Information technology — Smart city digital platform reference architecture — Data and service

This document specifies the reference architecture of smart city digital platforms (SCDPs), with a focus on supporting access to data and services for applications in smart cities.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Jun-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
06-Jun-2022
Completion Date
17-Jun-2022
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ISO/IEC 24039:2022 - Information technology — Smart city digital platform reference architecture — Data and service Released:17. 06. 2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 24039
First edition
2022-06
Information technology — Smart city
digital platform reference architecture
— Data and service
Reference number
ISO/IEC 24039:2022(E)
© ISO/IEC 2022
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ISO/IEC 24039:2022(E)
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© ISO/IEC 2022

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ISO/IEC 24039:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Design principles ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

6 Reference architecture ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

7 Technical support ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.1 Data collection ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

7.2 Data processing...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.3 Data storage .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

7.4 Development and testing ............................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.5 Operating tool ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.5.1 Life cycle management .................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.5.2 System operation ............................................................................................................................................................... 7

8 Resource management .................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.1 Data governance .................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1.1 Data ownership identification ................................................................................................................................ 8

8.1.2 Metadata management ................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.1.3 Data quality ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.1.4 Data policy ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2 Data assets management ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2.1 Data asset identification and registration ................................................................................................... 9

8.2.2 Data asset directory and catalogue management ............................................................................. 10

8.2.3 Data asset model ........................................................................................................................................... ................... 10

8.2.4 Data asset association ................................................................................................................................................ 10

8.2.5 Data asset security ........................................................................................................................................................ 10

8.3 Data intelligence ................................................................................................................................................................................. 11

8.3.1 Data training ....................................................................................................................................................................... 11

8.3.2 Data analysis ....................................................................................................................................................................... 11

8.3.3 Data visualization ........................................................................................................................................... ................12

8.4 Service decoupling ........................................................................................................................................................................... 12

8.5 Domain model ......................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.5.1 Domain knowledge ........................................................................................................................................................12

8.5.2 Domain business logic ................................................................................................................................................12

8.6 Service extraction ............................................................................................................................................................................. 13

9 Capability exposure .......................................................................................................................................................................................13

9.1 Data service ............................................................................................................................................................................................13

9.2 Data operation ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 13

9.2.1 Authorization .....................................................................................................................................................................13

9.2.2 Circulation ............................................................................................................................................................................. 14

9.3 Data portal .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 14

9.4 Service integration .......................................................................................................................................................................... 14

9.4.1 Service interaction ........................................................................................................................................................ 14

9.4.2 Service encapsulation ................................................................................................................................................. 15

9.5 Service delivery .................................................................................................................................................................................. 15

9.5.1 Service accessibility .....................................................................................................................................................15

9.5.2 Delivery management .................................................................................................................................................15

9.5.3 Service evaluation ..........................................................................................................................................................15

iii
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ISO/IEC 24039:2022(E)

10 Interface .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.1 Collection interface.......................................................................................................................................................................... 16

10.1.1 Secure access ...................................................................................................................................................................... 16

10.1.2 Digital representation ................................................................................................................................................ 16

10.1.3 Command distribution ............................................................................................................................................... 16

10.1.4 Message push ...................................................................................................................................................................... 16

10.1.5 Service access ........................................................................................................................................... .......................... 16

10.1.6 Protocol and format translation ........................................................................................................................ 17

10.2 Delivery interface .............................................................................................................................................................................. 17

10.2.1 Authentication ................................................................................................................................................................... 17

10.2.2 Inquire ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 17

10.2.3 Subscription ......................................................................................................................................................................... 17

10.2.4 Procedure call .................................................................................................................................................................... 17

10.2.5 System call ............................................................................................................................................................................ 17

10.2.6 Application programming interface (API) ............................................................................................... 17

Annex A (informative) Example of SCDP data service reusability ....................................................................................18

Annex B (informative) Elaboration with ISO/IEC 30145-3 ........................................................................................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

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ISO/IEC 24039:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance

are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria

needed for the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see https://patents.iec.ch).

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expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
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ISO/IEC 24039:2022(E)
Introduction

Smart city digital platforms (SCDPs) aim to form a pragmatic development of information technology

foundations that enable the integration of urban services. SCDPs are part of the digital transformation

in urban infrastructure and services that is being driven by the deployment of the internet of things

(IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), cloud computing, big data and digital twin solutions, and other digital

technologies.

