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This document maps and describes the differences between GDF (ISO 20524 series), from ISO/TC 204, and conceptual models from the ISO 19100 family, from ISO/TC 211, and suggests ways to harmonize and resolve issues of conflict. Throughout this document, reference to GDF refers to GDF v5.1, ISOÂ 20524-1 and ISOÂ 20524-2, unless expressly identified otherwise. Where necessary, reference will be made to Part 1 or Part 2.

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This document specifies a schema for feature concept dictionaries to be established and managed as registers. It does not specify schemas for feature catalogues or for the management of feature catalogues as registers. However, as feature catalogues are often derived from feature concept dictionaries, this document does specify a schema for a hierarchical register of feature concept dictionaries and feature catalogues. These registers are in accordance with ISO 19135‑1.

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This document specifies a conceptual schema for locations relative to a one-dimensional object as
measurement along (and optionally offset from) that object. It defines a description of the data and
operations required to use and support linear referencing.
This document is applicable to transportation, utilities, environmental protection, location-based
services and other applications which define locations relative to linear objects. For ease of reading,
most examples discussed in this document come from the transportation domain.

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This document investigates barriers and proposes measures to improve interoperability between geospatial and BIM domains, namely, to align GIS standards developed by ISO/TC 211 and BIM standards developed by ISO/TC 59/SC 13. Where relevant this document takes into account work and documents from other organizations and committees, such as buildingSMART, International (bSI), Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN). The focus is to identify future topics for standardization and possible revision needs of existing standards. This document investigates conceptual and technological barriers between GIS and BIM domains at the data, service and process levels, as defined by ISO 11354 (all parts).

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This document defines the conceptual framework and mechanisms for mapping information elements from Building Information Modelling (BIM) to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to access the required information based on specific user requirements. The conceptual framework for mapping BIM information to GIS is defined with the following three mapping mechanisms: —   BIM to GIS Perspective Definition (B2G PD); —   BIM to GIS Element Mapping (B2G EM); —   BIM to GIS LOD Mapping (B2G LM). This document does not describe physical schema integration or mapping between BIM and GIS models because the physical schema integration or mapping between two heterogeneous models is very complex and can cause a variety of ambiguity problems. Developing a unified information model between BIM and GIS is a desirable goal, but it is out of the scope of this document. The scope of this document includes the following: —   definition for BIM to GIS conceptual mapping requirement description; —   definition of BIM to GIS conceptual mapping framework and component; —   definition of mapping for export from one schema into another. The following concepts are outside the scope: —   definition of any particular mapping application requirement and mechanism; —   bi-directional mapping method between BIM and GIS; —   definition of physical schema mapping between BIM and GIS; —   definition of coordinate system mapping between BIM and GIS. NOTE         For cases involving requirements related to Geo-referencing for providing the position and orientation of the BIM model based on GIS, there exist other standards such as ISO 19111 and the Information Delivery Manual (IDM) from buildingSMART on Geo-referencing BIM. —   definition of relationship mapping between BIM and GIS; —   implementation of the application schema.

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This document supports the definition of: —   A Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGS) core comprising: —   an RS using zonal identifiers with structured geometry, and —   functions providing import, export and topological query, —   Common spatio-temporal classes for geometry, topology, RS using zonal identifiers, zonal identifiers and zones, based on ISO 19111 CRS. The spatio-temporal scope is constrained to: —   spatial elements that are invariant through all time, and —   temporal elements that are invariant across all space. —   Equal-Area Earth Reference Systems (EAERSs) for Equal-Area Earth DGGS.

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This document specifies a conceptual schema for locations relative to a one-dimensional object as measurement along (and optionally offset from) that object. It defines a description of the data and operations required to use and support linear referencing. This document is applicable to transportation, utilities, environmental protection, location-based services and other applications which define locations relative to linear objects. For ease of reading, most examples discussed in this document come from the transportation domain.

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This document specifies the behaviour of Web APIs that provide access to features in a dataset in a manner independent of the underlying data store. This document defines discovery and query operations. Discovery operations enable clients to interrogate the API, including the API definition and metadata about the feature collections provided by the API, to determine the capabilities of the API and retrieve information about available distributions of the dataset. Query operations enable clients to retrieve features from the underlying data store based upon simple selection criteria, defined by the client.

