Geographic information - Place Identifier (PI) architecture

This International Standard specifies an architecture that defines a reference model with an encoding
method for an identifier of a place. The concept of “place” within this International Standard includes
“places” not only in the real world but also those in the virtual world. These “places” are identified
using either coordinate identifiers, geographic identifiers, or virtual world identifiers such as URI. In
this International Standard, an identifier of a place is referred to as a Place Identifier (PI).
The reference model defines a mechanism to match multiple Place Identifiers to the same place. In
addition, a data structure and set of service interfaces are also defined in this reference model.
This International Standard is applicable to location based services, emergency management services
and other application domains that require a common architecture, across specific domains, for the
representation of place descriptions using coordinate, geographic, or virtual world identifiers.
This International Standard is not about producing any kind of specific place description, nor about
defining a unique, standardized description of defined places, such as an address coding scheme.

Information géographique - Architecture d'identifiants de lieu (IL)

L'ISO 19155:2012 sp�cifie une architecture qui d�finit un mod�le de r�f�rence avec une m�thode de codage d'un identifiant de lieu. Le concept de �lieu� dans l'ISO 19155:2012 int�gre les �lieux� non seulement du monde r�el, mais �galement du monde virtuel. Ces �lieux� sont identifi�s � partir soit d'identifiants sous forme de coordonn�es, soit d'identifiants g�ographiques, soit d'identifiants du monde virtuel tels que les URI. Dans l'ISO 19155:2012, l'Identifiant de lieu �PI� se rapporte � l'identifiant d'un lieu.
Le mod�le de r�f�rence d�finit un syst�me permettant de faire concorder de multiples identifiants de lieu avec un seul et m�me lieu. En outre, ce mod�le de r�f�rence comporte �galement la d�finition d'une structure de donn�es et d'un jeu d'interfaces de service.
L'ISO 19155:2012 s'applique aux services s'appuyant sur la localisation, aux services de gestion des situations d'urgence et � d'autres domaines d'application qui n�cessitent une architecture commune � des domaines sp�cifiques, pour repr�senter des descriptions de lieux utilisant des identifiants sous forme de coordonn�es, des identifiants g�ographiques ou des identifiants du monde virtuel.

Geografske informacije - Arhitektura lokacijskih identifikatorjev

Ta mednarodni standard določa arhitekturo, ki določa referenčni model s šifrirno metodo za identifikator lokacije. Koncept »lokacije« v okviru tega mednarodnega standarda vključuje tako realne kot navidezne »lokacije«. Te »lokacije« so označene z identifikatorji koordinat, geografskimi identifikatorji ali navideznimi identifikatorji, kot je URI. V tem mednarodnem standardu je identifikator lokacije opredeljen kot lokacijski identifikator. Referenčni model določa mehanizem, ki poveže več lokacijskih identifikatorjev z isto lokacijo. V tem referenčnem modelu sta določena tudi podatkovna struktura in nabor storitvenih vmesnikov. Ta mednarodni standard se uporablja za lokacijske storitve, nujne storitve upravljanja in druge domene uporabe, ki zahtevajo skupno arhitekturo v določenih domenah za predstavitev opisov lokacij z identifikatorji koordinat, geografskimi identifikatorji ali navideznimi identifikatorji. Ta mednarodni standard ne zajema izdelave kakršnega koli opisa določene lokacije oziroma določitve enoličnega, standardiziranega opisa določenih lokacij, kot je shema za kodiranje naslova.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Jan-2012
Publication Date
19-Jan-2015
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
05-Feb-2014
Due Date
12-Apr-2014
Completion Date
20-Jan-2015

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19155
First edition
2012-11-01
Geographic information — Place
Identifier (PI) architecture
Information géographique — Architecture d’identifiants de lieu (IL)
Reference number
ISO 19155:2012(E)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 19155:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any

means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the

address below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 19155:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2.1 Conformance clause............................................................................................................................................................................ 1

2.2 Conformance tests for Semantics............................................................................................................................................ 1

2.3 Conformance tests for Data .......................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.4 Conformance tests for Services ................................................................................................................................................ 1

2.5 Conformance tests for PI encoding ........................................................................................................................................ 1

3 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Abbreviated terms and notation .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 UML Notation ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 PI Reference Model ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.1 Background ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.2 PI Reference Model components ............................................................................................................................................. 6

6.3 PI platform .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.4 PI interface .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.5 PI user ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7 PI platform components ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 Overall layout of the PI platform ............................................................................................................................................. 8

7.2 Data ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Services .......................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8 Interfaces for the PI platform...............................................................................................................................................................14

8.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.2 Interface for PI matching service .........................................................................................................................................14

8.3 Interface for PI reference system service ......................................................................................................................16

8.4 Structures .................................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.5 Exception handling ...........................................................................................................................................................................27

Annex A (normative) Abstract test suite .......................................................................................................................................................29

Annex B (normative) PI encoding using GML ...........................................................................................................................................34

Annex C (informative) PI encoding using ‘tag’ URI Scheme .......................................................................................................36

Annex D (informative) PI encoding using Well Known Text (WKT) ..................................................................................37

Annex E (informative) Use case examples ...................................................................................................................................................38

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................41

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 19155:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies

casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 19155 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 211, Geographic information/Geomatics.

iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19155:2012(E)
Introduction

The rapid development of information technology has blurred the boundaries between the real and

virtual worlds in such a way that they cannot easily be disassociated from each other. Humans can

reference places in both worlds and easily differentiate between them. However for computers to clearly

differentiate these places, a set of matched linkages between them are required.

In the discipline of geography, space normally refers to the surface of the earth. However, in other

disciplines, space can refer to different paradigms. In architecture, space may be the extent of a room or

a building. In mathematics, space is defined as a set having structure. In the context of the World Wide

Web space is defined by URLs/URIs that identify web pages.

Within this International Standard “space” is considered as a set having structure, in which a position

or location identifies an element.

Currently, within the domain of ISO/TC 211, standards exist for precise positioning and locating using

either coordinates or geographic identifiers. However, the concept of place is broader than both position

and location. A “place” is referred to as a “position” when that place is identified using coordinates.

Similarly, a “place” is referred to as a “location” when that place is identified using geographic identifiers.

However, existing standards defined by ISO/TC 211 do not provide a mechanism for the representation

of a virtual “place” such as a website, or a construct acting as a “common base” which can be used to refer

to the other types of identifiers.

Within this International Standard, “place” is defined as an identifiable part of any space. This may

include “places” existing not only in the real world but also those in the virtual world. Places are identified

using either “position” by coordinates, “location” by geographic identifiers, or “virtual world identifiers”

such as a URI.

In this International Standard, the identifier of a place is referred to as a Place Identifier (PI). A single

“place” may be identified using several separate Place Identifiers. Clarification of these relationships is

shown in Figure 1.
Place Identifier
Real World Identifiers Virtual World Identifiers
Position
URI etc.
Location
Figure 1 — Relationships among place, position, location and URI

Place descriptions are used for information retrieval. In reality, those identifiers often refer to the same

place. Currently these relationships are difficult for machines to correctly distinguish, which impedes

the discovery and retrieval of information. The conceptual architecture and reference model defined in

this International Standard provides a mechanism for solving these problems.

When implemented, this architecture would enable the access and sharing of place descriptions using

the Place Identifier as the standardized method.

