This document establishes requirements for pumping tests as part of geotechnical investigation service in accordance with EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2. This document applies to pumping tests performed on aquifers whose permeability is such that pumping from a well can create a lowering of the piezometric head within hours or days depending on the ground conditions and the purpose. It covers pumping tests carried out in soils and rock. The tests concerned by this document are those intended for evaluating the hydrodynamic parameters of an aquifer and well parameters, such as: — permeability of the aquifer, — radius of influence of pumping, — pumping rate of a well, — response of drawdown in an aquifer during pumping, — skin effect, — well storage, — response of recovery in an aquifer after pumping.

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This document deals with the equipment requirements, execution and reporting of field vane tests for the measurement of peak and remoulded vane shear strength together with the sensitivity of fine-grained soils. In addition, post-peak shear strength behaviour can be evaluated. Two types of field vane test are described: the ordinary field vane test (FVT) and the fast field vane test (FVT-F). The uncertainties of the vane test result are described in Annex D. NOTE 1 This document fulfils the requirements for field vane tests as part of the geotechnical investigation and testing according to EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2. NOTE 2 This document covers onshore and nearshore field vane testing.

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This document specifies the measurement of pore water pressures and piezometric levels in saturated ground by means of piezometers installed for geotechnical monitoring. General rules of performance monitoring of the ground, of structures interacting with the ground, of geotechnical fills and of geotechnical works are presented in ISO 18674‑1. If applied in conjunction with ISO 18674-5, the procedures described in this document allow the determination of effective stresses acting in the ground. This document is applicable to: — monitoring of water pressures acting on and in geotechnical structures (e.g. quay walls, dikes, excavation walls, foundations, dams, tunnels, slopes, embankments, etc.); — monitoring of consolidation processes of soil and fill (e.g. beneath foundations and in embankments); — evaluating stability and serviceability of geotechnical structures; — checking geotechnical designs in connection with the Observational Design procedure. NOTE This document fulfils the requirements for the performance monitoring of the ground, of structures interacting with the ground and of geotechnical works by the means of piezometers, installed as part of the geotechnical investigation and testing in accordance with References [4] and [5] This document relates to measuring devices, which are installed in the ground. For pore water pressure measurements carried out in connection with cone penetration tests, see ISO 22476-1.

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This document specifies the equipment requirements, execution of and reporting on borehole dynamic probing. NOTE This document fulfills the requirements for borehole dynamic probing as part of the geotechnical investigation and testing according to EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2. The document specifies technical requirements in respect to equipment and implementation, in order to extensively prevent incorrect appraisals of the subsoil conditions and to limit scatter in the probing results due to equipment and implementation.

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This document specifies the measurement of stress changes by means of total pressure cells (TPC). General rules of performance monitoring of the ground, of structures interacting with the ground, of geotechnical fills and of geotechnical works are presented in ISO 18674‑1. If applied in conjunction with ISO 18674‑4, this document allows the determination of effective stress acting in the ground. This document is applicable to: — monitoring changes of the state of stress in the ground and in geo-engineered structures (e.g. in earth fill dams or tunnel lining); — monitoring contact pressures at the interface between two media (e.g. earth pressure on retaining wall; contact pressure at the base of a foundation); — checking geotechnical designs and adjustment of construction in connection with the Observational Design procedure; — evaluating stability during or after construction. Guidelines for the application of TPC in geotechnical engineering are presented in Annex B. NOTE This document fulfils the requirements for the performance monitoring of the ground, of structures interacting with the ground and of geotechnical works by the means of total pressure cells as part of the geotechnical investigation and testing according to EN 1997-1[1] and EN 1997-2[2].

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This document specifies methods for the laboratory determination of the water flow characteristics in soil. This document is applicable to the laboratory determination of the coefficient of permeability of soil within the scope of geotechnical investigations. NOTE This document fulfils the requirements of the determination of the coefficient of permeability of soils in the laboratory for geotechnical investigation and testing in accordance with EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2.

