Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 13: Graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials (ISO/TS 80004-13:2017)

ISO/TS 80004-13:2017 lists terms and definitions for graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials, and includes related terms naming production methods, properties and their characterization.
It is intended to facilitate communication between organizations and individuals in research, industry and other interested parties and those who interact with them.

Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 13: Graphen und andere zweidimensionale (2D) Werkstoffe (ISO/TS 80004-13:2017)

Dieses Dokument listet Begriffe und Definitionen für Graphen und verwandte zweidimensionale (2D) Materialien auf und enthält verwandte Begriffe, die Produktionsmethoden, Eigenschaften und ihre Charakterisierung benennen.
Es wird beabsichtigt, die Kommunikation zwischen Organisationen und Einzelpersonen in Forschung und Industrie, anderen interessierten Parteien und denen, die mit diesen interagieren, zu erleichtern.

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 13: Graphène et autres matériaux bidimensionnels (ISO/TS 80004-13:2017)

L'ISO/TS 80004-13 :2017 énumère les termes et les définitions pour le graphène et les matériaux bidimensionnels (2D) similaires, et inclut les termes relatifs aux méthodes de production, aux propriétés et aux caractérisations.
L'ISO/TS 80004-13 :2017 est destiné à faciliter la communication entre différents organismes et membres de la recherche, de l'industrie, d'autres parties intéressées, et leurs interlocuteurs.

Nanotehnologije - Slovar - 13. del: Grafen in sorodni dvodimenzionalni (2D) materiali (ISO/TS 80004-13:2017)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Jun-2020
Publication Date
03-Sep-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
03-Sep-2020
Due Date
08-Nov-2020
Completion Date
04-Sep-2020

Buy Standard

Technical specification
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020 - BARVE na PDF-str 11,12
English language
30 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day
Technical specification
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020 - BARVE na PDF-str 7,8
English language
27 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
01-november-2020
Nanotehnologije - Slovar - 13. del: Grafen in sorodni dvodimenzionalni (2D)
materiali (ISO/TS 80004-13:2017)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 13: Graphene and related two-dimensional (2D)

materials (ISO/TS 80004-13:2017)
Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 13: Graphen und andere
zweidimensionale (2D) Werkstoffe (ISO/TS 80004-13:2017)
Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 13: Graphène et autres matériaux
bidimensionnels (ISO/TS 80004-13:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ICS:
01.040.07 Naravoslovne in uporabne Natural and applied sciences
vede (Slovarji) (Vocabularies)
07.120 Nanotehnologije Nanotechnologies
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
CEN ISO/TS 80004-13
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
August 2020
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 07.120; 01.040.07
English Version
Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 13: Graphene and
related two-dimensional (2D) materials (ISO/TS 80004-
13:2017)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 13: Graphène Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 13:

et autres matériaux bidimensionnels (ISO/TS 80004- Graphen und andere zweidimensionale (2D)

13:2017) Werkstoffe (ISO/TS 80004-13:2017)

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 10 August 2020 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO/TS 80004-13:2017 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 229

"Nanotechnologies” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over

as CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 352 “Nanotechnologies” the secretariat

of which is held by AFNOR.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/TS 80004-13:2017 has been approved by CEN as CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020 without

any modification.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 80004-13
First edition
2017-09
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 13:
Graphene and related two-
dimensional (2D) materials
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulaire —
Partie 13: Graphène et autres matériaux bidimensionnels
Reference number
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms related to materials ............................................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1.1 General terms related to 2D materials .......................................................................................................... 1

3.1.2 Terms related to graphene ...................................................................................................................................... 3

3.1.3 Terms related to other 2D materials............................................................................................................... 5

3.2 Terms related to methods for producing 2D materials ........................................................................................ 5

3.2.1 Graphene and related 2D material production ...................................................................................... 5

3.2.2 Nanoribbon production ............................................................................................................................................. 8

3.3 Terms related to methods for characterizing 2D materials ............................................................................. 8

3.3.1 Structural characterization methods ............................................................................................................. 8

3.3.2 Chemical characterization methods.............................................................................................................10