Within the reference model, place descriptions are defined using a PI. A PI consists of a reference system

(RS), a value, and the valid temporal period of that value.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 19155:2012(E)

The internal format and content of the value are determined by each community or domain. The

content of the values are not subject to any kind of standardization or unification by this International

Standard. The RS is also defined by each community, and should be unique across multiple communities.

Subsequently, Place Identifiers are unique within each RS. However, the values of the Place Identifiers

may be similar or even identical across multiple communities. This distributed concept ensures that

each community would maintain their own Place Identifiers. Well formed Place Identifiers may be

shared between communities.

Instead of specifying a framework for a globally unique type of identifier, the key idea of the architecture

defined in this International Standard enables the original place descriptions to be easily maintained,

without requiring difficult conversions and cross-community harmonization.

An encoding scheme based on Geography Markup Language (GML) (ISO 19136:2007) is normatively

defined in this International Standard. In addition, a group of alternate encoding schemes are presented

as informative annexes. Depending on the encoding method of choice, globally unique Place Identifiers

may be created resulting from the requirements of the encoding method used.

Methods for the conversion of “located features” to Place Identifiers are not covered within the scope of

this International Standard. While the direct relationship with the PI Architecture and other Spatial Data

Infrastructures (SDIs) is not explained, an implementation of the PI Architecture can be considered part

of an SDI. Various constructs, such as registries and databases, may be used to store Place Identifiers.

The flexible structure of the Place Identifier will allow for data stored in common GI systems to be easily

registered as Place Identifiers, however, the design and implementation of those procedures is out of

scope of this International Standard.
vi © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19155:2012(E)
Geographic information — Place Identifier (PI) architecture
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies an architecture that defines a reference model with an encoding

method for an identifier of a place. The concept of “place” within this International Standard includes

“places” not only in the real world but also those in the virtual world. These “places” are identified

using either coordinate identifiers, geographic identifiers, or virtual world identifiers such as URI. In

this International Standard, an identifier of a place is referred to as a Place Identifier (PI).

The reference model defines a mechanism to match multiple Place Identifiers to the same place. In

addition, a data structure and set of service interfaces are also defined in this reference model.

This International Standard is applicable to location based services, emergency management services

and other application domains that require a common architecture, across specific domains, for the

representation of place descriptions using coordinate, geographic, or virtual world identifiers.

This International Standard is not about producing any kind of specific place description, nor about

defining a unique, standardized description of defined places, such as an address coding scheme.

2 Conformance
2.1 Conformance clause

This International Standard specifies four conformance classes. The following conformance clauses

should be followed in order to meet the requirements of this International Standard.

2.2 Conformance tests for Semantics

To conform to this International Standard, instances of PI_PlaceIdentifier, PI_ReferenceSystem, PI_

MatchingTable, and PI_MatchedPISet shall satisfy the requirements of A.1.
2.3 Conformance tests for Data

To conform to this International Standard, data stored in the PI matching table and the reference system

shall satisfy the requirements of A.2.
2.4 Conformance tests for Services

To conform to this International Standard, interfaces between services and users that the PI matching

service and the reference system service implement shall satisfy the requirements of A.3.

2.5 Conformance tests for PI encoding

To conform to this International Standard, encoded instances of PI_PlaceIdentifier shall satisfy the

requirements of A.4.
3 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 19155:2012(E)
ISO/TS 19103:2005, Geographic Information — Conceptual schema language
ISO 19111:2007, Geographic information — Spatial referencing by coordinates

ISO 19112:2003, Geographic information — Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers

ISO 19136:2007, Geographic information — Geography Markup Language
4 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
4.1
client
software component that can invoke an operation from a server (4.16)
[ISO 19128:2005, 4.1]
4.2
coordinate

one of a sequence of n numbers designating the position of a point in n-dimensional space

[ISO 19111:2007, 4.5]

NOTE In a coordinate reference system (4.4), the coordinate numbers are qualified by units.

4.3
coordinate operation

change of coordinates (4.2), based on a one-to-one relationship, from one coordinate reference system

(4.4) to another
[ISO 19111:2007, 4.7]
NOTE Supertype of coordinate transformation and coordinate conversion.
4.4
coordinate reference system
coordinate (4.2) system that is related to an object by a datum
[ISO 19111:2007, 4.8]
NOTE For geodetic and vertical datums, the object will be the Earth.
4.5
gazetteer

directory of instances of a class or classes of features containing some information regarding position

[ISO 19112:2003, 4.2]

NOTE The positional information need not be coordinates (4.2), but could be descriptive.

4.6
geographic identifier

spatial reference (4.19) in the form of a label or code that identifies a location

[ISO 19112:2003, 4.3]

EXAMPLE ‘Spain’ is an example of a country name; ‘SW1P 3AD’ is an example of a postcode.

2 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19155:2012(E)
4.7
interface
named set of operations that characterize the behaviour of an entity
[ISO 19119:2005, 4.2]
4.8
place
identifiable part of any space
4.9
Place Identifier
reference that identifies a place (4.8)

NOTE The same place may be referenced by multiple Place Identifier (4.9) instances. Each instance will be

associated with a different reference system.
4.10
Place Identifier application
PI application

application providing services (4.17) that use Place Identifiers (4.9) to end users (4.21) or other applications

4.11
Place Identifier matching
PI matching

matching of a Place Identifier (4.9) specifying a place (4.8) with another type of PI identifying the same place

NOTE 1 A source PI can be matched with multiple target Place Identifiers.

NOTE 2 PI matching (4.11) can be made among coordinates (4.2), geographic identifiers (4.6) and identifiers in

the virtual world such as URI.
4.12
Place Identifier platform
PI platform

group of service (4.17) interfaces (4.7) and data structures used for PI matching (4.11)

4.13
registration
assignment of a permanent, unique, and unambiguous identifier to an item
[ISO 19135:2005, 4.1.12]
4.14
request
invocation of an operation by a client (4.1)
[ISO 19128:2005, 4.10]
4.15
response
result of an operation returned from a server (4.16) to a client (4.1)
[ISO 19128:2005, 4.11]
4.16
server
particular instance of a service (4.17)
[ISO 19128:2005, 4.12]
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 19155:2012(E)
4.17
service

distinct part of the functionality that is provided by an entity through interfaces (4.7)

[ISO 19119:2005, 4.1]
4.18
service metadata

metadata describing the operations and geographic information available at a server (4.16)

[ISO 19128:2005, 4.14]
4.19
spatial reference
description of position in the real world
[ISO 19111:2007, 4.43]
NOTE This may take the form of a label, code or coordinate (4.2) tuple.
4.20
spatial reference system
system for identifying position in the real world
[ISO 19112:2003, 4.6]
4.21
user
active object that initiates service (4.17) requests (4.14) to the system
[ISO 19132:2007, 4.58]

NOTE 1 Users are usually objects that act as proxies for people accessing the functionality of the system.

NOTE 2 These objects can be a PI application (4.10) or creators of PI matching (4.11) tables and reference systems.

5 Abbreviated terms and notation
5.1 Abbreviated terms
CRS Coordinate Reference System
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol
PI Place Identifier
SRS Spatial Reference System
UML Unified Modelling Language
URI Uniform Resource Identifier
URL Uniform Resource Locator
XML eXtensible Markup Language
5.2 UML Notation

The UML notation used in this International Standard is specified in ISO/TS 19103:2005.

