Refractories — Determination of dynamic Young’s modulus (MOE) at elevated temperatures by impulse excitation of vibration

This document specifies a method for determining the dynamic Young's modulus of rectangular cross-section bars and circular cross-section specimens of refractories by impulse excitation of vibration at elevated temperature. The dynamic Young's modulus is determined using the resonant frequency of the specimen in its flexural mode of vibration. This document does not address the safety issues associated with its use. It is responsibility of the users of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices.

Produits réfractaires — Détermination du module de Young dynamique (MOE) à hautes températures par excitation de vibration par impulsion

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Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Aug-2020
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
17-Aug-2020
Completion Date
17-Aug-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22605
First edition
2020-08
Refractories — Determination of
dynamic Young’s modulus (MOE) at
elevated temperatures by impulse
excitation of vibration
Produits réfractaires — Détermination du module de Young
dynamique (MOE) à hautes températures par excitation de vibration
par impulsion
Reference number
ISO 22605:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22605:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 22605:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Significance and use .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8 Test specimens........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8.1 Specimen geometry ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8.2 Specimen dimensions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.3 Surface finishing of specimens .................................................................................................................................................. 6

9 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

9.1 Specimen drying .................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

9.2 Determination of specimen mass and dimension .................................................................................................... 6

9.3 Loading of the test specimen ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

9.4 Determination of the room temperature Young’s modulus ............................................................................. 6

9.5 Determination of fundamental flexural resonant frequency .......................................................................... 7

9.5.1 Method A: Isothermal measurement at pre-set temperature ................................................... 7

9.5.2 Method B: Continuous measurement during ramping to test temperature ................. 8

10 Calculations................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

11 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

Annex A (informative) Factors affecting accuracy of determinations ............................................................................10

Annex B (informative) Calculation of Young's modulus at room temperature (according to

ISO 12680-1) ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 22605:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 33, Refractories.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22605:2020(E)
Refractories — Determination of dynamic Young’s modulus
(MOE) at elevated temperatures by impulse excitation of
vibration
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for determining the dynamic Young’s modulus of rectangular cross-

section bars and circular cross-section specimens of refractories by impulse excitation of vibration at

elevated temperature. The dynamic Young’s modulus is determined using the resonant frequency of the

specimen in its flexural mode of vibration.

This document does not address the safety issues associated with its use. It is responsibility of the users

of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5022, Shaped refractory products — Sampling and acceptance testing

ISO 8656-1, Refractory products — Sampling of raw materials and unshaped products — Part 1:

Sampling scheme

ISO 12680-1, Methods of test for refractory products — Part 1: Determination of dynamic Young's modulus

(MOE) by impulse excitation of vibration
ISO 16835, Refractory products — Determination of thermal expansion
IEC 60584-1, Thermocouples — Part 1: EMF specifications and tolerances
IEC 60584-2, Thermocouples — Part 2: Tolerances
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
modulus of elasticity
MOE
ratio of stress to strain below the proportional limit (3.2)
3.2
proportional limit

greatest stress which a material is capable of sustaining without deviation form proportionality of

stress to strain (Hooke’s Law)
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 22605:2020(E)
3.3
homogeneous
uniform composition, density and texture

Note 1 to entry: A result of homogeneity is that any smaller specimen taken from the original is representative

of the whole. In refractory practice, as long as the geometrical dimensions of the specimen are large with respect

to the size of individual grains, crystals, components, pores and microcracks, the body can be considered

homogeneous.
3.4
isotropic

condition of a specimen such that the values of the elastic properties are the same in all directions in

the specimen
3.5
resonant frequency
natural frequencies of vibration of a body driven into flexural vibration (3.6)

Note 1 to entry: Resonant frequencies are determined by the elastic modulus, mass and dimensions of the

specimen. The lowest resonant frequency in a vibrational mode is the fundamental resonant.

3.6
flexural vibrations
displacements in a slender bar or rod (3.11) in the plane normal to its length
3.7
nodes

location on a slender bar or rod (3.11) in resonance having a constant zero displacement

Note 1 to entry: For the fundamental flexural resonance of such a rod or bar, the nodes are located at 0,224L form

each end, where L is the length of the specimen.
3.8
anti-nodes

locations, generally two or more, of local maximum displacement in an unconstrained slender bar or rod

(3.11) in resonance

Note 1 to entry: For the fundamental flexural resonance, the anti-nodes are located at the two ends and the

centre of the specimen.
3.9
out-of-plane flexure

flexural mode for rectangular parallelepiped geometry specimens in which the direction of the

displacement is perpendicular to the major plane of the specimen
3.10
in-plane flexure

flexural mode for rectangular parallelepiped geometry specimens in which the direction of the

displacement is in the major plane of the specimen
3.11
slender bar
slender rod

slender bar whose ratio of length to width is at least 3 and the ratio of length to thickness is at least 5,

slender rod whose ratio of length to diameter is at least 5
Note 1 to entry: This applies to dynamic property testing.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 22605:2020(E)
4 Principle

A test specimen of suitable geometry is heated up to the test temperature and allowed to stabilize at

this temperature. It is then excited mechanically with a single elastic strike by an adequate impulse tool

(Method A).

