement positive, des pentes m cm /MPa
E i
Pente de la courbe pressiométrique corrigée délimitée par les points de coordon-
m cm /MPa
nées (p , V ) et (p , V )
i-1 i-1 i i
p Pression appliquée au terrain après correction MPa
Pression du fluide ou du gaz dans la cellule de mesure de la sonde pressiomé-
p MPa
trique.
p Correction due à la résistance propre de la sonde MPa
p Pression à l’origine du segment de pente m MPa
E E
p' Pression à l’extrémité du segment de pente m MPa
E E
p Pression limite propre de la sonde MPa
p Pression de fluage pressiométrique MPa

p Pression dans les cellules de garde, lue à la cote altimétrique du capteur du CPV -

Pression hydrostatique entre le contrôleur pression-volume (CPV) et la cellule
p MPa
centrale de la sonde pressiométrique
p Pression pressiométrique corrigée MPa
p Pression limite pressiométrique Ménard du terrain MPa
Pression limite pressiométrique Ménard extrapolée selon la méthode de la
p MPa
lMDH
double-hyperbole
Pression limite pressiométrique Ménard extrapolée selon la méthode de la simple
p MPa
lMH
hyperbole
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22476-4:2021(F)
Tableau 2 (suite)
Symbole Description Unité
Pression limite pressiométrique Ménard extrapolée selon la méthode de la courbe
p MPa
lMR
inverse
Pression due à la résistance propre de la membrane de la cellule centrale pour
p MPa
une expansion spécifique

Pression dans le circuit de fluide ou de gaz de la cellule de mesure, lue à la cote

p MPa
altimétrique du capteur du CPV
Pression à atteindre pour chaque palier de pression d’après le programme de
p MPa
chargement
p Pression pressiométrique horizontale au repos MPa

Pression corrigée correspondant à l’origine de la plage sur laquelle est déterminé

p MPa
le module pressiométrique

Pression corrigée correspondant à la fin de la plage sur laquelle est déterminé le

p MPa
module pressiométrique
t Temps s
t Temps pendant lequel le palier pression est maintenu s
u Pression de l’eau interstitielle dans le terrain au niveau d’essai MPa
Valeur, après remise à zéro et correction des données, du volume injecté dans la
V cm
cellule centrale et mesuré 60 s après le début d’un palier de pression

Volume initial conventionnel de la cellule de mesure centrale y compris son éven-

V cm
tuel tube fendu
Valeur, après corrections, du volume injecté dans la cellule de mesure centrale
V cm
correspondant à la pression p
Valeur, après corrections, du volume injecté dans la cellule de mesure centrale
V’ cm
correspondant à la pression p’
V Correction due à la dilatation propre de l’appareillage complet cm
V Volume corrigé cm
Valeur, après corrections, du volume injecté dans la cellule de mesure centrale
V cm
correspondant au doublement du volume initial de la cavité pressiométrique
V Volume moyen corrigé entre V et V cm
m 1 2
Le volume correspondant est l’ordonnée à l’origine sur l’axe des volumes de la

V droite calée sur les points représentatifs de la courbe p-V obtenue lors de l’essai cm

d’étalonnage de la dilatation propre de l’appareillage (voir Figure B.2)
V Volume injecté dans la sonde (avant correction des données) lu sur le CPV cm
V Volume de la cellule de mesure centrale incluant le tube fendu cm

Volume corrigé correspondant à l’origine de la plage sur laquelle est déterminé le

V cm
module pressiométrique

Volume corrigé correspondant à l’extrémité de la plage sur laquelle est déterminé

V cm
le module
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 22476-4
ISO/TC 182
Geotechnical investigation and
Secretariat: BSI
testing — Field testing —
Voting begins on:
2021-05-19
Part 4:
Voting terminates on:
Prebored pressuremeter test by
2021-07-14
Ménard procedure
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais en place —
Partie 4: Essai au pressiomètre Ménard
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 22476-4:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 22476-4:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 22476-4:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 General description ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Pressuremeter probe ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2.2 Probe with flexible cover .......................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.3 Probe with flexible cover and an additional more rigid protection ..................................... 8

4.2.4 Probe with flexible cover and slotted tube................................................................................................ 9

4.3 Connecting lines and injected fluid ....................................................................................................................................10

4.4 Pressure and volume control unit .......................................................................................................................................11

4.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4.2 Measurement and control .....................................................................................................................................11

4.4.3 Data logger .........................................................................................................................................................................12

5 Test procedure .....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.1 Assembling the parts ......................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2 Calibration and corrections ......................................................................................................................................................13

5.3 Pressuremeter test pocket and probe placing ..........................................................................................................13

5.4 Preparation for testing ..................................................................................................................................................................13