4 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19155:2012(E)
6 PI Reference Model
6.1 Background

Place may be understood as an element in any space, in either the real or virtual world. The Oxford

English Dictionary defines “place,” relevant to the content of this International Standard, with the

following entries:
— a particular position or point in space,
— a portion of space occupied by someone,
— a position in a sequence, in particular,
— [in place names] a square or short street.

In this International Standard space is considered as a set having structure, in which a position or

location identifies an element. Position is a place typically described by a point or geometry in a space.

Location is a place typically described by a geographic identifier such as a street address, postcode,

name of a landmark, etc.

“Place” in this International Standard is defined as an identifiable part of any space. This may include

“places” existing not only in the real world but also those in the virtual world. This International Standard

defines an identifier for a place which is referred to as a “Place Identifier (PI).”

The same place may be identified with multiple Place Identifiers. If the place is identified with coordinates,

it is called “position” and if the place is identified with geographic identifiers, it is called “location”.

Additionally, the place may be identified with online resource identifiers such us URI.

In the General Feature Model of ISO 19109:2005, “position” is a spatial attribute of a feature, “location” is

a location attribute of a feature, and a virtual identifier, such as a URI, is a thematic attribute of a feature.

Therefore, a PI can be considered as an attribute of a feature.

Humans can more easily see the relationships where those identifiers refer to the same place, yet

those relationships are more difficult for machines to distinguish correctly. This difficulty impedes

the discovery and retrieval of information. Matching of Place Identifiers enables humans to access

information using those Place Identifiers as retrieval keys.

This International Standard defines a reference model in which a method for matching between Place

Identifiers is defined. This matching method is shown in Figure 2. Parts of the matching method are

already defined in other International Standards. ISO 19111:2007 defines coordinate operations in

matching with position. ISO 19112:2003 defines a gazetteer schema that enables matching between

location and position. The reference model defined in this International Standard shall conform to

previous standards (ISO 19111:2007 and ISO 19112:2003), and further enables the matching between

different Place Identifiers.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 19155:2012(E)
ISO 19111 Position
ISO 19112
URI etc.
Location
PI Matching defined by ISO 19111 & ISO 19112
PI Matching defined in this IS
Figure 2 — Place Identifier Matching
6.2 PI Reference Model components

In this International Standard the PI Reference Model defines the basic structure of the PI architecture.

An image of the PI Reference Model is shown in Figure 3.
PI user
request
PI interface
response
PI platform
Figure 3 — PI Reference Model
The PI Reference Model consists of three components:
— the PI platform;
— the PI interface;
— a PI user.

The PI platform consists of data and services that are used for PI matching. The PI interface is a

standardized interface for requests and responses between the PI platform and a PI user. A PI user is a

client that sends requests to, and receives responses from the PI platform through the PI interface.

The PI Reference Model defined in this International Standard is a conceptual model and does not specify

an implementation of those components. This model represents a logical structure, not a physical one.

6 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19155:2012(E)

All UML class names in this International Standard shall begin with “PI_” in order to distinguish them

from other geographic information standard class names.
6.3 PI platform

The PI platform consists of data and services to register and manage Place Identifiers. The PI platform

also specifies a mechanism to match multiple Place Identifiers that identify the same place.

PI_Data is the root class for data in the PI platform. Within PI_Data there are three subclasses: PI_

PlaceIdentifier, PI_ReferenceSystem and PI_MatchingTable as shown in Figure 4. PI_PlaceIdentifier specifies

the structure of the PI. PI_ReferenceSystem specifies the reference system of the PI. PI_MatchingTable

consists of matched sets of multiple Place Identifiers. Each PI in the set identifies the same place.

«type»
PI_Data
«type» «type» «type»
PI_MatchingTable PI_ReferenceSystem PI_PlaceIdentifier
Figure 4 — PI_Data
Details of the PI_Data subclasses are specified in 7.2.2 to 7.2.5.

PI_Service is the root class of services in the PI platform. There are two subclasses: PI_MatchingService

and PI_RSService.

The PI_MatchingService manages information for PI matching, and retrieves or transfers the desired PI

instances as requested by a user. The PI_RSService manages reference system data obtained from the

reference systems which is necessary to facilitate the matching of Place Identifiers. The structure of

these services is shown in Figure 5.
PI_Service
PI_RSService PI_MatchingService
Figure 5 — PI_Service
Figure 5 shows the logical structure of PI services, not a physical structure.
6.4 PI interface

Interfaces are required for using the PI services and retrieving PI data. Within the PI Reference Model,

five interfaces are defined:
a) PI update interface;
b) PI retrieval interface;
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 19155:2012(E)
c) RS update interface;
d) RS retrieval interface;
e) Service metadata retrieval interface.
The aforementioned interfaces shall be used in the following cases:
— between a PI matching service or RS service, and a PI user;
— between a PI matching service and an RS service;
— between different PI matching services.

These interfaces are not limited to automatic processing by machine, as they may also include a user

interface or require manual processing by humans.
Clause 8 specifies the parameter definitions for the interfaces and structures.
6.5 PI user

A PI user is a user or application that makes use of the PI platform. A PI user may take any of the

following four roles:
a) PI application;
b) PI creator;
c) RS creator;
d) PI matching table creator.

A PI application is a user application that requests information from the PI platform regarding PI

matching and the reference systems of related Place Identifiers. An example of a PI application may be

an information retrieval application or a routing assistance application.
7 PI platform components
7.1 Overall layout of the PI platform
An overall view of the PI platform is shown in Figure 6.
8 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 19155:2012(E)
PI_Service
PI_RSService PI_MatchingService
1..*
rs table
0..*
«type» «type»
PI_ReferenceSystem PI_MatchingTable
2..*
pi 0..* set 1..*
equivalent
«type» «type»
PI_PlaceIdentifier PI_MatchedPISet
2..*
Figure 6 — Overall view of the PI Platform

Each component in the PI platform and the references related to 7.2 are listed in Table 1.

Table 1 — Components of the PI Platform
Components Description Reference
PI_PlaceIdentifier PI (reference that identifies a place) 7.2.2
PI_ReferenceSystem definition of a do
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 19155:2015
01-februar-2015
Geografske informacije - Arhitektura lokacijskih identifikatorjev
Geographic information - Place Identifier (PI) architecture
Information géographique - Architecture d'identifiants de lieu (IL)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 19155:2012
ICS:
07.040 Astronomija. Geodezija. Astronomy. Geodesy.
Geografija Geography
35.240.70 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in science
znanosti
SIST ISO 19155:2015 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 19155:2015
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 19155:2015
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19155
First edition
2012-11-01
Geographic information — Place
Identifier (PI) architecture
Information géographique — Architecture d’identifiants de lieu (IL)
Reference number
ISO 19155:2012(E)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 19155:2015
ISO 19155:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any

means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the

address below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 19155:2015
ISO 19155:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2.1 Conformance clause............................................................................................................................................................................ 1

2.2 Conformance tests for Semantics............................................................................................................................................ 1

2.3 Conformance tests for Data .......................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.4 Conformance tests for Services ................................................................................................................................................ 1

2.5 Conformance tests for PI encoding ........................................................................................................................................ 1

3 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Abbreviated terms and notation .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 UML Notation ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 PI Reference Model ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.1 Background ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.2 PI Reference Model components ............................................................................................................................................. 6

6.3 PI platform .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.4 PI interface .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.5 PI user ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7 PI platform components ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 Overall layout of the PI platform ............................................................................................................................................. 8

7.2 Data ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Services .......................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8 Interfaces for the PI platform...............................................................................................................................................................14

8.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.2 Interface for PI matching service .........................................................................................................................................14

8.3 Interface for PI reference system service ......................................................................................................................16

8.4 Structures .................................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.5 Exception handling ...........................................................................................................................................................................27

Annex A (normative) Abstract test suite .......................................................................................................................................................29

Annex B (normative) PI encoding using GML ...........................................................................................................................................34

Annex C (informative) PI encoding using ‘tag’ URI Scheme .......................................................................................................36

Annex D (informative) PI encoding using Well Known Text (WKT) ..................................................................................37

Annex E (informative) Use case examples ...................................................................................................................................................38

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................41

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies

casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 19155 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 211, Geographic information/Geomatics.