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This document specifies a method for the evaluation of thickness, density and interface width of single layer and multi-layered thin films which have thicknesses between approximately 1 nm and 1 μm, on flat substrates, by means of X-Ray Reflectometry (XRR). This method uses a monochromatic, collimated beam, scanning either an angle or a scattering vector. Similar considerations apply to the case of a convergent beam with parallel data collection using a distributed detector or to scanning wavelength, but these methods are not described here. While mention is made of diffuse XRR, and the requirements for experiments are similar, this is not covered in the present document. Measurements may be made on equipment of various configurations, from laboratory instruments to reflectometers at synchrotron radiation beamlines or automated systems used in industry. Attention should be paid to an eventual instability of the layers over the duration of the data collection, which would cause a reduction in the accuracy of the measurement results. Since XRR, performed at a single wavelength, does not provide chemical information about the layers, attention should be paid to possible contamination or reactions at the specimen surface. The accuracy of results for the outmost layer is strongly influenced by any changes at the surface. NOTE 1 Proprietary techniques are not described in this document.

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This document aims to extend the long-term preservation of digital geospatial data to provide details about content describing the provenance and context specific to data from missions that observe the Earth using spaceborne, airborne or in situ instruments.

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This document specifies an implementation schema based on the content models for geographic imagery and gridded thematic data defined in the ISO/TS 19163-1. This document defines a structure that is suitable for binding content components and specific encoding formats. It also provides an implementation schema for binding a concrete, implementable, conformance-testable coverage structure as defined in ISO 19123-2.

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The Geography Markup Language (GML) is an XML encoding in accordance with ISO 19118 for the transport and storage of geographic information modelled in accordance with the conceptual modelling framework used in the ISO 19100 series of International Standards and including both the spatial and non-spatial properties of geographic features.
This document defines the XML Schema syntax, mechanisms and conventions that:
— provide an open, vendor-neutral framework for the description of geospatial application schemas for the transport and storage of geographic information in XML;
— allow profiles that support proper subsets of GML framework descriptive capabilities;
— support the description of geospatial application schemas for specialized domains and information communities;
— enable the creation and maintenance of linked geographic application schemas and datasets;
— support the storage and transport of application schemas and datasets;
— increase the ability of organizations to share geographic application schemas and the information they describe.
Implementers can decide to store geographic application schemas and information in GML, or they can decide to convert from some other storage format on demand and use GML only for schema and data transport.
NOTE If an ISO 19109 conformant application schema described in UML is used as the basis for the storage and transportation of geographic information, this document provides normative rules for the mapping of such an application schema to a GML application schema in XML Schema and, as such, to an XML encoding for data with a logical structure in accordance with the ISO 19109 conformant application schema.

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This document defines the conceptual schema for the description of referencing by coordinates. It describes the minimum data required to define coordinate reference systems. This document supports the definition of:
— spatial coordinate reference systems where coordinate values do not change with time. The system may:
— be geodetic and apply on a national or regional basis, or
— apply locally such as for a building or construction site, or
— apply locally to an image or image sensor;
— be referenced to a moving platform such as a car, a ship, an aircraft or a spacecraft. Such a coordinate reference system can be related to a second coordinate reference system which is referenced to the Earth through a transformation that includes a time element;
— spatial coordinate reference systems in which coordinate values of points on or near the surface of the earth change with time due to tectonic plate motion or other crustal deformation. Such dynamic systems include time evolution, however they remain spatial in nature;
— parametric coordinate reference systems which use a non-spatial parameter that varies monotonically with height or depth;
— temporal coordinate reference systems which use dateTime, temporal count or temporal measure quantities that vary monotonically with time;
— mixed spatial, parametric or temporal coordinate reference systems.
The definition of a coordinate reference system does not change with time, although in some cases some of the defining parameters can include a rate of change of the parameter. The coordinate values within a dynamic and in a temporal coordinate reference system can change with time.
This document also describes the conceptual schema for defining the information required to describe operations that change coordinate values.
In addition to the minimum data required for the definition of the coordinate reference system or coordinate operation, the conceptual schema allows additional descriptive information - coordinate reference system metadata - to be provided.
This document is applicable to producers and users of geographic information. Although it is applicable to digital geographic data, the principles described in this document can be extended to many other forms of spatial data such as maps, charts and text documents.