3.3.3 Electrical characterization methods ............................................................................................................12

3.4 Terms related to 2D materials characteristics ..........................................................................................................13

3.4.1 Characteristics and terms related to structural and dimensional

properties of 2D materials ...................................................................................................................................13

3.4.2 Characteristics and terms related to chemical properties of 2D materials ................15

3.4.3 Characteristics and terms related to optical and electrical properties of

2D materials ......................................................................................................................................................................16

4 Abbreviated terms ...........................................................................................................................................................................................16

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

Index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 229, Nanotechnologies, and IEC/TC 113,

Nanotechnology for electrotechnical products and systems.
A list of all parts in the ISO 80004 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
Introduction

Over the last decade, huge interest has arisen in graphene both scientifically and commercially, due

to the many exceptional properties associated with this material, properties such as the electrical

and thermal conductivity. More recently, other materials with a structure similar to that of graphene

have also shown promising properties including monolayer and few-layer versions of hexagonal boron

nitride (hBN), molybdenum disulphide (MoS ), tungsten diselenide (WSe ), silicene and germanene and

2 2

layered assemblies of mixtures of these materials. These materials have their thickness constrained

within the nanoscale or smaller and consist of between one and several layers. These materials are thus

termed two-dimensional (2D) materials as they have one dimension at the nanoscale or smaller, with

the other two dimensions generally at scales larger than the nanoscale. A layered material consists of

two-dimensional layers weakly stacked or bound to form three-dimensional structures. Examples of

2D materials and the different stacking configurations in graphene are shown in Figure 1. It should

be noted that 2D materials are not necessarily topographically flat in reality and can have a buckled

structure. They can also form aggregates and agglomerates which can have different morphologies.

Two-dimensional materials are an important subset of nanomaterials.
graphene hBN graphane perfluoro- MoS WSe
2 2
graphane

a) Examples of different two-dimensional materials consisting of different elements and

structures, as shown by the different coloured orbs and top-down and side views
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)

b) Bernal stacked bilayer graphene (3.1.2.6) c) turbostratic bilayer or twisted bilayer

graphene with relative stacking angle, θ,
(3.1.2.7)
ABA trilayer ABC trilayer

d) Bernal stacked (AB) (3.4.1.10) tri-layer graphene (3.1.2.9) and Rhombohedral (ABC)

(3.4.1.11) stacked tri-layer graphene (3.1.2.9)

Figure 1 — Examples of 2D materials and the different stacking configurations in graphene layers

It is important to standardize the terminology for graphene, graphene-derived and related 2D materials

at the international level, as the number of publications, patents and organizations is increasing

rapidly. Thus, these materials need an associated vocabulary as they become commercialized and sold

throughout the world.

This document belongs to a multi-part vocabulary covering the different aspects of nanotechnologies.

It builds upon ISO/TS 80004-3, ISO/TS 80004-11 and ISO/TS 80004-6 and uses existing definitions

where possible.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 13:
Graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials
1 Scope

This document lists terms and definitions for graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials,

and includes related terms naming production methods, properties and their characterization.

It is intended to facilitate communication between organizations and individuals in research, industry

and other interested parties and those who interact with them.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1 Terms related to materials
3.1.1 General terms related to 2D materials
3.1.1.1
two-dimensional material
2D material

material, consisting of one or several layers (3.1.1.5) with the atoms in each layer strongly bonded

to neighbouring atoms in the same layer, which has one dimension, its thickness, in the nanoscale or

smaller and the other two dimensions generally at larger scales

Note 1 to entry: The number of layers when a two-dimensional material becomes a bulk material varies

depending on both the material being measured and its properties. In the case of graphene layers (3.1.2.1), it is

[10]

a two-dimensional material up to 10 layers thick for electrical measurements ,beyond which the electrical

properties of the material are not distinct from those for the bulk [also known as graphite (3.1.2.2)].

Note 2 to entry: Interlayer bonding is distinct from and weaker than intralayer bonding.