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This document specifies two laboratory test methods for the determination of the effective shear strength of soils under consolidated drained conditions using either a shearbox or a ring shear device. This document is applicable to the laboratory determination of effective shear strength parameters for soils in direct shear within the scope of geotechnical investigations. The tests included in this document are for undisturbed, remoulded, re-compacted or reconstituted soils. The procedure describes the requirements of a determination of the shear resistance of a specimen under a single vertical (normal) stress. Generally three or more similar specimens from one soil are prepared for shearing under three or more different vertical pressures to allow the shear strength parameters to be determined in accordance with Annex B. Special procedures for preparation and testing the specimen, such as staged loading and pre-shearing or for interface tests between soils and other materials, are not covered in the procedure of this document. NOTE This document fulfils the requirements of the determination of the drained shear strength of soils in direct shear for geotechnical investigation and testing in accordance with EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2.

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This document establishes the specifications for the execution of static pile load tests in which a single pile is subjected to an axial static load in compression in order to define its load-displacement behaviour. This document is applicable to vertical piles as well as raking piles. All types of piles are covered by this document. The tests considered in this document are limited to maintained load tests. Pile load tests with constant penetration rate and cyclic load tests are not covered by this document. NOTE This document is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1997-1. EN 1997-1 provides numerical values of partial factors for limit states and of correlation factors to derive characteristic values from static pile load tests to be taken into account in design. This document provides specifications for the execution of static axial pile load tests: a) checking that a pile will behave as designed; b) measuring the resistance of a pile.

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This document specifies the equipment requirements, execution of and reporting on self-boring pressuremeter (SBP) tests. NOTE This document fulfils the requirements for self-boring pressuremeter test as part of the geotechnical investigation services according to EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2. Tests with the self-boring pressuremeter cover the measurement in situ of the deformation of soils and weak rocks by the expansion and contraction of a cylindrical flexible membrane under pressure.

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This document specifies the equipment requirements, execution of and reporting on full displacement pressuremeter (FDP) tests. NOTE This document fulfils the requirements for full displacement pressurementer test as part of the geotechnical investigation services according to EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2. Tests with the full displacement pressuremeter cover the measurement in situ of the deformation of soils and weak rocks by the expansion/contraction of a cylindrical flexible membrane under pressure.

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This document establishes specifications for the execution of tension tests to be carried out on an anchor grouted in the ground, as defined in EN 1997-1 and EN 1537. Three methods of testing are recognized by this document. Test Method 1 involves cyclic tension loading with measurement of displacement at the load stages; Test Method 2 involves cyclic tension loading with measurement of load loss at the load stages; and Test Method 3 involves step-loading with measurement of displacement under successive maintained tension loads. This document provides specifications for the experimental devices, the measurement apparatus, the test procedures, the definition and presentation of the test results and the content of records. NOTE This document does not provide specification for the size of the proof load and the limiting criteria. These aspects reside in EN 1997-1 or its national annex for CEN countries and in similar national application documents for this test standard for ISO countries.

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This document specifies methods for the determination of the liquid and plastic limits of a soil. These comprise two of the Atterberg limits for soils. The liquid limit is the water content at which a soil changes from the liquid to the plastic state. This document describes the determination of the liquid limit of a specimen of natural soil, or of a specimen of soil from which material larger than about 0,4 mm has been removed. This document describes two methods: the fall cone method and the Casagrande method. NOTE The fall cone method in this document should not be confused with that of ISO 17892‑6. The plastic limit of a soil is the water content at which a soil ceases to be plastic when dried further. The determination of the plastic limit is normally made in conjunction with the determination of the liquid limit. It is recognized that the results of the test are subject to the judgement of the operator, and that some variability in results will occur.