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The Geography Markup Language (GML) is an XML encoding in accordance with ISO 19118 for the transport and storage of geographic information modelled in accordance with the conceptual modelling framework used in the ISO 19100 series of International Standards and including both the spatial and non-spatial properties of geographic features.
This document defines the XML Schema syntax, mechanisms and conventions that:
— provide an open, vendor-neutral framework for the description of geospatial application schemas for the transport and storage of geographic information in XML;
— allow profiles that support proper subsets of GML framework descriptive capabilities;
— support the description of geospatial application schemas for specialized domains and information communities;
— enable the creation and maintenance of linked geographic application schemas and datasets;
— support the storage and transport of application schemas and datasets;
— increase the ability of organizations to share geographic application schemas and the information they describe.
Implementers can decide to store geographic application schemas and information in GML, or they can decide to convert from some other storage format on demand and use GML only for schema and data transport.
NOTE If an ISO 19109 conformant application schema described in UML is used as the basis for the storage and transportation of geographic information, this document provides normative rules for the mapping of such an application schema to a GML application schema in XML Schema and, as such, to an XML encoding for data with a logical structure in accordance with the ISO 19109 conformant application schema.

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This document defines the conceptual schema for the description of referencing by coordinates. It describes the minimum data required to define coordinate reference systems. This document supports the definition of:
— spatial coordinate reference systems where coordinate values do not change with time. The system may:
— be geodetic and apply on a national or regional basis, or
— apply locally such as for a building or construction site, or
— apply locally to an image or image sensor;
— be referenced to a moving platform such as a car, a ship, an aircraft or a spacecraft. Such a coordinate reference system can be related to a second coordinate reference system which is referenced to the Earth through a transformation that includes a time element;
— spatial coordinate reference systems in which coordinate values of points on or near the surface of the earth change with time due to tectonic plate motion or other crustal deformation. Such dynamic systems include time evolution, however they remain spatial in nature;
— parametric coordinate reference systems which use a non-spatial parameter that varies monotonically with height or depth;
— temporal coordinate reference systems which use dateTime, temporal count or temporal measure quantities that vary monotonically with time;
— mixed spatial, parametric or temporal coordinate reference systems.
The definition of a coordinate reference system does not change with time, although in some cases some of the defining parameters can include a rate of change of the parameter. The coordinate values within a dynamic and in a temporal coordinate reference system can change with time.
This document also describes the conceptual schema for defining the information required to describe operations that change coordinate values.
In addition to the minimum data required for the definition of the coordinate reference system or coordinate operation, the conceptual schema allows additional descriptive information - coordinate reference system metadata - to be provided.
This document is applicable to producers and users of geographic information. Although it is applicable to digital geographic data, the principles described in this document can be extended to many other forms of spatial data such as maps, charts and text documents.

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This document — is a profile of ISO 19157; — establishes a set of data quality elements and measures for describing the quality of address data; — describes procedures for reporting data quality; — provides guidelines for the use of the established set of data quality elements and measures for describing the quality of address data. This document can be used by those evaluating and reporting the quality of address data such as address data managers, address data aggregators, and address data users. This document does not attempt to define minimum acceptable levels of quality for address data.

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This standard specifies conceptual schemas for describing the spatial characteristics of geographic entities, and a set of spatial operations consistent with these schemas. It treats "vector" geometry and topology. It defines standard spatial operations for use in access, query, management, processing and data exchange of geographic information for spatial (geometric and topological) objects. Because of the nature of geographic information, these geometric coordinate spaces will normally have up to three spatial dimensions, one temporal dimension and any number of other spatially dependent parameters as needed by the applications. In general, the topological dimension of the spatial projections of the geometric objects will be at most three.