Note 3 to entry: Each layer may contain more than one element.
Note 4 to entry: A two-dimensional material can be a nanoplate (3.1.1.2).
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
3.1.1.2
nanoplate

nano-object with one external dimension in the nanoscale and the other two external dimensions

significantly larger

Note 1 to entry: The larger external dimensions are not necessarily in the nanoscale.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.6]
3.1.1.3
nanofoil
nanosheet
nanoplate (3.1.1.2) with extended lateral dimensions

Note 1 to entry: Nanofoil and nanosheet are used synonymously in specific industrial areas.

Note 2 to entry: Nanofoil and nanosheet extend further with respect to their length and width compared to

nanoplate or nanoflake.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-11:2017, 3.2.1.1]
3.1.1.4
nanoribbon
nanotape

nanoplate (3.1.1.2) with the two larger dimensions significantly different from each other

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.10]
3.1.1.5
layer

discrete material restricted in one dimension, within or at the surface of a condensed phase

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-11:2017, 3.1.2]
3.1.1.6
quantum dot

nanoparticle or region which exhibits quantum confinement in all three spatial directions

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-12:2016, 4.1]
3.1.1.7
aggregate

particle comprising strongly bonded or fused particles where the resulting external surface area is

significantly smaller than the sum of surface areas of the individual components

Note 1 to entry: The forces holding an aggregate together are strong forces, for example, covalent or ionic bonds

or those resulting from sintering or complex physical entanglement or otherwise combined former primary

particles.

Note 2 to entry: Aggregates are also termed secondary particles and the original source particles are termed

primary particles.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 3.5, modified – Notes 1 and 2 have been added.]
2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
3.1.2 Terms related to graphene
3.1.2.1
graphene
graphene layer
single-layer graphene
monolayer graphene

single layer of carbon atoms with each atom bound to three neighbours in a honeycomb structure

Note 1 to entry: It is an important building block of many carbon nano-objects.

Note 2 to entry: As graphene is a single layer (3.1.1.5), it is also sometimes called monolayer graphene or single-

layer graphene and abbreviated as 1LG to distinguish it from bilayer graphene (2LG) (3.1.2.6) and few-layered

graphene (FLG) (3.1.2.10).

Note 3 to entry: Graphene has edges and can have defects and grain boundaries where the bonding is disrupted.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-3:2010, 2.11, modified – Notes 2 and 3 have been added.]
3.1.2.2
graphite

allotropic form of the element carbon, consisting of graphene layers (3.1.2.1) stacked parallel to each

other in a three dimensional, crystalline, long-range order

Note 1 to entry: Adapted from the definition in the IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology.

Note 2 to entry: There are two primary allotropic forms with different stacking arrangements: hexagonal and

rhombohedral.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-3:2010, 2.12, modified – Note 2 has been added.]
3.1.2.3
graphane

single layer material consisting of a two-dimensional sheet of carbon and hydrogen with the repeating

unit of (CH)

Note 1 to entry: Graphane is the full hydrogenated form of graphene with carbon bonds in the sp bonding

configuration.
3.1.2.4
perfluorographane

single layer material consisting of a two-dimensional sheet of carbon and fluorine with each carbon

atom bonded to one fluorine atom with the repeating unit of (CF)

Note 1 to entry: Perfluorographane has carbon bonds in the sp bonding configuration.

Note 2 to entry: Perfluorographane is sometimes referred to as fluorographene.
3.1.2.5
epitaxial graphene
graphene layer (3.1.2.1) grown on a silicon carbide substrate

Note 1 to entry: Graphene can be grown by epitaxy on other substrates, for example, Ni(111), but these materials

are not termed epitaxial graphene.