Alternatively, the test specimen is heated up (resp. cooled down) at a low heating rate (resp. cooling

rate) to the test temperature, excited mechanically with a single elastic strike by an adequate impulse

tool at regular intervals and the fundamental resonant frequency values are determined (Method B).

A vibration signal detector (e.g. non-contacting microphone or laser vibrometer) senses the mechanical

vibrations in the specimen resulting from the excitation and transforms the vibrations into electrical

signals. Specimen supports, impulse locations and signal pick-up points are selected to induce and

measure a specific mode of transient vibrations, i.e. the flexural mode. The signals are analysed and a

signal analyser that provides data about the frequency and/or the period of the specimen's vibration

determines the fundamental resonant frequency. The appropriate fundamental resonant frequency,

dimensions and mass of the specimen are then used to calculate the dynamic Young's modulus at this

test temperature.
5 Significance and use

This test method may be used for refractory characterization, development and quality control

purposes.

This test method is appropriate for determining the modulus of elasticity of refractory bodies that are

homogeneous in nature.

This method addresses the determination of the dynamic moduli of elasticity of slender rectangular

bars and cylindrical rods.

This test method is non-destructive in use, so it may be used on specimens prepared for other tests. The

specimens are subjected to only minute strains; hence the moduli are measured at or near the origin of

the stress-strain curve with a minimum possibility of specimen fracture.

The test provides options for variations in test specimen sizes and procedure to accommodate most

refractory compositions and textures.

The impulse excitation test method utilizes an impact tool (hammer) and simple supports for the test

specimen.
This test method is not suitable for specimens with major cracks or voids.

This test method is limited to determining moduli of specimens with regular geometries, such as

rectangular parallelepipeds and cylinders, for which analytical equations are available to relate

geometry, mass and modulus to the resonant vibration frequency.

The analytical equations assume parallel or concentric dimensions for the geometry of the specimens.

Deviations in the dimensions of the specimens will introduce errors in the calculations and in the

results of the test.

Uneven or excessively rough surfaces of as-formed specimens can have a significant effect on the

accuracy of the determination. The dynamic modulus value is inversely proportional to the cube of the

thickness, so the thickness variation is significant.

This test method assumes that the specimen is vibrating freely with no significant or impediment.

Specimen supports should be designed and located so the specimen can vib
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 22605
ISO/TC 33
Refractories — Determination of
Secretariat: BSI
dynamic Young’s modulus (MOE) at
Voting begins on:
2020­05­12 elevated temperatures by impulse
excitation of vibration
Voting terminates on:
2020­07­07
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 22605:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 22605:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 22605:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Significance and use .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8 Test specimens........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8.1 Specimen geometry ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8.2 Specimen dimensions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.3 Surface finishing of specimens .................................................................................................................................................. 6

9 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

9.1 Specimen drying .................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

9.2 Determination of specimen mass and dimension .................................................................................................... 6

9.3 Loading of the test specimen ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

9.4 Determination of the room temperature Young’s modulus ............................................................................. 6

9.5 Determination of fundamental flexural resonant frequency .......................................................................... 7

9.5.1 Method A: Isothermal measurement at pre­set temperature ................................................... 7

9.5.2 Method B: Continuous measurement during ramping to test temperature ................. 8

10 Calculations................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

11 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

Annex A (informative) Factors affecting accuracy of determinations ............................................................................10

Annex B (informative) Calculation of Young's modulus at room temperature (according to

ISO 12680-1) ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 22605:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 33, Refractories.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 22605:2020(E)
Refractories — Determination of dynamic Young’s modulus
(MOE) at elevated temperatures by impulse excitation of
vibration
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for determining the dynamic Young’s modulus of rectangular cross-

section bars and circular cross-section specimens of refractories by impulse excitation of vibration at

elevated temperature. The dynamic Young’s modulus is determined using the resonant frequency of the

specimen in its flexural mode of vibration.

