Wheelchairs

This document specifies the test methods and requirements for determining the safety and performance of a manual and/or power wheelchair that incorporates technology to alter the posture of the wheelchair occupant, which are either electrically or manually operated by the occupant or assistant during normal wheelchair use. This can include recline, tilt, elevate and stand-up mechanisms or a combination of these. In order for a wheelchair to be able to recline, tilt, elevate and/or stand-up, the wheelchair requires additional mechanisms and mechanical structures to allow these features to operate. This document specifies the different functional and strength tests required to test these wheelchairs in critical configurations of their adjustable range. This document does not cover wheelchairs where the only operator adjustable body support system (OABSS) is adjustable limb or head postural support devices alone (e.g. elevating leg supports). This document does not include wheelchair and postural support device customization during initial or subsequent setup of a wheelchair for an individual occupant. It also does not reflect other factors that can influence wheelchair stability such as occupant movement, cushion thickness, and the addition of ancillary equipment (e.g. respiratory support items).

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General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Dec-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
17-Nov-2018
Completion Date
13-Dec-2018
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 7176-30
First edition
2018-12
Wheelchairs —
Part 30:
Wheelchairs for changing occupant
posture — Test methods and
requirements
Reference number
ISO 7176-30:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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ISO 7176-30:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 7176-30:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Test methods ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 General principle ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Test preparation ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Determining the maximum drivable configuration ................................................................................................ 4

4.4 Order of testing ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 General requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Application ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2 Static stability .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Dynamic stability of electrically powered wheelchairs ....................................................................................... 5

5.4 Efficiency of brakes ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.5 Overall dimensions .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.6 Strength tests............................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.6.2 Multi drum test .................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.6.3 Seat impact strength - Test method ................................................................................................................. 7

5.7 Wheelchairs for use as a seat in a motor vehicle ....................................................................................................... 8

5.8 Climatic tests for wheelchairs for changing occupant postures ................................................................... 9

5.9 Back support strength ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.10 Requirements for the operation force of levers .......................................................................................................... 9

6 Specific requirements for electrically powered wheelchairs and scooters. ...........................................9

6.1 Electrical, power and other controls and mechanisms ........................................................................................ 9

6.2 Theoretical range/postural cycles of electrically powered wheelchairs and

scooters due to the energy consumption of the OABSS ....................................................................................10

6.2.1 For OABSS’s which share a power source with the wheelchair’s drive

system — Modified theoretical range.........................................................................................................10

6.2.2 For OABSS’s which have a separate power source dedicated to the OABSS

— Theoretical cycle capacity .................. ............................................................................................................10

6.3 Test methods of maximum speed of electrically powered wheelchairs .............................................11

6.4 Obstacle climbing — Determination of obstacle climbing ability of electrically

powered wheelchairs .....................................................................................................................................................................11

7 Specific requirements for wheelchairs with either an electrically or manually
operated body support system for occupant not exceeding 150 kg - Back support

applied wheelchair tip fatigue strength ....................................................................................................................................11

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2 Requirement ..........................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.3 Test method ............................................................................................................................................................................................12

8 Back-support adjustment force test (unlocked) for reclining type wheelchair ..............................13

9 Specific requirements for wheelchairs with stand-up mechanisms ...........................................................14

9.1 Strength test for wheelchairs that incorporate a stand-up mechanism with lower

leg support ...............................................................................................................................................................................................14

9.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

9.1.2 Test methods ....................................................................................................................................................................14

9.2 Strength test for the wheelchairs for changing occupant posture which has stand-

up mechanism with hip/upper torso support ..........................................................................................................15

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

9.2.2 Test methods ....................................................................................................................................................................16

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ISO 7176-30:2018(E)

10 Requirements for information disclosure ..............................................................................................................................17

11 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Recommendations for lower leg support of the wheelchair with

stand-up mechanism .....................................................................................................................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 7176-30:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 173, Assistive products, Subcommittee

SC 1, Wheelchairs.
A list of all parts in the ISO 7176 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 7176-30:2018(E)
Introduction

Wheelchairs which can alter the occupant's position in relation to the ground, in one or multiple planes

can be an important factor in the appropriate selection of a wheelchair for people with disability and/or

aged persons. These wheelchairs and their adjustable body support system can allow the occupant to

engage in their environment, or assist in altering pressure distribution and/or postural position.