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Introduction

The rapid development of information technology has blurred the boundaries between the real and

virtual worlds in such a way that they cannot easily be disassociated from each other. Humans can

reference places in both worlds and easily differentiate between them. However for computers to clearly

differentiate these places, a set of matched linkages between them are required.

In the discipline of geography, space normally refers to the surface of the earth. However, in other

disciplines, space can refer to different paradigms. In architecture, space may be the extent of a room or

a building. In mathematics, space is defined as a set having structure. In the context of the World Wide

Web space is defined by URLs/URIs that identify web pages.

Within this International Standard “space” is considered as a set having structure, in which a position

or location identifies an element.

Currently, within the domain of ISO/TC 211, standards exist for precise positioning and locating using

either coordinates or geographic identifiers. However, the concept of place is broader than both position

and location. A “place” is referred to as a “position” when that place is identified using coordinates.

Similarly, a “place” is referred to as a “location” when that place is identified using geographic identifiers.

However, existing standards defined by ISO/TC 211 do not provide a mechanism for the representation

of a virtual “place” such as a website, or a construct acting as a “common base” which can be used to refer

to the other types of identifiers.

Within this International Standard, “place” is defined as an identifiable part of any space. This may

include “places” existing not only in the real world but also those in the virtual world. Places are identified

using either “position” by coordinates, “location” by geographic identifiers, or “virtual world identifiers”

such as a URI.

In this International Standard, the identifier of a place is referred to as a Place Identifier (PI). A single

“place” may be identified using several separate Place Identifiers. Clarification of these relationships is

shown in Figure 1.
Place Identifier
Real World Identifiers Virtual World Identifiers
Position
URI etc.
Location
Figure 1 — Relationships among place, position, location and URI

Place descriptions are used for information retrieval. In reality, those identifiers often refer to the same

place. Currently these relationships are difficult for machines to correctly distinguish, which impedes

the discovery and retrieval of information. The conceptual architecture and reference model defined in

this International Standard provides a mechanism for solving these problems.

When implemented, this architecture would enable the access and sharing of place descriptions using

the Place Identifier as the standardized method.

Within the reference model, place descriptions are defined using a PI. A PI consists of a reference system

(RS), a value, and the valid temporal period of that value.
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The internal format and content of the value are determined by each community or domain. The

content of the values are not subject to any kind of standardization or unification by this International

Standard. The RS is also defined by each community, and should be unique across multiple communities.

Subsequently, Place Identifiers are unique within each RS. However, the values of the Place Identifiers

may be similar or even identical across multiple communities. This distributed concept ensures that

each community would maintain their own Place Identifiers. Well formed Place Identifiers may be

shared between communities.

Instead of specifying a framework for a globally unique type of identifier, the key idea of the architecture

defined in this International Standard enables the original place descriptions to be easily maintained,

without requiring difficult conversions and cross-community harmonization.

An encoding scheme based on Geography Markup Language (GML) (ISO 19136:2007) is normatively

defined in this International Standard. In addition, a group of alternate encoding schemes are presented

as informative annexes. Depending on the encoding method of choice, globally unique Place Identifiers

may be created resulting from the requirements of the encoding method used.

Methods for the conversion of “located features” to Place Identifiers are not covered within the scope of

this International Standard. While the direct relationship with the PI Architecture and other Spatial Data

Infrastructures (SDIs) is not explained, an implementation of the PI Architecture can be considered part

of an SDI. Various constructs, such as registries and databases, may be used to store Place Identifiers.

The flexible structure of the Place Identifier will allow for data stored in common GI systems to be easily

registered as Place Identifiers, however, the design and implementation of those procedures is out of

scope of this International Standard.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19155:2012(E)
Geographic information — Place Identifier (PI) architecture
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies an architecture that defines a reference model with an encoding

method for an identifier of a place. The concept of “place” within this International Standard includes

“places” not only in the real world but also those in the virtual world. These “places” are identified

using either coordinate identifiers, geographic identifiers, or virtual world identifiers such as URI. In

this International Standard, an identifier of a place is referred to as a Place Identifier (PI).

The reference model defines a mechanism to match multiple Place Identifiers to the same place. In

addition, a data structure and set of service interfaces are also defined in this reference model.

This International Standard is applicable to location based services, emergency management services

and other application domains that require a common architecture, across specific domains, for the

representation of place descriptions using coordinate, geographic, or virtual world identifiers.

This International Standard is not about producing any kind of specific place description, nor about

defining a unique, standardized description of defined places, such as an address coding scheme.

2 Conformance
2.1 Conformance clause

This International Standard specifies four conformance classes. The following conformance clauses

should be followed in order to meet the requirements of this International Standard.

2.2 Conformance tests for Semantics

To conform to this International Standard, instances of PI_PlaceIdentifier, PI_ReferenceSystem, PI_

MatchingTable, and PI_MatchedPISet shall satisfy the requirements of A.1.
2.3 Conformance tests for Data

To conform to this International Standard, data stored in the PI matching table and the reference system

shall satisfy the requirements of A.2.
2.4 Conformance tests for Services

To conform to this International Standard, interfaces between services and users that the PI matching

service and the reference system service implement shall satisfy the requirements of A.3.

2.5 Conformance tests for PI encoding

To conform to this International Standard, encoded instances of PI_PlaceIdentifier shall satisfy the

requirements of A.4.
3 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

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ISO/TS 19103:2005, Geographic Information — Conceptual schema language
ISO 19111:2007, Geographic information — Spatial referencing by coordinates

ISO 19112:2003, Geographic information — Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers

ISO 19136:2007, Geographic information — Geography Markup Language
4 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
4.1
client
software component that can invoke an operation from a server (4.16)
[ISO 19128:2005, 4.1]
4.2
coordinate

one of a sequence of n numbers designating the position of a point in n-dimensional space

[ISO 19111:2007, 4.5]

NOTE In a coordinate reference system (4.4), the coordinate numbers are qualified by units.

4.3
coordinate operation

change of coordinates (4.2), based on a one-to-one relationship, from one coordinate reference system

(4.4) to another
[ISO 19111:2007, 4.7]
NOTE Supertype of coordinate transformation and coordinate conversion.
4.4
coordinate reference system
coordinate (4.2) system that is related to an object by a datum
[ISO 19111:2007, 4.8]
NOTE For geodetic and vertical datums, the object will be the Earth.
4.5
gazetteer

directory of instances of a class or classes of features containing some information regarding position

[ISO 19112:2003, 4.2]

NOTE The positional information need not be coordinates (4.2), but could be descriptive.