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This document provides the basic information and the requirements related to the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS), its definition, its realizations and how to access and use these realizations. This document: — describes ITRS following the definitions and terminology adopted by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and the International Astronomical Union (IAU); — describes different categories of ITRS realizations: its primary realization, labelled the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), other existing realizations of reference systems that are mathematically derived from the ITRS, and realizations that are aligned to the ITRF, such as GNSS-specific reference frames; — categorizes procedures for realizing the ITRS.

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This standard specifies the data structure and content of an interface that permits communication between position-providing device(s) and position-using device(s) enabling the position-using device(s) to obtain and unambiguously interpret position information and determine, based on a measure of the degree of reliability, whether the resulting position information meets the requirements of the intended use. A standardized interface for positioning allows the integration of reliable position information obtained from non-specific positioning technologies and is useful in various location-focused information applications, such as surveying, navigation, intelligent transportation systems (ITS), and location-based services (LBS).

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The Geography Markup Language (GML) is an XML encoding in accordance with ISO 19118 for the transport and storage of geographic information modelled in accordance with the conceptual modelling framework used in the ISO 19100 series of International Standards and including both the spatial and non-spatial properties of geographic features. This document defines the XML Schema syntax, mechanisms and conventions that: — provide an open, vendor-neutral framework for the description of geospatial application schemas for the transport and storage of geographic information in XML; — allow profiles that support proper subsets of GML framework descriptive capabilities; — support the description of geospatial application schemas for specialized domains and information communities; — enable the creation and maintenance of linked geographic application schemas and datasets; — support the storage and transport of application schemas and datasets; — increase the ability of organizations to share geographic application schemas and the information they describe. Implementers can decide to store geographic application schemas and information in GML, or they can decide to convert from some other storage format on demand and use GML only for schema and data transport. NOTE If an ISO 19109 conformant application schema described in UML is used as the basis for the storage and transportation of geographic information, this document provides normative rules for the mapping of such an application schema to a GML application schema in XML Schema and, as such, to an XML encoding for data with a logical structure in accordance with the ISO 19109 conformant application schema.

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This document specifies the data structure and content of an interface that permits communication between position-providing device(s) and position-using device(s) enabling the position-using device(s) to obtain and unambiguously interpret position information and determine, based on a measure of the degree of reliability, whether the resulting position information meets the requirements of the intended use.
A standardized interface for positioning allows the integration of reliable position information obtained from non-specific positioning technologies and is useful in various location-focused information applications, such as surveying, navigation, intelligent transportation systems (ITS), and location-based services (LBS).

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This document specifies conceptual schemas for describing the spatial characteristics of geographic entities, and a set of spatial operations consistent with these schemas. It treats "vector" geometry and topology. It defines standard spatial operations for use in access, query, management, processing and data exchange of geographic information for spatial (geometric and topological) objects. Because of the nature of geographic information, these geometric coordinate spaces will normally have up to three spatial dimensions, one temporal dimension and any number of other spatially dependent parameters as needed by the applications. In general, the topological dimension of the spatial projections of the geometric objects will be at most three.

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This document facilitates an understanding of the Ubiquitous Public Access (UPA) context information model, as defined in ISO 19154, to establish a UPA-to-Geographic Information (GI) environment. In addition, this document illustrates how the UPA context information model is designed and implemented to provide an air quality information service from a geographic information system (GIS)-based air quality information system. The UPA context information model for air quality information is only a sample of all possible examples to realize the UPA-to-GI that could satisfy the requirements of ISO 19154.

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This document defines the following three mechanisms for linking Place Identifiers (PIs) (see ISO 19155) to features or objects existing in other encodings:
-Id attribute of a GML object (gml:id) as defined in ISO 19136;
- Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) as defined in IETF RFC 4122;
- Uniform Resource Locator (URL) as defined in IETF RFC 1738.
These PI linking mechanisms are enabled using xlink: href as defined in W3C XML Linking Language (XLink). While the identifiers of these features or objects can sometimes identify a place, within the scope of this document, the identifiers of features or objects existing in other encoding domains are referred to conceptually as other identifiers. This document further defines that when PIs are encoded, as specified in ISO 19155, using the Geography Markup Language (GML) (ISO 19136), they are linked using gml:id to other GML encoded features. The details of encoding GML instances using gml:id are specified in a normative annex. Additional normative annexes define encodings for linking Place Identifiers to other identifiers using UUID and URL and present examples for their use. This document is applicable to location-based services, linked open data, robotic assisted services and other application domains that require a relationship between PIs and objects in either the real or virtual world. This document is not about creating a registry of Place Identifiers linked to specific features or objects, and support of linking mechanisms other than gml:id, UUID, and URL is out of the scope of this document.