Note 2 to entry: This specific definition applies only in the field of graphene. In general, the term “epitaxial”

refers to the epitaxial growth of a film on a single crystal substrate.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
3.1.2.6
bilayer graphene
2LG

two-dimensional material (3.1.1.1) consisting of two well-defined stacked graphene layers (3.1.2.1)

Note 1 to entry: If the stacking registry is known, it can be specified separately, for example, as “Bernal stacked

bilayer graphene”.
3.1.2.7
twisted bilayer graphene
turbostratic bilayer graphene
tBLG
t2LG

two-dimensional material (3.1.1.1) consisting of two well-defined graphene layers (3.1.2.1) that are

turbostratically stacked, with a relative stacking angle (3.4.1.12), also known as commensurate rotation,

rather than Bernal (hexagonal) (3.4.1.10) or rhombohedral stacking (3.4.1.11),
3.1.2.8
twisted few-layer graphene
t(n+m)LG

two-dimensional material (3.1.1.1) consisting of a few-layers of graphene of n Bernal stacked layers

which are situated with a relative stacking angle (3.4.1.2) upon m Bernal stacked layers

3.1.2.9
trilayer graphene
3LG

two-dimensional material (3.1.1.1) consisting of three well-defined stacked graphene layers (3.1.2.1)

Note 1 to entry: If the stacking registry is known, it can be specified separately, for example, as “twisted trilayer

graphene”.
3.1.2.10
few-layer graphene
FLG

two-dimensional material (3.1.1.1) consisting of three to ten well-defined stacked graphene layers

(3.1.2.1)
3.1.2.11
graphene nanoplate
graphene nanoplatelet
GNP
nanoplate (3.1.1.2) consisting of graphene layers (3.1.2.1)

Note 1 to entry: GNPs typically have thickness of between 1 nm to 3 nm and lateral dimensions ranging from

approximately 100 nm to 100 µm.
3.1.2.12
graphite oxide

chemically modified graphite (3.1.2.2) prepared by extensive oxidative modification of the basal planes

Note 1 to entry: The structure and properties of graphite oxide depend on the degree of oxidation and the

particular synthesis method.
3.1.2.13
graphene oxide

chemically modified graphene (3.1.2.1) prepared by oxidation and exfoliation of graphite (3.1.2.2),

causing extensive oxidative modification of the basal plane

Note 1 to entry: Graphene oxide is a single-layer material with a high oxygen content (3.4.2.7), typically

characterized by C/O atomic ratios of approximately 2,0 depending on the method of synthesis.

4 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
3.1.2.14
reduced graphene oxide
rGO
reduced oxygen content (3.4.2.7) form of graphene oxide (3.1.2.13)

Note 1 to entry: This can be produced by chemical, thermal, microwave, photo-chemical, photo-thermal or

microbial/bacterial methods or by exfoliating reduced graphite oxide.

Note 2 to entry: If graphene oxide was fully reduced, then graphene would be the product. However, in practice,

3 2

some oxygen containing functional groups will remain and not all sp bonds will return back to sp configuration.

Different reducing agents will lead to different carbon to oxygen ratios and different chemical compositions in

reduced graphene oxide.

Note 3 to entry: It can take the form of several morphological variations such as platelets and worm-like

structures.
3.1.3 Terms related to other 2D materials
3.1.3.1
2D heterostructure

two-dimensional material (3.1.1.1) consisting of two or more well-defined layers (3.1.1.5) of different 2D

materials
Note 1 to entry: These can be stacked together in-plane or out-of-plane.
3.1.3.2
2D vertical heterostructure

two-dimensional material (3.1.1.1) consisting of two or more well-defined layers (3.1.1.5) of different 2D

materials that are stacked out-of-plane
3.1.3.3
2D in-plane heterostructure

two-dimensional material (3.1.1.1) consisting of two or more well-defined layers (3.1.1.5) of different 2D

materials that are bonded to each other in the in-plane direction
3.2 Terms related to methods for producing 2D materials
3.2.1 Graphene and related 2D material production
3.2.1.1
chemical vapour deposition
CVD

deposition of a solid material by chemical reaction of a gaseous precursor or mixture of precursors,

commonly initiated by heat on a substrate
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-8:2013, 7.2.3]
3.2.1.2
roll-to-roll production
R2R production

<2D material> CVD growth of a 2D material(s) (3.1.1.1) upon a continuous substrate that is processed as

a rolled sheet, including transfer of a 2D material(s) to a separate substrate
3.2.1.3
mechanical exfoliation

<2D material> detachment of separate/individual 2D material layers (3.1.1.5) from the body of a

material via mechanical methods

Note 1 to entry: There are a number of different methods to achieve this. One method is via peeling, also called

the scotch tape method, mechanical cleavage or micromechanical exfoliation/cleavage. Another method is via

dry-media ball milling.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
3.2.1.4
liquid-phase exfoliation

<2D material> exfoliation of 2D materials (3.1.1.1) from the bulk layered material in a solvent through

hydrodynamic shear-forces
Note 1 to entry: The solvent may be aqueous, organic or ionic liquid.