4.6
geographic identifier

spatial reference (4.19) in the form of a label or code that identifies a location

[ISO 19112:2003, 4.3]

EXAMPLE ‘Spain’ is an example of a country name; ‘SW1P 3AD’ is an example of a postcode.

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4.7
interface
named set of operations that characterize the behaviour of an entity
[ISO 19119:2005, 4.2]
4.8
place
identifiable part of any space
4.9
Place Identifier
reference that identifies a place (4.8)

NOTE The same place may be referenced by multiple Place Identifier (4.9) instances. Each instance will be

associated with a different reference system.
4.10
Place Identifier application
PI application

application providing services (4.17) that use Place Identifiers (4.9) to end users (4.21) or other applications

4.11
Place Identifier matching
PI matching

matching of a Place Identifier (4.9) specifying a place (4.8) with another type of PI identifying the same place

NOTE 1 A source PI can be matched with multiple target Place Identifiers.

NOTE 2 PI matching (4.11) can be made among coordinates (4.2), geographic identifiers (4.6) and identifiers in

the virtual world such as URI.
4.12
Place Identifier platform
PI platform

group of service (4.17) interfaces (4.7) and data structures used for PI matching (4.11)

4.13
registration
assignment of a permanent, unique, and unambiguous identifier to an item
[ISO 19135:2005, 4.1.12]
4.14
request
invocation of an operation by a client (4.1)
[ISO 19128:2005, 4.10]
4.15
response
result of an operation returned from a server (4.16) to a client (4.1)
[ISO 19128:2005, 4.11]
4.16
server
particular instance of a service (4.17)
[ISO 19128:2005, 4.12]
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4.17
service

distinct part of the functionality that is provided by an entity through interfaces (4.7)

[ISO 19119:2005, 4.1]
4.18
service metadata

metadata describing the operations and geographic information available at a server (4.16)

[ISO 19128:2005, 4.14]
4.19
spatial reference
description of position in the real world
[ISO 19111:2007, 4.43]
NOTE This may take the form of a label, code or coordinate (4.2) tuple.
4.20
spatial reference system
system for identifying position in the real world
[ISO 19112:2003, 4.6]
4.21
user
active object that initiates service (4.17) requests (4.14) to the system
[ISO 19132:2007, 4.58]

NOTE 1 Users are usually objects that act as proxies for people accessing the functionality of the system.

NOTE 2 These objects can be a PI application (4.10) or creators of PI matching (4.11) tables and reference systems.

5 Abbreviated terms and notation
5.1 Abbreviated terms
CRS Coordinate Reference System
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol
PI Place Identifier
SRS Spatial Reference System
UML Unified Modelling Language
URI Uniform Resource Identifier
URL Uniform Resource Locator
XML eXtensible Markup Language
5.2 UML Notation

The UML notation used in this International Standard is specified in ISO/TS 19103:2005.

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6 PI Reference Model
6.1 Background

Place may be understood as an element in any space, in either the real or virtual world. The Oxford

English Dictionary defines “place,” relevant to the content of this International Standard, with the

following entries:
— a particular position or point in space,
— a portion of space occupied by someone,
— a position in a sequence, in particular,
— [in place names] a square or short street.

In this International Standard space is considered as a set having structure, in which a position or

location identifies an element. Position is a place typically described by a point or geometry in a space.

Location is a place typically described by a geographic identifier such as a street address, postcode,

name of a landmark, etc.

“Place” in this International Standard is defined as an identifiable part of any space. This may include

“places” existing not only in the real world but also those in the virtual world. This International Standard

defines an identifier for a place which is referred to as a “Place Identifier (PI).”

The same place may be identified with multiple Place Identifiers. If the place is identified with coordinates,

it is called “position” and if the place is identified with geographic identifiers, it is called “location”.

Additionally, the place may be identified with online resource identifiers such us URI.

In the General Feature Model of ISO 19109:2005, “position” is a spatial attribute of a feature, “location” is

a location attribute of a feature, and a virtual identifier, such as a URI, is a thematic attribute of a feature.

Therefore, a PI can be considered as an attribute of a feature.

Humans can more easily see the relationships where those identifiers refer to the same place, yet

those relationships are more difficult for machines to distinguish correctly. This difficulty impedes

the discovery and retrieval of information. Matching of Place Identifiers enables humans to access

information using those Place Identifiers as retrieval keys.

This International Standard defines a reference model in which a method for matching between Place

Identifiers is defined. This matching method is shown in Figure 2. Parts of the matching method are

already defined in other International Standards. ISO 19111:2007 defines coordinate operations in

matching with position. ISO 19112:2003 defines a gazetteer schema that enables matching between

location and position. The reference model defined in this International Standard shall conform to

previous standards (ISO 19111:2007 and ISO 19112:2003), and further enables the matching between

different Place Identifiers.
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ISO 19111 Position
ISO 19112
URI etc.
Location
PI Matching defined by ISO 19111 & ISO 19112
PI Matching defined in this IS
Figure 2 — Place Identifier Matching
6.2 PI Reference Model components

In this International Standard the PI Reference Model defines the basic structure of the PI architecture.

An image of the PI Reference Model is shown in Figure 3.
PI user
request
PI interface
response
PI platform
Figure 3 — PI Reference Model
The PI Reference Model consists of three components:
— the PI platform;
— the PI interface;
— a PI user.

The PI platform consists of data and services that are used for PI matching. The PI interface is a

standardized interface for requests and responses between the PI platform and a PI user. A PI user is a

client that sends requests to, and receives responses from the PI platform through the PI interface.

The PI Reference Model defined in this International Standard is a conceptual model and does not specify

an implementation of those components. This model represents a logical structure, not a physical one.

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All UML class names in this International Standard shall begin with “PI_” in order to distinguish them

from other geographic information standard class names.
6.3 PI platform

The PI platform consists of data and services to register and manage Place Identifiers. The PI platform

also specifies a mechanism to match multiple Place Identifiers that identify the same place.

PI_Data is the root class for data in the PI platform. Within PI_Data there are three subclasses: PI_

PlaceIdentifier, PI_ReferenceSystem and PI_MatchingTable as shown in Figure 4. PI_PlaceIdentifier specifies

the structure of the PI. PI_ReferenceSystem specifies the reference system of the PI. PI_MatchingTable

consists of matched sets of multiple Place Identifiers. Each PI in the set identifies the same place.

«type»
PI_Data
«type» «type» «type»
PI_MatchingTable PI_ReferenceSystem PI_PlaceIdentifier
Figure 4 — PI_Data
Details of the PI_Data subclasses are specified in 7.2.2 to 7.2.5.

PI_Service is the root class of services in the PI platform. There are two subclasses: PI_MatchingService

and PI_RSService.

The PI_MatchingService manages information for PI matching, and retrieves or transfers the desired PI

instances as requested by a user. The PI_RSService manages reference system data obtained from the

reference systems which is necessary to facilitate the matching of Place Identifiers. The structure of

these services is shown in Figure 5.
PI_Service
PI_RSService PI_MatchingService
Figure 5 — PI_Service
Figure 5 shows the logical structure of PI services, not a physical structure.
6.4 PI interface

Interfaces are required for using the PI services and retrieving PI data. Within the PI Reference Model,

five interfaces are defined:
a) PI update interface;
b) PI retrieval interface;
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c) RS update interface;
d) RS retrieval interface;
e) Service metadata retrieval interface.
The aforementioned interfaces shall be used in the following cases:
— between a PI matching service or RS service, and a PI user;
— between a PI matching service and an RS service;
— between different PI matching services.