These features include but are not limited to:
— recline (where the angle of a back support can be changed),
— tilt (where the angle of a seat surface can be changed),
— elevate (where the seat height changes in the vertical plane), and

— stand-up function (where the back support, seat surface, arm supports, lower leg and foot supports

can be changed to support the occupant in a standing position).
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 7176-30:2018(E)
Wheelchairs —
Part 30:
Wheelchairs for changing occupant posture — Test
methods and requirements
1 Scope

This document specifies the test methods and requirements for determining the safety and

performance of a manual and/or power wheelchair that incorporates technology to alter the posture

of the wheelchair occupant, which are either electrically or manually operated by the occupant or

assistant during normal wheelchair use. This can include recline, tilt, elevate and stand-up mechanisms

or a combination of these. In order for a wheelchair to be able to recline, tilt, elevate and/or stand-

up, the wheelchair requires additional mechanisms and mechanical structures to allow these features

to operate. This document specifies the different functional and strength tests required to test these

wheelchairs in critical configurations of their adjustable range.

This document does not cover wheelchairs where the only operator adjustable body support system

(OABSS) is adjustable limb or head postural support devices alone (e.g. elevating leg supports).

This document does not include wheelchair and postural support device customization during initial or

subsequent setup of a wheelchair for an individual occupant. It also does not reflect other factors that

can influence wheelchair stability such as occupant movement, cushion thickness, and the addition of

ancillary equipment (e.g. respiratory support items).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 7176-1:2014, Wheelchairs — Part 1: Determination of static stability

ISO 7176-2:2017, Wheelchairs — Part 2: Determination of dynamic stability of electrically powered

wheelchairs
ISO 7176-3:2012, Wheelchairs — Part 3: Determination of effectiveness of brakes

ISO 7176-4:2008, Wheelchairs — Part 4: Energy consumption of electric wheelchairs and scooters for

determination of theoretical distance range

ISO 7176-5:2008, Wheelchairs — Part 5: Determination of dimensions, mass and manoeuvring space

ISO 7176-6:2001, Wheelchairs — Part 6: Determination of maximum speed of electrically powered

wheelchairs

ISO 7176-8:2014, Wheelchairs — Part 8: Requirements and test methods for static, impact and fatigue

strengths
ISO 7176-9, Wheelchairs — Part 9: Climatic tests for electric wheelchairs

ISO 7176-10, Wheelchairs — Part 10: Determination of obstacle-climbing ability of electrically powered

wheelchairs
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ISO 7176-30:2018(E)
ISO 7176-11, Wheelchairs — Part 11: Test dummies

ISO 7176-14, Wheelchairs — Part 14: Power and control systems for electrically powered wheelchairs and

scooters — Requirements and test methods

ISO 7176-15, Wheelchairs — Part 15: Requirements for information disclosure, documentation and labelling

ISO 7176-19, Wheelchairs — Part 19: Wheeled mobility devices for use as seats in motor vehicles

ISO 7176-21, Wheelchairs — Part 21: Requirements and test methods for electromagnetic compatibility of

electrically powered wheelchairs and scooters, and battery chargers

ISO 7176-25, Wheelchairs — Part 25: Batteries and chargers for powered wheelchairs

ISO 7176-26, Wheelchairs — Part 26: Vocabulary

ISO 16840-3:2014, Wheelchair seating — Part 3: Determination of static, impact and repetitive load

strengths for postural support devices
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 7176-26 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
operator adjustable body support system
OABSS

postural support adjustable without tools and while occupied, that together change the posture of the

wheelchair occupant

Note 1 to entry: These include recline, tilt, elevate and stand-up systems, but do not include adjustable limb or

head postural support devices alone (e.g. elevating leg supports).
3.2
mechanism

system that provides the means for transitioning elements of the OABSS (3.1) from one position to another

Note 1 to entry: For some functions, a mechanism can be able to move multiple postural support devices (e.g. a

stand-up wheelchair system that can move upper torso support and lower leg support of the wheelchair), while

for some other functions a mechanism can be simple (e.g. a mechanical back support recline).

3.3
seated reference configuration
SRC

reference configuration of the body support system where no OABSS mechanisms are operated

Note 1 to entry: Position the test dummy in a posture close to the seated reference position as defined in

ISO 16840-1.

Note 2 to entry: In this configuration, the body support systems most closely match the setup requirements of

ISO 7176-22 for the wheelchair.