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This International Standard provides rules and guidelines for the use of a conceptual schema language within the context of geographic information. The chosen conceptual schema language is the Unified Modeling Language (UML). This International Standard provides a profile of the Unified Modelling Language (UML). The standardization target type of this standard is UML schemas describing geographic information.

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This Technical Specification supports exploitation of remotely sensed images. It specifies the sensor models and metadata for geopositioning images remotely sensed by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar), and Sound Navigation And Ranging (sonar) sensors. The specification also defines the metadata needed for the aerial triangulation of airborne and spaceborne images. This Technical Specification specifies the detailed information that shall be provided for a sensor description of SAR, InSAR, lidar and sonar sensors with the associated physical and geometric information necessary to rigorously construct a Physical Sensor Model. For the case where precise geoposition information is needed, this Technical Specification identifies the mathematical formulae for rigorously constructing Physical Sensor Models that relate two-dimensional image space to threedimensional ground space and the calculation of the associated propagated error. This Technical Specification does not specify either how users derive geoposition data or the format or content of the data the users generate.

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This International Standard describes how to digitally exchange soil-related data. It aims to facilitate the exchange of valid, clearly described and specified soil-related data between individuals and organizations via digital systems, and enables any soil data producer, holder or user to find and transfer data in an unambiguous way. This International Standard contains definitions of features, several parameter specifications and encoding rules that allow consistent and retrievable data exchange. It also allows the explicit georeferencing of soil data by building on other International Standards, thus facilitating the use of soil data within geographical information systems (GIS). Because soil data are of various origins and are obtained according to a huge variety of description and classification systems, this International Standard provides no attribute catalogue, but a flexible approach to the unified encoding of soil data by implementing the provisions of ISO 19156 observations and measurements (OM) for use in soil science.

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This document specifies conceptual schemas for describing the spatial characteristics of geographic entities, and a set of spatial operations consistent with these schemas. It treats "vector" geometry and topology. It defines standard spatial operations for use in access, query, management, processing and data exchange of geographic information for spatial (geometric and topological) objects. Because of the nature of geographic information, these geometric coordinate spaces will normally have up to three spatial dimensions, one temporal dimension and any number of other spatially dependent parameters as needed by the applications. In general, the topological dimension of the spatial projections of the geometric objects will be at most three.

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This document specifies the data structure and content of an interface that permits communication between position-providing device(s) and position-using device(s) enabling the position-using device(s) to obtain and unambiguously interpret position information and determine, based on a measure of the degree of reliability, whether the resulting position information meets the requirements of the intended use. A standardized interface for positioning allows the integration of reliable position information obtained from non-specific positioning technologies and is useful in various location-focused information applications, such as surveying, navigation, intelligent transportation systems (ITS), and location-based services (LBS).

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This Standard defines the conceptual schema for spatial references based on geographic identifiers. It establishes a general model for spatial referencing using geographic identifiers and defines the components of a spatial reference system. It also specifies a conceptual scheme for a gazetteer. Spatial referencing by coordinates is addressed in ISO 19111. However, a mechanism for recording complementary coordinate references is included in this document. This document enables producers of data to define spatial reference systems using geographic identifiers and assists users in understanding the spatial references used in datasets. It enables gazetteers to be constructed in a consistent manner and supports the development of other standards in the field of geographic information. This document is applicable to digital geographic data, and its principles may be extended to other forms of geographic data such as maps, charts and textual documents.

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This Standard defines the management and operations of the ISO geodetic register and identifies the data elements, in accordance with ISO 19111:2007 and the core schema within ISO 19135-1:2015, required within the geodetic register.