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ISO 22477-4:2018 establishes the specifications for the execution of dynamic load tests in which a single pile is subject to an axial dynamic load in compression. ISO 22477-4:2018 outlines the methods of testing required to allow assessment of pile resistance to be determined from the following methods and procedures described in EN1997-1:2004+A1:2013: a) dynamic impact testing ? determination of pile compressive resistance by evaluation of measurements of strain and acceleration and or displacement at the pile head with respect to time; b) pile driving formulae ? evaluation of pile compressive resistance from blow counts and hammer energy during pile driving; c) wave equation analysis ? evaluation of pile compressive resistance from blow counts by modelling of the pile, soil and driving equipment; d) multi-blow dynamic testing ? evaluation of pile compressive resistance from a series of blows designed to generate different levels of pile head displacement and velocity. ISO 22477-4:2018 is applicable to piles loaded axially in compression. ISO 22477-4:2018 is applicable to all pile types mentioned in EN 1536, EN 12699 and EN 14199. The tests considered in this document are limited to dynamic load tests on piles only. NOTE 1 ISO 22477‑4 can be used in conjunction with EN1997-1:2004+A1:2013. Numerical values of partial factors for limit states from pile load tests to be taken into account in design are provided in EN 1997‑1. For design to EN 1997‑1 the results from dynamic load tests will be considered equivalent to the measured compressive resistance Rc,m after being subject to appropriate analysis. NOTE 2 Guidance on analysis procedures for dynamic load testing results is given in Annexes A, B, D, E and F. ISO 22477-4:2018 provides specifications for: i) investigation tests, whereby a sacrificial pile is loaded up to ultimate limit state; ii) control tests, whereby the pile is loaded up to a specified load in excess of the serviceability limit state. NOTE 3 Generally, an investigation test focuses on general knowledge of a pile type; a control test focuses on one specific application of a pile.

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ISO 17892-9:2018 specifies a method for consolidated triaxial compression tests on water-saturated soils. ISO 17892-9:2018 is applicable to the laboratory determination of triaxial shear strength under compression loading within the scope of geotechnical investigations. The cylindrical specimen, which can comprise undisturbed, re-compacted, remoulded or reconstituted soil, is subjected to an isotropic or an anisotropic stress under drained conditions and thereafter is sheared under undrained or drained conditions. The test allows the determination of shear strength, stress-strain relationships and effective stress paths. All stresses and strains are denoted as positive numerical values in compression. NOTE 1 This document provides a test for a single specimen. A set of at least three relatable tests are required to determine the shear strength parameters from these tests. Procedures for evaluating the results are included in Annex B and, where required, the shear strength parameters are to be included in the report. Special procedures such as: a) tests with lubricated ends; b) multi-stage tests; c) tests with zero lateral strain (K0) consolidation; d) tests with local measurement of strain or local measurement of pore pressure; e) tests without rubber membranes; f) extension tests; g) shearing where cell pressure varies, are not fully covered in this procedure. However, these specific tests can refer to general procedures described in this document. NOTE 2 This document fulfils the requirements of consolidated triaxial compression tests for geotechnical investigation and testing in accordance with EN 1997‑1 and EN 1997‑2.

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ISO 17892-8:2018 specifies a method for unconsolidated undrained triaxial compression tests. ISO 17892-8:2018 is applicable to the laboratory determination of undrained triaxial shear strength under compression loading within the scope of geotechnical investigations. The cylindrical specimen, which can comprise undisturbed, re-compacted, remoulded or reconstituted soil, is subjected to an isotropic stress under undrained conditions and thereafter is sheared under undrained conditions. The test allows the determination of shear strength and stress-strain relationships in terms of total stresses. Non-standard procedures such as tests with the measurement of pore pressure or tests with filter drains are not covered in this document. NOTE This document fulfils the requirements of unconsolidated undrained triaxial compression tests for geotechnical investigation and testing in accordance with EN 1997‑1 and EN 1997‑2.

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ISO 14689:2017 specifies the rules for the identification and description of rock material and mass on the basis of mineralogical composition, genetic aspects, structure, grain size, discontinuities and other parameters. It also provides rules for the description of other characteristics as well as for their designation. ISO 14689:2017 applies to the description of rock for geotechnics and engineering geology in civil engineering. The description is carried out on cores and other samples of rock and on exposures of rock masses. Rock mass classification systems using one or more descriptive parameters to suggest likely rock mass behaviour are beyond the scope of this document (see Bibliography). NOTE Identification and classification of soil for engineering purposes are covered in ISO 14688‑1 and ISO 14688‑2. Identification and description of materials intermediate between soil and rock are carried out using the procedures in ISO 14688‑1, ISO 14688‑2 and this document, as appropriate.