These interfaces are not limited to automatic processing by machine, as they may also include a user

interface or require manual processing by humans.
Clause 8 specifies the parameter definitions for the interfaces and structures.
6.5 PI user

A PI user is a user or application that makes use of the PI platform. A PI user may take any of the

following four roles:
a) PI application;
b) PI creator;
c) RS creator;
d) PI matching table cr
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 19155
Première édition
2012-11-01
Information géographique —
Architecture d’identifiants de lieu (IL)
Geographic information — Place Identifier (PI) architecture
Numéro de référence
ISO 19155:2012(F)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 19155:2012(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2012

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf prescription différente, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée

sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et les microfilms, sans

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Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 19155:2012(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Conformité .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2.1 Article de conformité ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.2 Tests de conformité relatifs à la sémantique................................................................................................................. 1

2.3 Tests de conformité relatifs aux données ........................................................................................................................ 1

2.4 Tests de conformité relatifs aux services ......................................................................................................................... 1

2.5 Tests de conformité relatifs aux codages PI ................................................................................................................... 1

3 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Termes abrégés et notation....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Termes abrégés ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Notation UML ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6 Modèle de référence de PI .......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1 Contexte ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.2 Composantes du modèle de référence de PI ................................................................................................................. 6

6.3 Plateforme de PI..................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.4 Interface de PI .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.5 Utilisateur de PI ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7 Composantes de la plateforme de PI ............................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 Présentation générale de la plateforme de PI .............................................................................................................. 8

7.2 Données ......... ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.3 Services .......................................................................................................................................................................................................12

8 Interfaces de la plateforme de PI .....................................................................................................................................................14

8.1 Vue d’ensemble ....................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.2 Interface de service de mise en correspondance des PI ..................................................................................14

8.3 Interface pour un service de système de référence des PI .............................................................................17

8.4 Structures .................................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.5 Traitement des exceptions .........................................................................................................................................................32

Annexe A (normative) Suite de tests abstraits ........................................................................................................................................34

Annexe B (normative) Codage des PI en GML ...........................................................................................................................................39

Annexe C (informative) Codage de PI en utilisant le schéma d’URI ‘tag’ ......................................................................41

Annexe D (informative) Codage des PI en langage WKT (Well Known Text) ...........................................................42

Annexe E (informative) Exemples de cas d’utilisation ....................................................................................................................43

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................47

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ISO 19155:2012(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (CEI) en ce qui concerne

la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les Normes internationales sont rédigées conformément aux règles données dans les Directives

ISO/CEI, Partie 2.

La tâche principale des comités techniques est d’élaborer les Normes internationales. Les projets de

Normes internationales adoptés par les comités techniques sont soumis aux comités membres pour vote.

Leur publication comme Normes internationales requiert l’approbation de 75 % au moins des comités

membres votants.

L’attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable de

ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence.

L’ISO 19155 a été élaborée par le comité technique ISO/TC 211, Information géographique/Géomatique.

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Introduction

Le développement rapide des technologies de l’information a brouillé les limites entre le monde virtuel et

le monde réel, de telle manière qu’il est difficile de les dissocier l’un de l’autre. Les êtres humains peuvent

mentionner des lieux dans ces deux mondes et les différencier l’un de l’autre facilement. Cependant,

pour que les ordinateurs fassent clairement la différence entre ces lieux, ils doivent disposer d’un jeu de

liaisons de correspondance.

Dans le domaine de la géographie, l’espace indique en général la surface terrestre. Dans d’autres

disciplines, par contre, l’espace peut faire référence à des cadres conceptuels différents. C’est ainsi qu’en

architecture, l’espace peut être l’étendue d’une pièce ou d’un bâtiment. En mathématiques, l’espace est

défini comme un ensemble possédant une structure. Dans le contexte de l’Internet, l’espace est défini

par des URL/URI qui identifient des pages Web.

Dans le cadre de la présente Norme internationale, l’«espace» est considéré comme un ensemble doté

d’une structure, dans lequel une position ou une localisation identifie un élément.

Il existe actuellement, dans le domaine de l’ISO/TC 211, des normes traitant de la position et de la

localisation précises à partir soit de coordonnées, soit d’identifiants géographiques. Cependant, le concept

de lieu est plus large que celui de position et de localisation. Un «lieu» est appelé «position», quand il est

identifié par des coordonnées. De même, un «lieu» est appelé «localisation», quand il est identifié par des

identifiants géographiques. Cependant, les normes existantes définies par l’ISO/TC 211 ne fournissent

pas de méthode de représentation d’un «lieu» virtuel tel qu’un site internet, ni de structure servant de

«base commune» à d’autres types d’identifiants.

Dans le cadre de la présente Norme internationale, le «lieu» est défini comme une partie identifiable

de tout espace, quel qu’il soit. Cette définition peut inclure non seulement des «lieux» existant dans

le monde réel, mais également des lieux du monde virtuel. On identifie les lieux en utilisant ou une

«position» au moyen de coordonnées, ou une «localisation» au moyen d’identifiants géographiques, ou

des «identifiants du monde virtuel» tels qu’un URI.

Dans la présente Norme internationale, l’identifiant d’un lieu est appelé Identifiant de lieu PI (Place

Identifier). Un «lieu» unique peut être identifié au moyen de plusieurs identifiants de lieu séparés. Ces

relations sont explicitées à la Figure 1.
Identifiant de lieu
Identifiants du monde réel Identifiants du monde virtuel
Position
URI, etc.
Localisation
Figure 1 — Relations entre lieu, position, localisation et URI

Les descriptions de lieu servent à la récupération de l’information. En réalité, ces identifiants se réfèrent

souvent au même lieu. Actuellement, il est difficile pour les machines de distinguer correctement ces

relations, ce qui gêne les processus de découverte et de récupération de l’information. L’architecture

conceptuelle et le modèle de référence définis dans la présente Norme internationale présentent un

système pouvant résoudre ces problèmes.
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Une fois mise en œuvre, cette architecture permettrait l’accès à des descriptions de lieu et leur partage,

l’Identifiant de lieu servant de méthode normalisée.

Dans le cadre du modèle de référence, les descriptions de lieu sont définies en utilisant un PI. Un PI se

compose d’un système de référence (RS – reference system), d’une valeur et d’une période de validité de

cette valeur.

Le format interne et le contenu de la valeur sont déterminés par chaque communauté ou domaine. La

présente Norme internationale n’a pas pour objet de standardiser ou d’unifier le contenu des valeurs.

Le RS est également défini par chaque communauté et il convient qu’il soit unique d’une communauté à

l’autre. Par la suite, les identifiants de lieu sont uniques au sein de chaque RS. Cependant, les valeurs des

identifiants de lieu peuvent être similaires, voire identiques, dans de multiples communautés. Ce concept

décentralisé garantit que chaque communauté gère ses propres identifiants de lieu. Des identifiants de

lieu bien formés peuvent faire l’objet d’un partage entre les communautés.

Au lieu de spécifier un cadre pour un type d’identifiant unique dans le monde entier, l’idée clé de

l’architecture définie dans la présente Norme internationale permet de conserver facilement les

descriptions initiales d’un lieu sans recourir à des conversions difficiles et à une harmonisation

transcommunautaire.