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This Standard defines a reference model for standardization in the field of geographic imagery processing. This reference model identifies the scope of the standardization activity being undertaken and the context in which it takes place. The reference model includes gridded data with an emphasis on imagery. Although structured in the context of information technology and information technology standards, this document is independent of any application development method or technology implementation approach.

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This Standard identifies the information required to determine the relationship between the position of a remotely sensed pixel in image coordinates and its geoposition. It supports exploitation of remotely sensed images. It defines the metadata to be distributed with the image to enable user determination of geographic position from the observations. This document specifies several ways in which information in support of geopositioning can be provided. a) It may be provided as a sensor description with the associated physical and geometric information necessary to rigorously construct a PSM. For the case where precise geoposition information is needed, this document identifies the mathematical equations for rigorously constructing PSMs that relate 2D image space to 3D ground space and the calculation of the associated propagated errors. This document provides detailed information for three types of passive electro-optical/ IR sensors (frame, pushbroom and whiskbroom) and for an active microwave sensing system SAR. It provides a framework by which these sensor models can be extended to other sensor types. b) It can be provided as a TRM, using functions whose coefficients are based on a PSM so that they provide information for precise geopositioning, including the calculation of errors, as precisely as the PSM they replace. c) It can be provided as a CM that provides a functional fitting based on observed relationships between the geopositions of a set of GCPs and their image coordinates. d) It can be provided as a set of GCPs that can be used to develop a CM or to refine a PSM or TRM. This document does not specify either how users derive geoposition data or the format or content of the data the users generate.

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This document defines XML based encoding rules for conceptual schemas specifying types that
describe geographic resources. The encoding rules support the UML profile as used in the UML models
commonly used in the standards developed by ISO/TC 211. The encoding rules use XML schema for the
output data structure schema.
The encoding rules described in this document are not applicable for encoding UML application schema
for geographic features (see ISO 19136 for those rules).

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This document defines the structure and content of a text string implementation of the abstract model for coordinate reference systems described in ISO 19111. The string defines frequently needed types of coordinate reference systems and coordinate operations in a self-contained form that is easily readable by machines and by humans. The essence is its simplicity; as a consequence there are some constraints upon the more open content allowed in ISO 19111. To retain simplicity in the well-known text (WKT) description of coordinate reference systems and coordinate operations, the scope of this document excludes parameter grouping and pass-through coordinate operations. The text string provides a means for humans and machines to correctly and unambiguously interpret and utilise a coordinate reference system definition with look-ups or cross references only to define coordinate operation mathematics. A WKT string is not suitable for the storage of definitions of coordinate reference systems or coordinate operations because it omits metadata about the source of the data and may omit metadata about the applicability of the information.

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    113 pages
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This document sets a framework for geographic information service ontology and the description of geographic information Web services in Web Ontology Language (OWL). OWL is the language adopted for ontologies. This document makes use of service metadata (ISO 19115-1) and service definitions (ISO 19119) whenever appropriate. This document does not define semantics operators, rules for ontologies, and does not develop any application ontology. In relation to ISO 19101-1:2014, 6.2, this document defines and formalizes the following purpose of the ISO geographic information reference model: — geographic information service components and their behaviour for data processing purposes over the Web, and — OWL ontologies to cast ISO/TC 211 standards to benefit from and support the Semantic Web. In relation to ISO 19101-1:2014, 8.3, this document addresses the Meta:Service foundation of the ISO geographic information reference model.

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This document extends ISO 19115-1:2014 by defining the schema required for an enhanced description
of the acquisition and processing of geographic information, including imagery. Included are the
properties of measuring systems and the numerical methods and computational procedures used to
derive geographic information from the data acquired by them. This document also provides the XML
encoding for acquisition and processing metadata thereby extending the XML schemas defined in ISO/
TS 19115-3.

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This document defines XML based encoding rules for conceptual schemas specifying types that describe geographic resources. The encoding rules support the UML profile as used in the UML models commonly used in the standards developed by ISO/TC 211. The encoding rules use XML schema for the output data structure schema.
The encoding rules described in this document are not applicable for encoding UML application schema for geographic features (see ISO 19136 for those rules).