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ISO 14688-1:2017 specifies the rules for the identification and description of soils and is intended to be read in conjunction with ISO 14688‑2, which outlines the basis of classification of those material characteristics most commonly used for soils for engineering purposes. The relevant characteristics could vary and therefore, for particular projects or materials, more detailed subdivisions of the descriptive and classification terms could be appropriate. ISO 14688-1:2017 specifies procedures for the identification and description of soils based on a flexible system for use by experienced persons, covering both material and mass characteristics by visual and manual techniques. Details are given of the individual characteristics for identifying soils and the descriptive terms in regular use, including those related to the results of hand tests carried out in the field as part of the descriptive process. ISO 14688-1:2017 is applicable to the description of soils for engineering purposes which can be those laid by natural processes, those laid by man or comprise synthetic materials. NOTE 1 The identification and description of rocks are covered by ISO 14689-1. Identification and description of materials intermediate between soil and rocks are carried out using the procedures in this document, ISO 14688‑2 and ISO 14689-1 as appropriate. NOTE 2 The identification and classification of soil for pedological purposes, as well as in the framework of measurements for soil protection and for remediation of contaminated areas, is covered by ISO 25177.

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ISO 14688-2:2017 specifies the basic principles for classification of those material characteristics most commonly used for soils for engineering purposes. It is intended to be read in conjunction with ISO 14688‑1, which gives rules for the identification and description of soils. The relevant characteristics could vary and therefore, for particular projects or materials, more detailed subdivisions of the descriptive and classification terms could be appropriate. Due to differences in local geological conditions, practices to enhance relevant classification criteria are used. The classification principles established in this document allow soils to be classified into groups of similar composition and geotechnical properties, based on the results of field and laboratory tests with respect to their suitability for geotechnical engineering purposes. ISO 14688-2:2017 is applicable to natural soil in situ, natural soil reworked artificially and synthetic materials. A more detailed classification specific to use in earthworks is given in EN 16907‑2. NOTE 1 Identification and description of rocks are covered by ISO 14689. Identification and description of materials intermediate between soil and rock are carried out using the procedures in ISO 14688‑1, this document and ISO 14689, as appropriate. NOTE 2 The identification and classification of soil for pedological purposes, as well as in the framework of measurements for soil protection and for remediation of contaminated areas, is covered by ISO 25177.

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ISO 17892-7:2017 specifies a method for the unconfined compression test. ISO 17892-7:2017 is applicable to the determination of the unconfined compressive strength for a homogeneous specimen of undisturbed, re-compacted, remoulded or reconstituted soil under compression loading within the scope of geotechnical investigations. This test method is useful to estimate the undrained shear strength of soil. It is noted that drainage is not prevented during this test. The estimated value for undrained shear strength is, therefore, only valid for soils of low permeability, which behave sufficiently undrained during the test. NOTE This document fulfils the requirements of unconfined compression tests for geotechnical investigation and testing in accordance with EN 1997‑1 and EN 1997‑2.

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ISO 18674-3:2017 specifies the measurement of displacements across a line by means of inclinometers carried out for geotechnical monitoring. General rules of performance monitoring of the ground, of structures interacting with the ground, of geotechnical fills and of geotechnical works are presented in ISO 18674‑1. ISO 18674-3:2017 also refers to deflectometers (see Annex B) to supplement inclinometers for the determination of horizontal displacements across horizontal measuring lines. NOTE In general, there are two independent displacement components acting across measuring lines. Inclinometers allow the determination of the two components for vertical measuring lines. For horizontal lines, inclinometers are limited to the determination of the vertical component only. If applied in conjunction with ISO 18674‑2, ISO 18674-3:2017 allows the determination of displacements acting in any direction. ISO 18674-3:2017 is applicable to: - checking geotechnical designs in connection with the Observational Design procedure; - monitoring of geotechnical structures prior to, during and after construction (e.g. natural slopes, slope cuts, embankments, excavation walls, foundations, dams, refuse dumps, tunnels); - deriving geotechnical key parameters (e.g. from results of pile load tests or trial tunnelling); - identification and monitoring of active shear planes in the ground. NOTE ISO 18674-3:2017 fulfils the requirements for the performance monitoring of the ground, of structures interacting with the ground and of geotechnical works by the means of inclinometers as part of the geotechnical investigation and testing in accordance with References [1] and [2].