La présente Norme internationale définit, de façon normative, un schéma de codage basé sur le langage de

balisage en géographie (GML) (ISO 19136:2007). En outre, les annexes informatives présentent un ensemble

de schémas de codage alternatifs. En fonction du choix de la méthode de codage, il est possible de créer des

identifiants de lieu uniques dans le monde à partir des exigences de la méthode de codage utilisée.

Le domaine d’application de la présente Norme internationale ne couvre pas les méthodes de conversion

des «entités localisées» en identifiants de lieu. Alors que la relation directe avec l’architecture de PI

et les autres infrastructures de données spatiales SDI (SDI – Spatial Data Infrastructure) n’est pas

expliquée, une mise en œuvre de l’architecture de PI peut être considérée comme faisant partie d’une

SDI. Différents systèmes, tels que des registres et des bases de données, peuvent servir à stocker les

identifiants de lieu. La structure flexible de l’identifiant de lieu permettra aux données stockées dans

les systèmes d’information géographique communs d’être facilement enregistrées comme identifiants

de lieu. Cependant, la conception et la mise en œuvre de ces procédures ne relèvent pas du domaine

d’application de la présente Norme internationale.
vi © ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 19155:2012(F)
Information géographique — Architecture d’identifiants de
lieu (IL)
1 Domaine d’application

La présente Norme internationale spécifie une architecture qui définit un modèle de référence avec une

méthode de codage d’un identifiant de lieu. Le concept de «lieu» dans la présente Norme internationale

intègre les «lieux» non seulement du monde réel, mais également du monde virtuel. Ces «lieux» sont

identifiés à partir soit d’identifiants sous forme de coordonnées, soit d’identifiants géographiques, soit

d’identifiants du monde virtuel tels que les URI. Dans la présente Norme internationale, l’Identifiant de

lieu «PI» se rapporte à l’identifiant d’un lieu.

Le modèle de référence définit un système permettant de faire concorder de multiples identifiants de

lieu avec un seul et même lieu. En outre, ce modèle de référence comporte également la définition d’une

structure de données et d’un jeu d’interfaces de service.

La présente Norme internationale s’applique aux services s’appuyant sur la localisation, aux services de

gestion des situations d’urgence et à d’autres domaines d’application qui nécessitent une architecture

commune à des domaines spécifiques, pour représenter des descriptions de lieux utilisant des identifiants

sous forme de coordonnées, des identifiants géographiques ou des identifiants du monde virtuel.

La présente Norme internationale n’a pas pour objet de présenter un type de description précis d’un lieu,

ni de définir une description standard unique de lieux précis telle qu’un schéma de codage d’adresse.

2 Conformité
2.1 Article de conformité

La présente Norme internationale décrit quatre classes de conformité. Il convient d’appliquer les articles

de conformité suivants pour répondre aux exigences de la présente Norme internationale.

2.2 Tests de conformité relatifs à la sémantique

Pour se conformer à la présente Norme internationale, les instances de PI_PlaceIdentifier, PI_

ReferenceSystem, PI_MatchingTable et PI_MatchedPISet doivent satisfaire aux exigences de A.1.

2.3 Tests de conformité relatifs aux données

Pour se conformer à la présente Norme internationale, les données stockées dans la table de mise en

correspondance des PI et le système de référence doivent répondre aux exigences de A.2.

2.4 Tests de conformité relatifs aux services

Pour se conformer à la présente Norme internationale, les interfaces entre services et utilisateurs mises

en œuvre par le service de mise en correspondance des PI et le service de système de référence doivent

satisfaire aux exigences de A.3.
2.5 Tests de conformité relatifs aux codages PI

Pour se conformer à la présente Norme internationale, les instances codées de PI_PlaceIdentifier doivent

répondre aux exigences de A.4.
© ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés 1
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ISO 19155:2012(F)
3 Références normatives

Les documents de référence suivants sont indispensables pour l’application du présent document. Pour

les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique. Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition

du document de référence s’applique (y compris les éventuels amendements).
ISO/TS 19103:2005, Information géographique — Langage de schéma conceptuel

ISO 19111:2007, Information géographique — Système de références spatiales par coordonnées

ISO 19112:2003, Information géographique — Système de références spatiales par identificateurs

géographiques

ISO 19136:2007, Information géographique — Langage de balisage en géographie (GML)

4 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

4.1
client
composant logiciel pouvant appeler une opération à partir d’un serveur (4.16)
[ISO 19128:2005, 4.1]
4.2
coordonnée

l’une des séquences de n nombres désignant la position d’un point dans un espace à n dimensions

[ISO 19111:2007, 4.5]

Note 1 to entry: Dans un système de coordonnées de référence (4.4), les coordonnées sont établies par unités.

4.3
opération sur les coordonnées

modification des coordonnées (4.2), basée sur une relation un à un, d’un système de coordonnées de

référence (4.4) vers un autre système
[ISO 19111:2007, 4.7]

Note 1 to entry: Supertype de la transformation ou de la conversion de coordonnées.

4.4
système de coordonnées de référence
système de coordonnées (4.2) associé à un objet par une référence
[ISO 19111:2007, 4.8]

Note 1 to entry: Pour les références géodésiques et verticales, l’objet est la Terre.

4.5
répertoire géographique

répertoire d’instances d’une classe ou de plusieurs classes d’entités contenant des informations relatives

à la position
[ISO 19112:2003, 4.2]

Note 1 to entry: Il n’est pas nécessaire que les informations sur la position prennent la forme de coordonnées

(4.2), elles peuvent être descriptives.
2 © ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 19155:2012(F)
4.6
identifiant géographique

référence spatiale (4.19) se présentant sous la forme d’un libellé ou d’un code identifiant une localisation

[ISO 19112:2003, 4.3]

EXEMPLE «Espagne» est un exemple de nom de pays, «SW1P 3AD» est un exemple de code postal.

4.7
interface
ensemble nommé d’opérations qui caractérisent le comportement d’une entité
[ISO 19119:2005, 4.2]
4.8
lieu
partie identifiable de tout espace, quel qu’il soit
4.9
identifiant de lieu
PI (place identifier)
référence identifiant un lieu (4.8)

Note 1 to entry: Un même lieu peut être référencé par de multiples instances d’identifiants de lieu. Chaque

instance sera associée à un système de référence différent.
4.10
application d’identifiant de lieu
application de PI

application fournissant des services (4.17) utilisant des identifiants de lieu (4.9), à des utilisateurs

finaux (4.21) ou à d’autres applications
4.11
mise en correspondance d’identifiants de lieu
mise en correspondance de PI

mise en correspondance d’un PI (4.9) spécifiant un lieu (4.8) avec un autre type de PI identifiant le même lieu

Note 1 to entry: Un PI source peut être mis en correspondance avec de multiples identifiants de lieu cibles.