Note 3 to entry: If the body support system elevates, adjust its elevation to achieve a ground clearance of 50 mm

beneath the foot supports after appropriate adjustment of leg supports.
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ISO 7176-30:2018(E)
3.4
maximum adjustment configuration
MAC

configuration of the OABSS (3.1) that is the greatest change from the SRC (3.3), within the limits of

normal human anatomical movement (toward full extension of all joints) and in this position adjusted

to the greatest height of the occupant centre of mass

Note 1 to entry: For tilt, this would result in the maximum possible rearward rotation of the OABSS.

3.5
maximum driveable configuration
MDC

OABSS configuration closest to the MAC (3.4) which still allows the operator to effectively move the

wheelchair in the horizontal plane to change location

Note 1 to entry: These configurations are described by the manufacturer and identified in the operator’s manual.

Note 2 to entry: It does not include reduced speed settings that allow the operator to slightly adjust position

relative to a fixed object (e.g. to approach a bench).
3.6
stabilizing device

equipment fitted to a wheelchair that can be deployed (by the operator or automatically) to increase

the base of support (area within all points of ground contact) of the wheelchair to improve its static

stability
4 Test methods
4.1 General principle

The testing of multiple configurations required by this document requires careful planning to optimize

efficiency of tests. In some cases, tests in one configuration might automatically meet the requirements

of another configuration. Some protocols aim to test the performance and properties of the OABSS and

its effect on the wheelchair as a whole, while others focus on individual system requirements. A test

facility's rationale for determining that a particular configuration meets the requirements of another

configuration shall be reported in the test report. Test facilities shall indicate how they have achieved

the intended outcome for each test setup in the OABSS configuration selected.

EXAMPLE Least stable – forward: by extending & raising the leg supports, putting the back support

in minimal recline and maximum forward tilt, the combined centre of mass is as close to the front castors as

possible.
4.2 Test preparation

Select a test dummy or a human occupant as specified in ISO 7176-11 of mass equal to the maximum

occupant mass specified by the manufacturer for all cases except for static stability testing. Until

ISO 7176-11 is revised to incorporate centres of mass advice for test dummies in the supine position,

the "least stable" test of static stability (5.2 in this document) will usually occur with a test dummy of

100 kg mass or the maximum allowable mass and consequently both conditions shall be tested

The test dummy shall be held in place for testing with the knee/lower leg, the hip/upper torso and any

other supports provided on the wheelchairs for changing occupant posture. If these supports are not

adequate for supporting the test dummy, then straps with an elastic modulus of 2 N/mm to 5 N/mm of

extension can be used in areas where needed.

A human test occupant may be used instead of a test dummy. The mass and mass distribution of the

human occupant shall be within the tolerances specified in ISO 7176-11. This can be achieved by adding

weights to the human occupant.
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ISO 7176-30:2018(E)

WARNING — Where a human test occupant is used, it is essential that appropriate precautions

be taken to ensure the person’s safety.
4.3 Determining the maximum drivable configuration
Fit the wheelchair with the test dummy or a human as specified in 4.2.

Determine the OABSS configuration closest to the MAC which still allows the wheelchair to move in the

horizontal plane:
— and traverse up a step of 10 mm ± 2 mm, and
— for electrically powered wheelchairs, achieve a speed greater than 0,2 m/s.

ISO 7176-10 sets a nominal initial step height of 10 mm. If a different height is selected, this shall be

reported in the test report against the description of the MDC. Where multiple configurations are

possible, multiple MACs should be assessed using an iterative approach where necessary.

Movement that results through the operation of a freewheel mode is not considered as part of this

configuration (i.e. gearboxes/motors shall remain engaged throughout the test).

If the operator’s manual requires the operation of parking brakes prior to a particular OABSS adjustment,

the wheelchair is not considered to be able to move in the horizontal plane for that adjustment.

Record the settings of the wheelchair in this configuration as the MDC.
4.4 Order of testing

Wheelchair testing shall be in any order of the ISO 7176 series, although most laboratories will choose

to complete ISO 7176-8 as the final tests.