This document does not address the safety issues associated with its use. It is responsibility of the users

of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5022, Shaped refractory products — Sampling and acceptance testing

ISO 8656­1, Refractory products — Sampling of raw materials and unshaped products — Part 1:

Sampling scheme

ISO 12680­1, Methods of test for refractory products — Part 1: Determination of dynamic Young's modulus

(MOE) by impulse excitation of vibration
ISO 16835, Refractory products — Determination of thermal expansion
IEC 60584­1, Thermocouples — Part 1: EMF specifications and tolerances
IEC 60584­2, Thermocouples — Part 2: Tolerances
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
modulus of elasticity
MOE
ratio of stress to strain below the proportional limit (3.2)
3.2
proportional limit

greatest stress which a material is capable of sustaining without deviation form proportionality of

stress to strain (Hooke’s Law)
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 22605:2020(E)
3.3
homogeneous
uniform composition, density and texture

Note 1 to entry: A result of homogeneity is that any smaller specimen taken from the original is representative

of the whole. In refractory practice, as long as the geometrical dimensions of the specimen are large with respect

to the size of individual grains, crystals, components, pores and microcracks, the body can be considered

homogeneous.
3.4
isotropic

condition of a specimen such that the values of the elastic properties are the same in all directions in

the specimen
3.5
resonant frequency
natural frequencies of vibration of a body driven into flexural vibration (3.6)

Note 1 to entry: Resonant frequencies are determined by the elastic modulus, mass and dimensions of the

specimen. The lowest resonant frequency in a vibrational mode is the fundamental resonant.

3.6
flexural vibrations
displacements in a slender bar or rod (3.11) in the plane normal to its length
3.7
nodes

location on a slender bar or rod (3.11) in resonance having a constant zero displacement

Note 1 to entry: For the fundamental flexural resonance of such a rod or bar, the nodes are located at 0,224L form

each end, where L is the length of the specimen.
3.8
anti-nodes

locations, generally two or more, of local maximum displacement in an unconstrained slender bar or rod

(3.11) in resonance

Note 1 to entry: For the fundamental flexural resonance, the anti-nodes are located at the two ends and the

centre of the specimen.
3.9
out-of-plane flexure

flexural mode for rectangular parallelepiped geometry specimens in which the direction of the

displacement is perpendicular to the major plane of the specimen
3.10
in-plane flexure

flexural mode for rectangular parallelepiped geometry specimens in which the direction of the

displacement is in the major plane of the specimen
3.11
slender bar
slender rod

slender bar whose ratio of length to width is at least 3 and the ratio of length to thickness is at least 5

slender rod whose ratio of length to diameter is at least 5
Note 1 to entry: This applies to dynamic property testing.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 22605:2020(E)
4 Principle

A test specimen of suitable geometry is heated up to the test temperature and allowed to stabilize at

this temperature. It is then excited mechanically with a single elastic strike by an adequate impulse tool

(Method A).

Alternatively, the test specimen is heated up (resp. cooled down) at a low heating rate (resp. cooling

rate) to the test temperature, excited mechanically with a single elastic strike by an adequate impulse

tool at regular intervals and the fundamental resonant frequency values are determined (Method B).

A vibration signal detector (e.g. non­contacting microphone or laser vibrometer) senses the mechanical

vibrations in the specimen resulting from the excitation and transforms the vibrations into electrical

signals. Specimen supports, impulse locations and signal pick­up points are selected to induce and

measure a specific mode of transient vibrations, i.e. the flexural mode. The signals are analysed and a

signal analyser that provides data about the frequency and/or the period of the specimen's vibration

determines the fundamental resonant frequency. The appropriate fundamental resonant frequency,

dimensions and mass of the specimen are then used to calculate the dynamic Young's modulus at this

test temperature.
5 Significance and use

This test method may be used for refractory characterization, development and quality control

purposes.

This test method is appropriate for determining the modulus of elasticity of refractory bodies that are

homogeneous in nature.

This method addresses the determination of the dynamic moduli of elasticity of slender rectangular

bars and cylindrical rods.

This test method is non-destructive in use, so it may be used on specimens prepared for other tests. The

specimens are subjected to only minute strains; hence the moduli are measured at or near the origin of

the stress-strain curve with a minimum possibility of specimen fracture.

The test provides options for variations in test specimen sizes and procedure to accommodate most

refractory compositions and textures.

The impulse excitation test method utilizes an impact tool (hammer) and simple supports for the test

specimen.
This test method is not suitable for specimens with major cracks or voids.

This test method is limited to determining moduli of specimens with regular geometries, such as

rectangular parallelepipeds and cylinders, for which analytical equations are available to relate

geometry, mass and modulus to the resonant vibration frequency.

The analytical equations assume parallel or concentric dimensions for the geometry of the specimens.

Deviations in the dimensions of the specimens will introduce errors in the calculations and in the

results of the test.

Uneven or excessively rough surfaces of as-formed specimens can have a significant effect on the

accuracy of the determination. The dynamic modulus value is inversely proportional to the cube of the

...

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