Note 2 to entry: Une mise en correspondance de PI peut se faire entre coordonnées (4.2), identifiants

géographiques (4.6) et identifiants du monde virtuel tels qu’un URI.
4.12
plateforme d’identifiant de lieu
plateforme de PI

ensemble d’interfaces (4.7) de service (4.17) et de structures de données servant à une mise en

correspondance de PI (4.11)
4.13
enregistrement
attribution d’un identifiant permanent, unique et sans ambiguïté à un item
[ISO 19135:2005, 4.1.12]
4.14
requête
appel d’une opération par un client (4.1)
[ISO 19128:2005, 4.10]
© ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés 3
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ISO 19155:2012(F)
4.15
réponse
résultat d’une opération renvoyé d’un serveur (4.16) à un client (4.1)
[ISO 19128:2005, 4.11]
4.16
serveur
instance particulière d’un service (4.17)
[ISO 19128:2005, 4.12]
4.17
service

partie distincte de la fonctionnalité fournie par une entité par l’intermédiaire d’interfaces (4.7)

[ISO 19119:2005, 4.1]
4.18
métadonnées de service

métadonnées décrivant les opérations et informations géographiques disponibles sur un serveur (4.16)

[ISO 19128:2005, 4.14]
4.19
référence spatiale
description d’une position dans le monde réel
[ISO 19111:2007, 4.43]

Note 1 to entry: Il peut s’agit d’une marque, d’un code ou d’un uplet de coordonnées (4.2).

4.20
système de références spatiales
système d’identification d’une position dans le monde réel
[ISO 19112:2003, 4.6]
4.21
utilisateur
objet actif qui lance des requêtes (4.14) de service (4.17) auprès du système
[ISO 19132:2007, 4.58]

Note 1 to entry: Les utilisateurs sont en général des objets qui font office de proxy pour les personnes qui accèdent

à la fonctionnalité du système.

Note 2 to entry: Ces objets peuvent être une application de PI (4.10) ou des créateurs de tables de mise en

correspondance de PI (4.11) et de systèmes de référence.
5 Termes abrégés et notation
5.1 Termes abrégés
CRS Coordinate Reference System (Système de coordonnées de référence)
HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (Protocole de transfert hypertexte)
PI Place Identifier (Identifiant de lieu)
SRS Spatial Reference System (Système de référence spatial)
4 © ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 19155:2012(F)
UML Unified Modelling Language (Langage de modélisation unifié)
URI Uniform Resource Identifier (Identificateur de ressource uniforme)
URL Uniform Resource Locator (Adresse universelle)
XML eXtensible Markup Language (Langage de balisage extensible)
5.2 Notation UML

La notation ULM utilisée dans la présente Norme internationale est précisée dans l’ISO/TS 19103:2005.

6 Modèle de référence de PI
6.1 Contexte

Le lieu peut être compris comme un élément de tout espace, que ce soit du monde réel ou du monde

virtuel. Le dictionnaire anglais Oxford English Dictionary donne pour le mot «lieu», lorsqu’il est en

rapport avec le contenu de la présente Norme internationale, les définitions suivantes:

— une position ou un point particulier dans l’espace,
— une partie de l’espace occupée par un individu,
— une position dans une séquence, en particulier,
— [dans les noms de lieux] une place ou une impasse.

Dans le cadre de la présente Norme internationale, l’espace est considéré comme un ensemble possédant

une structure, dans lequel une position ou une localisation définit un élément. La position est un lieu

décrit, de façon générale, par un point ou un élément géométrique dans un espace. La localisation est

un lieu décrit, de façon générale, par un identifiant géographique, comme une adresse géographique, un

code postal, le nom d’un point de repère, etc.

Dans le cadre de la présente Norme internationale, le «lieu» est défini comme une partie identifiable de

tout espace, quel qu’il soit. Cette définition peut inclure des «lieux» non seulement du monde réel, mais

également du monde virtuel. La présente Norme internationale définit un identifiant pour un lieu appelé

«Identifiant de lieu (PI)».

Un même lieu peut être référencé par de multiples identifiants de lieu. Si le lieu est identifié par des

coordonnées, il s’agit d’une «position». S’il est identifié par des identifiants géographiques, il s’agit d’une

«localisation». Le lieu peut, en outre, être identifié par des identifiants de ressources en ligne, tels que les URI.

Dans le modèle général d’entité de l’ISO 19109:2005, «position» est un attribut spatial d’une entité,

«localisation» est un attribut de localisation d’une entité, et un identifiant virtuel, tel qu’un URI, est un

attribut thématique d’une entité. Par conséquent, un PI peut être considéré comme un attribut d’entité.

S’il est plus aisé pour les êtres humains de voir les relations selon lesquelles ces identifiants se rapportent

au même lieu, ces relations sont plus difficiles à distinguer pour des machines. Cette difficulté gêne les

processus de découverte et de récupération de l’information. La mise en correspondance des identifiants

de lieu permet aux êtres humains d’accéder aux informations en se servant de ces identifiants de lieu

comme clés d’extraction.

La présente Norme internationale définit un modèle de référence, dans lequel est définie une méthode

de mise en correspondance entre les identifiants de lieu. Cette méthode de mise en correspondance est

présentée à la Figure 2. Des parties de cette méthode de mise en correspondance sont déjà définies dans

d’autres Normes internationales. L’ISO 19111:2007définit des opérations de coordonnées concernant la

mise en correspondance des positions. L’ISO 19112:2003définit un schéma de répertoire géographique

permettant de faire concorder localisation et position. Le modèle de référence défini dans la présente

© ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés 5
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ISO 19155:2012(F)

Norme internationale doit se conformer aux normes précédentes (ISO 19111:2007et ISO 19112:2003) et

permet, en outre, la mise en correspondance de différents identifiants de lieu.
ISO 19111 Position
ISO 19112
URI, etc.
Localisation
Mises en correspondance de PI définies par ISO 19111 & ISO 19112
Mises en correspondance de PI définies dans la présente Norme internationale
Figure 2 — Mise en correspondance d’identifiants de lieu
6.2 Composantes du modèle de référence de PI

Dans la présente Norme internationale, le modèle de référence de PI définit la structure fondamentale

de l’architecture de PI. La Figure 3 présente une image du modèle de référence de PI.

Utilisateur de PI
Demande
Interface de PI
Réponse
Plateforme de PI
Figure 3 — Modèle de référence de PI
Le modèle de référence de PI comporte trois composantes:
— la plateforme de PI;
— l’interface de PI;
— un utilisateur de PI.

La plateforme de PI est constituée des données et des services servant à la mise en correspondance

de PI. L’interface de PI est une interface normalisée de gestion des demandes et des réponses entre la

6 © ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 19155:2012(F)

plateforme de PI et un utilisateur de PI. Un utilisateur de PI est un client qui envoie des demandes à une

plateforme de PI et reçoit des réponses de la plateforme de PI par l’intermédiaire de l’interface de PI.

Le modèle de référence de PI défini dans la présente Norme internationale est un modèle conceptuel.

Il ne fournit pas de précisions sur la mise en œuvre de ces composantes. Ce modèle représente une

structure logique, et non pas une structure physique.

Tous les noms de classe UML de la présente Norme internationale doivent commencer par «PI_» afin de

les distinguer des autres noms de classe normalisés de l’information géographique.

6.3 Plateforme de PI

La plateforme de PI est constituée de données et de services pour enregistrer et gérer les identifiants de

lieu. La plateforme de PI décrit également un système faisant correspondre les multiples identifiants de

lieu qui identifient un même lieu.

PI_Data représente la classe racine des données dans la plateforme de PI. Il existe trois sous-classes

au sein de PI_Data: PI_PlaceIdentifier, PI_ReferenceSystem et PI_MatchingTable, comme montré à

...

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