5.5 Establishing the loading programme ...............................................................................................................................14

5.6 Establishing the pressure of the guard cells for tri-cell probes .................................................................15

5.7 Expansion .................................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.7.2 Readings and recordings ........................................................................................................................................15

5.7.3 End of test ...........................................................................................................................................................................16

5.8 Back-filling of the pockets ..........................................................................................................................................................16

5.9 Safety requirements ........................................................................................................................................................................16

6 Test results ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.1 Data sheet and field print-out or display ......................................................................................................................16

6.1.1 Data sheet for type A control unit ..................................................................................................................16

6.1.2 Site print-out for type B and C control units .........................................................................................17

6.1.3 Raw pressuremeter curve .....................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Corrected pressuremeter curve ............................................................................................................................................17

6.3 Calculated results...............................................................................................................................................................................18

7 Reporting ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.2 Field report .............................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.3 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.3.2 Ménard pressuremeter test report ...............................................................................................................19

7.3.3 Pressuremeter tests log ..........................................................................................................................................20

Annex A (normative) Geometrical features of pressuremeter probes ..........................................................................22

Annex B (normative) Calibration and corrections ..............................................................................................................................24

Annex C (normative) Placing the pressuremeter probe in the ground .........................................................................33

Annex D (normative) Obtaining pressuremeter parameters ..................................................................................................41

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/FDIS 22476-4:2021(E)

Annex E (normative) Uncertainties ....................................................................................................................................................................51

Annex F (informative) Pressuremeter test records ...........................................................................................................................53

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................60

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 22476-4:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182, Geotechnics, in collaboration with

the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 341, Geotechnical

Investigation and Testing, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and

CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 22476-4:2012), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— types of probes;
— correction procedures;
— probe placing techniques in Annex C;
— clarification of D;
— harmonization of terms and symbols.
A list of all parts in the ISO 22476 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/FDIS 22476-4:2021(E)
Introduction

The Ménard pressuremeter test is performed by the radial expansion of a cylindrical probe of a

minimum slenderness of 6, placed in the ground (see Figure 1). During the injection of the fluid volume

in the probe, the inflation of the measuring cell first brings the outer cover of the probe into contact

with the pocket wall and then producing ground displacement. Pressure applied to and the associated

radial expansion of the probe are measured either by volume or radial transducers and recorded so as

to obtain the stress-strain relationship of ground as tested.
Key
1 ground surface p applied pressure
2 ground A-A axial section
3 pressuremeter test pocket B-B cross section
4 expanding pressuremeter probe
Figure 1 — Principle of a Ménard pressuremeter test

Together with results of investigations with ISO 22475-1 being available or at least with identification and

description of the ground according to ISO 14688-1 and ISO 14689 obtained during the pressuremeter

vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 22476-4:2021(E)

test operations, the tests are performed in order to obtain the quantitative determination of a ground

profile, including
— the Ménard pressuremeter modulus E ,
— the Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure p , and
— the Ménard creep pressure p .

NOTE 1 This document fulfils the requirement for the Ménard pressuremeter test, as part of geotechnical

investigation and testing according to EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2.

NOTE 2 This document refers to a probe historically described as the “60 mm (also called BX) G type probe”,

that corresponds to a 58 mm diameter probe with a drilling diameter between 60 mm and 66 mm with a pressure

limitation of 5 MPa. If specified by the relevant authority or agreed for a specific project by the relevant parties, a

different pressure, not higher than 8 MPa, can be set.

NOTE 3 G type probe refers to probes with an external cover creating guard cells (see 4.2).

NOTE 4 Ménard pressuremeter tests can be carried out with other diameter probes such as 32 mm, 44 mm and

76 mm probes.

NOTE 5 Examples of other probe and pocket drilling dimensions are indicated in Table 1.

Table 1 — Probe and pocket drilling dimensions
Probe Probe Drilling diameter
(mm)
Designation Diameter Min Max
AX 44 46 52
NX 70/74 74 80
NOTE 6 Tests with maximum pressures higher than 8 MPa are dealt by ISO 22476-5.

NOTE 7 For the scope of this document (and the associated measuring device and maximum uncertainties

given in Table E.1), E values up to 500 MPa (that can be determined by calculation) can be commonly obtained.

Enhancement of equipment to reduce uncertainties can be implemented to increase the range of measurements.

For example, use of GA type equipment and of a shunt for volume measurement can allow measuring E values

up to 10 000 MPa. Uncertainty calculation can be used to confirm the relevance of these pressuremeter moduli.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved vii
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 22476-4:2021(E)
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Field testing —
Part 4:
Prebored pressuremeter test by Ménard procedure
1 Scope

This document specifies equipment requirements, the execution of and reporting on the Ménard

pressuremeter test.