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ISO 22476-10 specifies the equipment, execution and reporting requirements of the weight sounding test. NOTE ISO 22476-10 fulfils the requirements for the weight sounding test as part of the geotechnical investigation and testing according to EN 1997?1 and EN 1997?2. ISO 22476-10 specifies the procedure for conducting a test with the weight sounding device in natural soils, made ground, and fill either on land or on water. ISO 22476-10 is applicable to the determination of the resistance of soil to the static load or the static load and the specified turning of the sounding point. ISO 22476-10 gives guidelines for the use of the weight sounding test to give a continuous soil profile and an indication of the layer sequence. The use includes the estimation of the density of cohesionless soils and the depth to very dense ground layers indicating the length of end-bearing piles.

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ISO 22476-11:2017 establishes guidelines for the equipment requirements, execution of and reporting on flat dilatometer tests. NOTE This document fulfils the requirements for flat dilatometer tests as part of the geotechnical investigation and testing according to EN 1997‑1 and EN 1997‑2. The basic flat dilatometer test consists of inserting vertically into the soil a blade-shaped steel probe with a thin expandable circular steel membrane mounted flush on one face and determining two pressures at selected depth intervals: the contact pressure exerted by the soil against the membrane when the membrane is flush with the blade and, subsequently, the pressure exerted when the central displacement of the membrane reaches 1,10 mm. Results of flat dilatometer tests are used mostly to obtain information on soil stratigraphy, in situ state of stress, deformation properties and shear strength. It is also used to detect slip surfaces in clays. The flat dilatometer test is most applicable to clays, silts and sands, where particles are small compared to the size of the membrane.

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ISO 17892-5:2017 specifies methods for the determination of the compressibility characteristics of soils by incremental loading in an oedometer. ISO 17892-5:2017 is applicable to the laboratory determination of the compression and deformation characteristics of soil within the scope of geotechnical investigations. The oedometer test is carried out on a cylindrical test specimen that is confined laterally by a rigid ring. The specimen is subjected to discrete increments of vertical axial loading or unloading and is allowed to drain axially from the top and bottom surfaces. Tests may be carried out on undisturbed, remoulded, recompacted or reconstituted specimens. The stress paths and drainage conditions in foundations are generally three dimensional and differences can occur in the calculated values of both the magnitude and the rate of settlement. The small size of the specimen generally does not adequately represent the fabric features present in natural soils. Analysis of consolidation tests is generally based on the assumption that the soil is saturated. In case of unsaturated soils, some of the derived parameters may not be appropriate NOTE This document fulfils the requirements of the determination of the compressibility characteristics of soils in the oedometer for geotechnical investigation and testing in accordance with EN 1997?1 and EN 1997?2.

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ISO 17892-6:2017 specifies a method of undrained strength index testing of both undisturbed and remoulded specimens of fine grained soils by the fall cone method. ISO 17892-6:2017 is applicable to the laboratory estimation of undrained shear strength of a soil test specimen within the scope of geotechnical investigations. In the fall cone test, a cone is allowed to fall with its tip towards a soil specimen, and the resulting penetration of the cone into the soil is measured. The penetration values are used to estimate the undrained shear strength. The fall cone test produces a complex shear in the test specimen, and does not represent either a vertical triaxial compression or a horizontal shear test. However, this index test may be correlated to some estimate of undrained shear strength determined in the laboratory by other test methods. As the test is performed on a small laboratory specimen, the result may not agree with laboratory tests on larger specimens. In addition, the test specimen may not be fully representative of the soil in its natural state in the field; for example, the test specimen may not have fissures present in situ at a larger spacing than the specimen size. Therefore, for the above reasons, the test can be regarded as an estimation of undrained shear strength, rather than a true measurement of it. The ratio of the remoulded shear strength to the undisturbed shear strength may be used to estimate the sensitivity of a soil specimen. Time-dependent measurement of the shear strength may be used to assess the thixotropic regain of strength of a remoulded soil specimen. NOTE This document fulfils the requirements of the strength index testing of soils for geotechnical investigation and testing in accordance with EN 1997?1 and EN 1997?2.