An SCDP is a space where different applications can share fundamental common resources and

functions. It provides an interface to integrate a city's digital and physical infrastructure. It also

provides integrated capability to coordinate data, services and applications across operational domains

for multiple stakeholders in smart cities.

An SCDP is intended to help to break down the traditional system silos of a city by bringing connections

between them. It looks beyond sectoral silos to reimagine existing systems, enable new processes and

interactions, and migrate towards new forms of service delivery. The digital capabilities provided by

SCDPs aim at connecting things, connecting data and connecting innovation. These capabilities are key

criteria for enabling cities to build partnerships to ensure their economies, environment and services

are fit for the future.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 24039:2022(E)
Information technology — Smart city digital platform
reference architecture — Data and service
1 Scope

This document specifies the reference architecture of smart city digital platforms (SCDPs), with a focus

on supporting access to data and services for applications in smart cities.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
asset
anything that has value to a stakeholder
[SOURCE: ISO 22739:2020, 3.1]
3.2
data
representation of facts of objective reality in a formalized manner

EXAMPLE Data can be signs and symbols, and can be in analogue form, digital form or both.

Note 1 to entry: Data can be used for communication, interpretation or processing by human beings or automatic

means.
[SOURCE: IEC CDV 60050-831, 2.2]
3.3
information
structured, contextualized and processed data that are endowed with meaning

Note 1 to entry: Information is meaningful and useful to human beings, or machines or both.

3.4
interoperability

property permitting diverse systems or components to work together for a specified purpose

[SOURCE: IEC 80001-1:2010, 2.11]
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ISO/IEC 24039:2022(E)
3.5
metadata

data about data or data elements, possibly including their data descriptions, and data about data

ownership, access paths, access rights and data volatility

Note 1 to entry: The term “metadata” in this document mainly aims to aid the identification, discovery, assessment

and management of the data collected by SCDP.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 20546:2019, 3.1.24, modified — Note 1 to entry is added.]
3.6
platform

combination of an operating system and hardware that makes up the operating environment in which

a program runs
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 26513:2017, 3.30]
3.7
smart city digital platform
SCDP

combination of software and hardware that makes up the operating environment to support smart city

common services and applications

Note 1 to entry: The operating environment enables data from a variety of sources to be processed and common

services to be provided.

Note 2 to entry: Common services are aimed at improving the interoperability of cross-domain systems, for

example data exchange, catalogue service, subscription and distribution, etc.
4 Overview

A SCDP connects smart city information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure, such as

device, network and Internet, and smart city applications, such as e-government and public service, city

operation, decision-making and industry service, as shown in Figure 1. The SCDP is characterized by

the combined exploitation of software components with heterogeneous physical devices and protocols,

furnishing smart city applications with ready-to-use software services and enhancing the system

performance in various system environments. This ultimately provides optimized and integrated city

services to the end users, such as governments, individuals, organizations and companies. One example

of SCDP data service reusability for different applications is provided in Annex A.

SCDPs implement capabilities of the data and services supporting layer described in ISO/IEC 30145-3

(see Annex B). Guided by the design principles in Clause 5, the functions of an SCDP can be categorized

into four groups:
1) technical support,
2) resource management,
3) capability exposure, and
4) interface.
This is shown in Figure 1.
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ISO/IEC 24039:2022(E)
Figure 1 — Functions of a smart city digital platform

Technical support: aims at providing reliable and scalable technical and system tools to help improve

data integration and service aggregation and to build horizontal foundations to eliminate information

silos.

Resource management: aims at guaranteeing migration of resources, transparency of processes,

quality of data and services, operation efficiency and service evolution.

Capability exposure: aims at enabling reuse and openness, integrating business value with data and

services and providing ready-to-use functional blocks for smart city applications.

Interface: aims at providing a unified approach to access interfaces to reduce process complexity for

external access and enable flexible interactions.
5 Design principles
The design principles of SCDPs are as follows:

Holistic: looking beyond information silos to reimagine existing systems, create new processes and

interactions, and migrate towards new forms of service delivery, in order to avoid information silos and

to generate interoperable, standards-based, replicable and scalable solutions for cities.