This document describes the procedure for conducting a Ménard pressuremeter test in natural grounds,

treated or untreated fills, either on land or off-shore.

The pressuremeter tests results of this document are suited to a quantitative determination of ground

strength and deformation parameters. They can yield lithological information in conjunction with

measuring while drilling performed when creating the hole (according to ISO 22476-15). They can also

be combined with direct investigation (e.g. sampling according to ISO 22475-1) or compared with other

in situ tests (see EN 1997-2).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14688-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification and classification of soil — Part 1:

Identification and description

ISO 14689, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification, description and classification of rock

ISO 22475-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing – Sampling by drilling and excavation and ground

water measurements – Part 1: Technical principles for execution

ISO 22476-15, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Field testing — Part 15: Measuring while drilling

3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply:

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
pressuremeter probe

cylindrical flexible probe which can be expanded by the application of hydraulic pressure and/or

pressurised gas
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ISO/FDIS 22476-4:2021(E)
3.1.2
pressuremeter control unit

set of suitable devices capable of supplying fluid and/or gas pressure to the probe, to adjust pressure

steps and take readings of the probe’s pressure and the volume or radius of the measuring cell

3.1.3
connecting line

cable that connects the control unit to the probe, delivers fluid and/or gas pressure in the measuring

and guard cells
3.1.4
pressuremeter test pocket

circular cylindrical cavity formed in the ground to receive a pressuremeter probe (3.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: See Annex C.
3.1.5
pressuremeter borehole

borehole in which pressuremeter test pockets (3.1.4) with circular cross sections are made in the ground,

and into which the pressuremeter probe (3.1.1) is to be placed
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.1.6
Ménard pressuremeter test

process during which a pressuremeter probe (3.1.1) is inflated in the pressuremeter test pocket (3.1.4) and

the resulting pocket expansion is measured as a function of time and pressure increments according to

a defined programme
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 4.
3.1.7
pressuremeter sounding

sequence of Ménard pressuremeter tests (3.1.6) executed from the same station in the pressuremeter

borehole (3.1.5)
3.1.8
pressure reading

pressure as read at the control unit (CU) elevation in the fluid and/or gas circuit supplying the

measuring cell
3.1.9
pressure loss

difference between the pressure inside the probe and the pressure applied to the pressuremeter test

pocket (3.1.4) wall
3.1.10
volume loss

volume readings on the control unit while probe is kept at constant external diameter

Note 1 to entry: They are due to system compressibility (including membrane, probe, tubing, fluid and control

unit).
3.1.11
raw pressuremeter curve

graphical plot of the injected volumes recorded at time 60 s, noted V , versus the applied pressure at

each pressure step, p
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ISO/FDIS 22476-4:2021(E)
3.1.12
corrected pressuremeter curve

graphical plot of the corrected volumes V or radial displacements versus the corrected pressure p

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 5.
3.1.13
pressuremeter creep

difference in volumes recorded at 60 s and at 30 s at each pressure step: V – V = V

60 30 60/30
3.1.14
corrected pressuremeter creep curve

graphical plot of the corrected Ménard creep versus the corrected applied pressure at each pressure

step
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 5.
3.1.15
pressuremeter log

graphical report of the results of the pressuremeter sounding (3.1.7), together with all the information

gathered during the drilling
Note 1 to entry: See F.3.
3.1.16
Ménard pressuremeter modulus

modulus obtained from the section between (p V ) and (p V ) of the pressuremeter curve

1, 2 2, 2
Note 1 to entry: See Figure D.6.
3.1.17
Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure

pressure at which the volume of the pressuremeter test pocket (3.1.4) at the depth of the measuring cell

has doubled its original volume
Note 1 to entry: See Figure D.5.
3.1.18
pressuremeter creep pressure

pressure defined as the intersection of two straight lines fitted on the creep curve

Note 1 to entry: See Figure D.4.
3.1.19
operator
person who carries out the test
3.1.20
casing

lengths of tubing inserted into a borehole to prevent the hole caving in or to prevent the loss of flushing

medium to the surrounding formation, above pocket location
3.2 Symbols
For the purposes of this document, the symbols in Table 2 apply:
Table 2 — Symbols
Symbol Description Unit
3 3
A, B Parameters for reciprocal curve fitting method cm , cm /MPa
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ISO/FDIS 22476-4:2021(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Symbol Description Unit
A to A Parameters for hyperbolic curve fitting methods variable
1 6
a Apparatus volume loss coefficient cm /MPa
Parameters of power law type interpolation for the probe pressure loss correc-
b, c variable
tion

d, e Parameters of linear type interpolation for the probe volume loss correction variable