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ISO 17892-4.2016 specifies a method of determining the particle size distribution of soils. ISO 17892-4.2016 is applicable to the laboratory determination of the particle size distribution of a soil test specimen by sieving, or sedimentation, or a combination of both within the scope of geotechnical investigations. The particle size distribution is one of the most important physical characteristics of soil. Classification of soils is mainly based on the particle size distribution. Many geotechnical and geohydrological properties of soil are related to the particle size distribution. The particle size distribution provides a description of soil based on a subdivision in discrete classes of particle sizes. The size of each class can be determined by sieving and/or sedimentation. Coarse soils are usually tested by sieving, but fine and mixed soils are usually tested by a combination of sieving and sedimentation, depending on the composition of the soil. The sieving method described is applicable to all non-cemented soils with particle sizes less than 125 mm. Two sedimentation methods are described: the hydrometer method and the pipette method. NOTE ISO 17892-4.2016 fulfils the requirements of the particle size distribution testing in accordance with EN 1997-2.

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ISO 18674-2:2016 specifies the measurement of displacements along a line by means of extensometers carried out for geotechnical monitoring. General rules of performance monitoring of the ground, of structures interacting with the ground, of geotechnical fills and of geotechnical works are presented in ISO 18674‑1. If applied in conjunction with ISO 18674‑3, this document allows the determination of displacements acting in any direction. ISO 18674-2:2016 is applicable to: - monitoring the behaviour of soils, fills and rocks; - checking geotechnical designs in connection with the Observational Design procedure; - deriving geotechnical key parameters (e.g. from results of pile load tests or trial tunnelling); - evaluating stability ahead of, during or after construction (e.g. stability of natural slopes, slope cuts, embankments, excavation walls, foundations, dams, refuse dumps, tunnels). NOTE This document fulfils the requirements for the performance monitoring of the ground, of structures interacting with the ground and of geotechnical works by the means of extensometers as part of the geotechnical investigation and testing in accordance with References [5] and [6].

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ISO 22477-10:2016 establishes the specifications for the execution of rapid load pile tests in which a single pile is subject to an axial load in compression to measure its load-displacement behaviour under rapid loading and to allow an assessment of its measured compressive resistance (Rc,m) and corresponding load-displacement behaviour. ISO 22477-10:2016 is applicable to piles loaded axially in compression. All pile types mentioned in EN 1536, EN 12699 and EN 14199 are covered by this part of ISO 22477. The tests in this part of ISO 22477 are limited to rapid load pile tests only. NOTE 1 This part of ISO 22477 can be used in conjunction with EN 1997?1. Numerical values of partial factors for limit states from pile load tests to be taken into account in design are provided in EN 1997?1. For design to EN 1997?1, the results from rapid load pile testing will be considered equivalent to the measured compressive resistance, Rc,m, after being subject to appropriate analysis. NOTE 2 Guidance on analysis of the rapid load testing results to determine measured compressive resistance and corresponding load-displacement behaviour is given in Annex A. ISO 22477-10:2016 provides specifications for the following: a) investigation tests, whereby a sacrificial test pile is loaded up to ultimate limit state; b) control tests, whereby the pile is loaded up to a specified load in excess of the serviceability limit state. NOTE 3 Generally, an investigation test focuses on general knowledge of a pile type; a control test focuses on one specific application of a pile.

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ISO 22476-15:2016 specifies the technical principles for measuring equipment requirements, the execution and reporting on the parameters of the investigation drilling process for geotechnical purposes. It is applicable to top-driven, destructive drilling methods performed by a fully hydraulically powered drill rig and driving device. It is commonly used with destructive drilling techniques but can also be used with core drilling. The recording of the drilling parameters during soil grouting, drilling of nails, anchors or piles are beyond the scope of ISO 22476-15:2016.

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ISO 17892-3:2015 specifies methods for the determination of the particle density of soils. ISO 17892-3:2015 is applicable to the laboratory determination of the particle density of soil within the scope of geotechnical investigations, and describes two methods, a pycnometer method by fluid displacement and a pycnometer method by gas displacement. The fluid pycnometer method described in this part of ISO 17892 applies to soil types with particle sizes under about 4 mm, or soils crushed to meet this requirement. Larger pycnometers are used for coarser materials. The particle size of soils suitable for testing in the gas pycnometer is limited by the dimensions of the specimen container of the particular gas pycnometer being used. NOTE 1 ISO 17892-3:2015 fulfils the requirements of the determination of particle density of soils for geotechnical investigation and testing in accordance with EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2. NOTE 2 The presence of dissolved salts in the pore water can affect the results of these tests. Techniques for compensating for dissolved salts are available but are beyond the scope of this standard.