Modularity: utilize advantages of service-oriented architecture and microservice architecture, provide

loosely-coupled service modules which support the constant evolution of robust and powerful services

and flexible adaptation to various new business requirements;

Transparency: data and services should be able to exchange, process and deposit with standard format

and trackable flow. This improves the interoperability and transparency of the platform in order to

improve operational efficiency and value creation for cities;

Reusability: data, services and applications need to be utilized based on shared capabilities and

functionality, in order to fulfil rapid response requirements for new businesses and avoid repetitive

development investment;
Security: data, services and applications need to be secure by design.

Table 1 shows the linkage between design principles and the SCDP function groups.

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ISO/IEC 24039:2022(E)
Table 1 — Function group mapping with design principal
Holistic Modularity Transparency Reusability Security
Technical sup-
X X X X X
porting
Resource man-
X X X X X
agement
Capability expo-
X X X X
sure
Interface X X X
6 Reference architecture

The reference architecture from the functional viewpoint of SCDPs with a focus on supporting external

access of data and services is shown in Figure 2.

The technical support function group as described in Clause 4 and Figure 1 includes functions of data

collection, data processing, data storage, operating tools and development testing.

The resource management function group as described in Clause 4 and Figure 1 includes functions of

data assets management, data governance, data intelligence, service decoupling, domain model and

service extraction.

The capability exposure function group as described in Clause 4 and Figure 1 includes functions of data

service, data operation, data portal, service integration and service delivery.

The interface function group as described in Clause 4 and Figure 1 includes functions of collection

interface and delivery interface.

NOTE Functions shown in dotted line blocks including artificial intelligence, cloud, privacy and security and

system management in Figure 2 are not included in this document.

NOTE Within Figure 2, a special focus is placed on supporting external access of data and services.

Figure 2 — Reference architecture from the functional viewpoint of smart city digital platforms

(SCDPs)
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ISO/IEC 24039:2022(E)

Data collection is a process for the collection of qualitative and quantitative data via digital tools or

software from various sources.

Data processing is the manipulation of data to produce meaningful information and insight.

Data storage is the collection and retention of digital information in a storage medium.

Data asset management refers to the software components which establish a systematic approach to

organizing and retrieving the assets.

Data governance is a process focused on managing the quality, consistency, usability, security and

availability of data.

Data intelligence is the process of using artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning tools to

analyse and transform massive data sets into intelligent data insights, which can then be used to

improve services.

Data service refers to software services that encapsulate operations on key data entities of relevance

to stakeholders.

Data operation is a process to create business value from data with a systematic data management

methodology.

Data portal is a system or platform which supports users in accessing collections of data.

Service decoupling is a process of segregating service flows into independent functional modules.

Domain model is a conceptual model of the domain that incorporates both behaviour and data.

Service extraction is a process of selecting and orchestrating necessary service modules to meet

specific requirements.

Service integration is a process of integrating interdependent services from various internal and

external service modules into ready-to-use services in order to meet specific requirements.

Service delivery is a process of enabling users to access and receive required services.

Operating tool is a set of foundational functions for effective running of hardware and software.

Development testing is a software development process that involves the synchronized application of a

broad spectrum of defect prevention and detection strategies in order to reduce software development

risks, time and costs.

Collection interface is the interface where an SCDP collects data from external hardware infrastructure

and software systems.

Delivery interface is the interface where an SCDP provides services or capabilities for external

systems or users.
7 Technical support
7.1 Data collection
Data collection capabilities provided by an SCDP should:

a) support the collection of structured data, semi-structured data and non-structured data;

b) support the collection of bulk data, near real-time data and real-time data;

c) support unified data collection management, such as management of data source, acquisition

frequency, acquisition range, etc.;
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ISO/IEC 24039:2022(E)

d) support data import, data export and data exchange with external data sources, such as relational

databases, file servers, etc.;

e) support various data collection methods, such as automatic collection, manual report, file upload,

interface call, etc.
7.2 Data processing
Data processing capabilities provided by an SCDP should:

a) support the extraction of data in real time or at regular intervals according to customized

requirements;

b) support distributed data processing, bulk data processing and real-time streaming data processing;

c) support various mainstream data processing frameworks, such as batch processing, interactive

queries, data retrieval, real-time streaming, memory computing, etc.;

d) support mainstream data processing operations, such as task creation, orchestration, execution,

monitoring, etc.;

e) enable extract-transform-load (ETL) capabilities, such as data extraction, cleaning, conversion and

loading;

NOTE ETL is used to extract necessary data from data sources such as databases, to transform the data

into the desired form, and to load them into a target system.
f) support data semanti
...

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