Outside diameter of the central measuring cell, including any additional protec-
d mm
tion such as a slotted tube
d Outside diameter of the inner part of the probe with slotted tube mm
d Outside diameter of the guard cells mm

d Inside diameter of the calibration cylinder used for the volume loss calibration mm

Outside diameter of the central measuring cell during expansion as read on the
d cm
CU, before data correction
d Drilling tool diameter mm
E Ménard pressuremeter modulus MPa
K Factor to determine the differential pressure for tri-cell probes -
Length of the central measuring cell of the probe, when the cell membrane is
l mm
fixed on the probe steel core
l Length of each guard cell mm
l Length along the tube axis of the slotted section of the slotted tube mm
l Length of the calibration cylinder used for the volume loss calibration mm
l Length of the cover mm

m Parameter of power law type interpolation for the probe pressure loss correction -

m Minimum value, strictly positive, of the m slopes cm /MPa
E i
Slope of the corrected pressuremeter curve between the two points with coordi-
m cm /MPa
nates (p , V ) and (p , V )
i-1 i-1 i i
p Pressure applied to the ground after correction MPa
p Fluid or gas pressure in the measuring cell of the pressuremeter probe. MPa
p Correction for probe pressure loss MPa
p Pressure at the origin of the segment exhibiting the slope m MPa
E E
p' Pressure at the end of the segment exhibiting the slope m MPa
E E
p Ultimate pressure loss of the probe MPa
p Pressuremeter creep pressure MPa
p Pressure in the guard cells, read at the CU transducer elevation -
Hydrostatic pressure between the control unit indicator and the central measur-
p MPa
ing cell of the pressuremeter probe
p Pressuremeter corrected pressure MPa
p Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure of the ground MPa
Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure as extrapolated by the double hyperbolic
p MPa
lMDH
method

p Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure as extrapolated by the hyperbolic method MPa

lMH
Ménard pressuremeter limit pressure as extrapolated by the reciprocal curve
p MPa
lMR
method

p Pressure loss of the central measuring cell membrane for a specific expansion MPa

Pressure in the measuring cell fluid or gas circuit, read at the CU transducer
p MPa
elevation
p Target pressure for each pressure step according to loading program MPa
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ISO/FDIS 22476-4:2021(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Symbol Description Unit
p Pressuremeter horizontal at rest pressure MPa

p Corrected pressure at the origin of the pressuremeter modulus pressure range MPa

p Corrected pressure at the end of the pressuremeter modulus pressure range MPa
t Time s
t Time the loading pressure level is held s
u Pore water pressure in the ground at the depth of the test MPa
Value, after zeroing and data correction, of the volume injected in the central
V cm
measuring cell and measured 60 s after starting a pressure step

Original volume of the central measuring cell, including the slotted tube, if appli-

V cm
cable

Value, after data correction, of the volume injected in the central measuring cell

V cm
for pressure p

Value, after data correction, of the volume injected in the central measuring cell

V’ cm
for pressure p’
V Correction for volume loss of the whole equipment
V Corrected volume cm

Value, after data correction, of the volume injected in the central measuring cell

V cm
when the original volume of the pressuremeter cavity has doubled
V The average corrected volume between V and V cm
m 1 2

Volume corresponding is the intercept on the volume axis of the straight line best

V fitting the data points on the p-V curve obtained in the volume loss calibration cm

test (see Figure B.2)
V Volume injected in the probe as read on the CU, before data correction cm
V Volume of the central measuring cell including the slotted tube cm
V Corrected volume at the origin of the pressuremeter modulus pressure range cm
V Corrected volume at the end of the pressuremeter modulus pressure range cm

Volume injected in the central measuring cell as read 30 s after the beginning of

V cm
the pressure step

Volume injected in the central measuring cell as read 60 s after the beginning of

V cm
the pressure step
Injected volume change from 30 s to 60 s after reaching the pressure step, also
V cm
60/30
called pressuremeter creep
V 60 s injected volume change between two successive pressure steps cm
60/60
z Elevation, positively counted above datum m
Elevation of the pressure measuring device for the fluid and/or gas injected in
z m
the probe

z Elevation of the ground surface at the location of the pressuremeter sounding m

z Elevation of the measuring cell centre during testing m
Elevation of the ground water table (or free water surface in a marine or river
z m
environment)
β Coefficient used to determine the pressuremeter modulus pressure range ---
γ Unit weight of ground at the time of testing kN/m
γ Unit weight of the liquid injected in the central measuring cell kN/m
γ Unit weight of water kN/m
Δp Loading pressure increment MPa
Δp Initial pressure increment MPa
r Radius of the measuring cell for transducer i m
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ISO/FDIS 22476-4:2021(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Symbol Description Unit
Δt Duration to achieve pressure step i s
...

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