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ISO 18674-1:2015 lays out the general rules for the performance monitoring of the ground, of structures interacting with the ground, of geotechnical fills, and of geotechnical works. Specifically, it applies to field instrumentation and measurements carried out: in connection with site investigations of soils and rocks, in connection with Observational Design procedures, in connection with the performance of geotechnical structures before, during, and after construction, for ground behaviour evaluation, e.g. unstable slopes, consolidation etc., for the proof or follow-up of a new equilibrium within the ground, after disturbance of its natural state by construction measures (e.g. foundation loads, excavation of soil, tunnelling), for the proof or follow-up of the stability, serviceability, and safety of structures and operations which might be influenced by geotechnical construction, for perpetuation of evidence, and for the evaluation and control of geotechnical works.

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ISO 17892-2:2014 specifies three methods for the determination of the bulk density of soils, comprising: a) linear measurement method; b) immersion in fluid method; c) fluid displacement method. ISO 17892-2:2014 is applicable to the laboratory determination of the bulk density of soil within the scope of geotechnical investigations. The linear measurement method is suitable for the determination of the bulk density of a specimen of soil of regular shape, including specimens prepared for other tests. The specimens used are either rectangular prisms or cylinders with circular cross sections. The immersion in fluid method covers the determination of the bulk density of a specimen of natural or compacted soil by measuring its mass in air and its apparent mass when suspended in fluid. The method may be used when lumps of material of suitable size can be obtained. The fluid displacement method covers the determination of the bulk density of a specimen of soil by measuring its mass in air and the mass of fluid displaced by immersion. The method may be used when lumps of material of suitable size can be obtained. If the immersion in fluid method or fluid displacement method is used, and if the fluid is likely to penetrate into the specimen (eg water) the specimen should be coated before testing to prevent fluid penetration. The bulk density of a soil is useful in the determination of the in situ overburden stress as a function of depth. If required, the dry density of a specimen may be calculated from the bulk density and the water content, if known.

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ISO 17892-1:2014 specifies a method of determining the water content of soils. It is applicable to the laboratory determination of the water (also known as moisture) content of a soil test specimen by oven-drying within the scope of geotechnical investigations. The water content is required as a guide to the classification of natural soils and as a control criterion in re-compacted soils, and is measured on samples used for most field and laboratory tests. The oven-drying method is the definitive procedure used in usual laboratory practice. The practical procedure for determining the water content of a soil is to determine the mass loss on drying the test specimen to a constant mass in a drying oven controlled at a given temperature. The mass loss is assumed to be due to free water and is referenced to the remaining dry mass of solid particles.

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  • Standard
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ISO 22476-7:2012 specifies the equipment requirements, execution of and reporting on borehole jack tests. It specifies the procedure for conducting a borehole jack test in ground stiff enough not to be adversely affected by the drilling operation. Two diametral cylindrical steel loading plates are placed in the ground and opened by pressure. Pressure applied to, and associated opening of, the probe are measured and recorded so as to obtain a stress-displacement relationship of the ground for the range of the expected design stress. ISO 22476-7:2012 applies to test depths of

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ISO 22476-5:2012 specifies the equipment requirements, execution of and reporting on flexible dilatometer tests. ISO 22476-5:2012 is applicable to tests in ground stiff enough not to be adversely affected by the drilling operation. ISO 22476-5:2012 is applicable to four procedures for conducting a test with the flexible dilatometer. ISO 22476-5:2012 applies to tests performed up to 1 800 m depth. Testing can be conducted either on land or off-shore.