If the wheelchair meets multiple maximum configurations (full stand vs full recline), it shall be tested in

the MAC or MDC of the multiple configurations which apply unless certain configuration combinations

are not possible. Under circumstances where multiple maximum configurations are not possible to

be used in combination or are not recommended by the manufacturer (and these recommendations

are clearly indicated by sufficient labelling), then the wheelchair shall be tested in the maximum

recommended inclination, raise or stand as specified by the manufacturer. Such test configurations

shall be clearly documented in the test report.
Disconnecting interlocks is not required.
5 General requirements
5.1 Application
This clause applies to all wheelchairs for changing occupant posture.
5.2 Static stability
Test the wheelchair in accordance with ISO 7176-1 with the following changes:

a) Add the configurations from Table 1 of this document which lists extra configurations for static

testing to ISO 7176-1, to Tables 1 to 3 of ISO 7176-1:2014.
b) Where the wheelchair deploys stabilizing devices in certain configurations:

1) The "least stable" configuration is likely to occur prior to these devices contacting the ground.

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ISO 7176-30:2018(E)

2) Stability for the relevant clause of ISO 7176-1 should be recorded in this "least stable"

configuration, and again when the device is in the maximum adjustable configuration with

stabilizing devices fully deployed.

3) If it is possible for the operator to switch off the deployment of or remove (without tools)

stabilizing devices, each relevant test in ISO 7176-1 shall be repeated in the "least stable"

configuration without deploying the stabilizing devices.

4) Replace Table 4 of ISO 7176-1:2014 with Table 2 of this document which lists static stability

test results of OABSS.
Table 1 — Extra configurations for static testing according to ISO 7176-1
Adjustable wheelchair component Least stable Most stable
a b
Body support system, supporting occupant Full standing setting Seated setting
in standing
Whole body elevating postural support Highest elevation Lowest elevation

Holding occupant in an upright standing position with hips and knees fully extended (if possible).

Supporting occupant in a typical seated posture – hips and knees flexed at approximately 90°.

Table 2 — Static stability test results
Wheelchair tipping angle (degrees)
Least stable Most stable Least stable – Without
Stability direction
stabilizers
Front wheels locked
Forward
Front wheels
unlocked
Rear wheels locked
Rearward
Rear wheels unlocked
Left
Lateral orientation
Right
Anti-tip device tipping angle
Least Most effective Does device prevent
Stability direction
effective tipping over?
Rearward
Anti-tip device
Forward

Specify whether any active-stability system was operational during any test and annotate the above table

accordingly.
With lockable wheels locked.

With the wheelchair in "least stable" configuration (see ISO 7176-1:2014, 11.2.2 and 11.2.3).

Only applicable where operator can prevent deployment of stabilizer(s).
5.3 Dynamic stability of electrically powered wheelchairs

Test the power wheelchair in accordance with ISO 7176-2 with the following changes:

a) Add the configurations from Table 3 of this document which lists extra configurations for dynamic

stability testing according to ISO 7176-2:2017, Tables 1 to 3, (rearward, forward and lateral

stability).
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ISO 7176-30:2018(E)

Table 3 — Extra configurations for dynamic stability testing according to ISO 7176-2

Adjustable wheelchair component Least stable
Body support system, supporting oc- Maximum drivable configuration (MDC)
cupant in standing

Whole body elevating postural sup- MDC; speed limiting systems can require iteration to

port determine the "least stable"

NOTE In general the "least stable" dynamic stability will be in the MDC due to the speed attainable, but

in some cases, devices are less stable dynamically when operating in crawl mode and this can be verified

through testing.
b) Where the wheelchair deploys stabilizing devices in certain configurations:

1) The "least stable" configuration is likely to occur prior to these devices contacting the ground.

2) Stability for the relevant clause of ISO 7176-2 should be recorded in this "least stable"

configuration, and again when the device is in the maximum drivable configuration with

stabilizing devices fully deployed.

3) If it is possible for the operator to disable the deployment of stabilizing devices, each relevant

test in ISO 7176-2 shall be repeated in the "least stable" configuration without deploying the

stabilizing devices.

c) Where the wheelchair has multiple OABSS which can be tested together to create the "least stable"

configuration, test together. If unable to be tested together, these shall be tested separately. All

other "least stable" options listed in ISO 7176-2:2017, Tables 1 to 3 shall be tested together where

possible.

EXAMPLE Tilt, recline or elevation positions cannot be achieved while the chair is in the full standing

setting.
5.4 Efficiency of brakes
Test the wheelchair in accordance with ISO 7176-3 with the following addition:
For power wheelchairs, repeat ISO 7176-3:2012, 7.3 to 7.5 with OABSS in MDC.
5.5 Overall dimensions
Test the wheelchair in accordance with ISO 7176-5 with the following additions:
a) Measure the maximum overall height, width, and length with the wheelchair
...

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