  • Technical specification
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This document defines the conceptual schema for spatial references based on geographic identifiers. It establishes a general model for spatial referencing using geographic identifiers and defines the components of a spatial reference system. It also specifies a conceptual scheme for a gazetteer.
Spatial referencing by coordinates is addressed in ISO 19111. However, a mechanism for recording complementary coordinate references is included in this document.
This document enables producers of data to define spatial reference systems using geographic identifiers and assists users in understanding the spatial references used in datasets. It enables gazetteers to be constructed in a consistent manner and supports the development of other standards in the field of geographic information.
This document is applicable to digital geographic data, and its principles may be extended to other forms of geographic data such as maps, charts and textual documents.

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    28 pages
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This document defines XML based encoding rules for conceptual schemas specifying types that describe geographic resources. The encoding rules support the UML profile as used in the UML models commonly used in the standards developed by ISO/TC 211. The encoding rules use XML schema for the output data structure schema. The encoding rules described in this document are not applicable for encoding UML application schema for geographic features (see ISO 19136 for those rules).

  • Technical specification
    40 pages
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This document defines the conceptual schema for spatial references based on geographic identifiers. It establishes a general model for spatial referencing using geographic identifiers and defines the components of a spatial reference system. It also specifies a conceptual scheme for a gazetteer. Spatial referencing by coordinates is addressed in ISO 19111. However, a mechanism for recording complementary coordinate references is included in this document. This document enables producers of data to define spatial reference systems using geographic identifiers and assists users in understanding the spatial references used in datasets. It enables gazetteers to be constructed in a consistent manner and supports the development of other standards in the field of geographic information. This document is applicable to digital geographic data, and its principles may be extended to other forms of geographic data such as maps, charts and textual documents.

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    20 pages
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This document defines the management and operations of the ISO geodetic register and identifies the data elements, in accordance with ISO 19111:2007 and the core schema within ISO 19135‑1:2015, required within the geodetic register.

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  • Standard
    47 pages
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This document extends ISO 19115-1:2014 by defining the schema required for an enhanced description
of the acquisition and processing of geographic information, including imagery. Included are the
properties of measuring systems and the numerical methods and computational procedures used to
derive geographic information from the data acquired by them. This document also provides the XML
encoding for acquisition and processing metadata thereby extending the XML schemas defined in ISO/
TS 19115-3.

  • Standard
    65 pages
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This document defines the conceptual schema for the description of referencing by coordinates. It describes the minimum data required to define coordinate reference systems. This document supports the definition of: — spatial coordinate reference systems where coordinate values do not change with time. The system may: — be geodetic and apply on a national or regional basis, or — apply locally such as for a building or construction site, or — apply locally to an image or image sensor; — be referenced to a moving platform such as a car, a ship, an aircraft or a spacecraft. Such a coordinate reference system can be related to a second coordinate reference system which is referenced to the Earth through a transformation that includes a time element; — spatial coordinate reference systems in which coordinate values of points on or near the surface of the earth change with time due to tectonic plate motion or other crustal deformation. Such dynamic systems include time evolution, however they remain spatial in nature; — parametric coordinate reference systems which use a non-spatial parameter that varies monotonically with height or depth; — temporal coordinate reference systems which use dateTime, temporal count or temporal measure quantities that vary monotonically with time; — mixed spatial, parametric or temporal coordinate reference systems. The definition of a coordinate reference system does not change with time, although in some cases some of the defining parameters can include a rate of change of the parameter. The coordinate values within a dynamic and in a temporal coordinate reference system can change with time. This document also describes the conceptual schema for defining the information required to describe operations that change coordinate values. In addition to the minimum data required for the definition of the coordinate reference system or coordinate operation, the conceptual schema allows additional descriptive information - coordinate reference system metadata - to be provided. This document is applicable to producers and users of geographic information. Although it is applicable to digital geographic data, the principles described in this document can be extended to many other forms of spatial data such as maps, charts and text documents.

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    143 pages
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    159 pages
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