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ISO 22476-1:2012 deals with equipment requirements, the execution of and reporting on electrical cone and piezocone penetration tests as part of geotechnical investigation and testing according to EN 1997‑1 and EN 1997‑2. Within the electrical cone and piezocone penetration test, two subcategories of the cone penetration test are considered: electrical cone penetration test (CPT), which includes measurement of cone resistance and sleeve friction; piezocone test (CPTU), which is a cone penetration test with the additional measurement of pore pressure. The CPTU is performed like a CPT with the measurement of the pore pressure at one or several locations on the penetrometer surface. ISO 22476-1:2012 specifies the following features: type of cone penetration test; application class; penetration length or penetration depth; elevation of the ground surface or the underwater ground surface at the location of the cone penetration test with reference to a datum; location of the cone penetration test relative to a reproducible fixed location reference point; pore pressure dissipation tests.

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ISO 22282-1:2012 establishes the general rules and principles for geohydraulic testing in soil and rock as part of the geotechnical investigation services in accordance with EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2. ISO 22282-1:2012 defines concepts and specifies requirements relating to permeability measurement in soil and rock. The different purposes of geohydraulic testing are to obtain information on the permeability of soil or rock in natural or treated states, transmissivity and storage coefficient, and hydrodynamic parameters of aquifers. Geohydraulic testing is used for many purposes, such as: absorption capacity and effectiveness of grouting in rock mass; assessment of seepage and drainage; assessment of groundwater lowering work; effects of cut-offs for dams; effects of tunnels and shaft sinking; checking fill or cover tightness; assessment of the flow of fluids and suspensions in the ground; planning for remedial measures. ISO 22282-1:2012 deals with the execution of tests with groundwater and does not explicitly consider other fluids and suspensions. The flow of other fluids and suspensions can be considered by applying the different viscosities and relations between transmissivity, permeability coefficient and intrinsic permeability.

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ISO 22282-2:2012 specifies requirements for the determination of the local permeability in soils and rocks below and above groundwater level in an open hole by water permeability tests as part of the geotechnical investigation services according to EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2.

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ISO 22282-3:2012 specifies the requirements for water pressures tests (WPT) carried out in boreholes drilled into rock as part of geotechnical investigation and testing according to EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2. The tests are used to investigate the following: hydraulic properties of the rock mass, which are mainly governed by discontinuities; absorption capacity of the rock mass; tightness of the rock mass; effectiveness of grouting; geomechanical behaviour, e.g. hydrofracturing, hydrojacking.

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ISO 22282-5:2012 establishes requirements for ground investigations by means of infiltrometer tests as part of geotechnical investigation services in accordance with EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2. It applies to the in situ determination of the water permeability of an existing geological formation or of treated or compacted materials. ISO 22282-5:2012 defines the terminology and the measured parameters. It specifies the required characteristics of the equipment, defines the procedures of the tests relating to the different measurement techniques and specifies the tests results. It is applicable to: ? civil engineering projects; ? hydrogeology studies; and ? waste disposal.

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ISO 22282-6:2012 specifies requirements for the determination of the local permeability in soils and rocks below or above the groundwater table in a closed system by the water permeability tests as part of the geotechnical investigation services according to EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2.

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ISO 22282-4:2012 establishes requirements for pumping tests as part of geotechnical investigation service in accordance with EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2. ISO 22282-4:2012 applies to pumping tests performed on aquifers whose permeability is such that pumping from a well can create a lowering of the piezometric head within hours or days depending on the ground conditions and the purpose. It covers pumping tests carried out in soils and rock. The tests concerned by ISO 22282-4:2012 are those intended for evaluating the hydrodynamic parameters of an aquifer and well parameters.

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ISO 22476-12:2009 specifies a mechanical cone penetration test (CPTM), including equipment requirements, execution and reporting. The results from such geotechnical testing are especially suited to the qualitative and/or quantitative determination of a soil profile — together with direct investigations — or as a relative comparison with other in situ tests. The results from a cone penetration test can in principle be used to evaluate stratification, soil type, and geotechnical parameters such as soil density, shear‑strength parameters and deformation and consolidation characteristics. ISO 22476-12:2009 specifies the following features: type of cone penetration test; application class; penetration length or penetration depth; elevation of the ground surface or underwater ground surface at the location of the cone penetration test with reference to a datum; location of the cone penetration test relative to a reproducible fixed location reference point.

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ISO/TS 22475-3:2007 is applicable to the conformity assessment of enterprises and personnel performing specified parts of sampling and groundwater measurements according to ISO 22475-1 and complying with the technical qualification criteria given in ISO/TS 22475-2 by third-party control.

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