Note 2 to entry: A surfactant may be used in aqueous dispersions to enable or promote exfoliation and increase

stability of the dispersion.

Note 3 to entry: The shear forces may be generated by various methods including ultrasonic cavitation or high-

shear mixing.
3.2.1.5
growth on silicon carbide

production of graphene layers (3.1.2.1) through controlled high temperate heating of a

silicon carbide substrate to sublimate the silicon atoms within the substrate, leaving graphene

Note 1 to entry: Graphene may be grown on the carbon-side or silicon-side of the SiC substrate with variations in

the resulting number of and stacking of graphene layers.
Note 2 to entry: The product is typically called epitaxial graphene (3.1.2.5).
3.2.1.6
graphene precipitation

production of graphene layers (3.1.2.1) on the surface of a metal through heating and

segregation of the carbon present within the metal substrate to the surface

Note 1 to entry: Carbon impurities or dopants within the bulk of the metal may be fortuitous or deliberately

introduced.
3.2.1.7
chemical synthesis

bottom-up graphene production route using small organic molecules that become linked

into carbon rings through surface-mediated reactions and elevated temperatures
3.2.1.8
alcohol precursor growth

growth of graphene by introducing an alcohol precursor into a high temperature

environment to decompose the alcohol and form graphene
3.2.1.9
molecular beam epitaxy
MBE

process of growing single crystals in which beams of atoms or molecules are deposited on a single-

crystal substrate in vacuum, giving rise to crystals whose crystallographic orientation is in registry

with that of the substrate

Note 1 to entry: The beam is defined by allowing the vapour to escape from the evaporation zone to a high

vacuum zone through a small orifice.

Note 2 to entry: Structures with nanoscale features can be grown in this method by exploiting strain, e.g. InAs

dots on GaAs substrate.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-8:2013, 7.2.13]
3.2.1.10
anodic bonding

production of graphene layers (3.1.2.1) on a substrate using a graphite precursor in flake

form, which is bonded to glass using an electrostatic field and then cleaved off
6 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 18 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
3.2.1.11
laser ablation

erosion of material from the surface of a target using energy from a pulsed laser

Note 1 to entry: Method of producing nanoscale and microscale features on a surface.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-8:2013, 7.3.15 – modified]
3.2.1.12
photoexfoliation

detachment of (part of) a layer (3.1.1.5)of a 2D material (3.1.1.1) due to irradiation of a laser beam

Note 1 to entry: For graphene layers (3.1.2.1), this method does not induce evaporation or sublimat

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
01-junij-2020
Nanotehnologija - Slovar - 13. del: Grafen in sorodni dvodimenzionalni (2D)
materiali (ISO/TS 80004-13:2017)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 13: Graphene and related two-dimensional (2D)

materials (ISO/TS 80004-13:2017)
Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 13: Graphen und andere
zweidimensionale (2D) Werkstoffe (ISO/TS 80004-13:2017)
Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 13: Graphène et autres matériaux
bidimensionnels (ISO/TS 80004-13:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13
ICS:
01.040.07 Naravoslovne in uporabne Natural and applied sciences
vede (Slovarji) (Vocabularies)
07.120 Nanotehnologije Nanotechnologies
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 80004-13
First edition
2017-09
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 13:
Graphene and related two-
dimensional (2D) materials
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulaire —
Partie 13: Graphène et autres matériaux bidimensionnels
Reference number
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms related to materials ............................................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1.1 General terms related to 2D materials .......................................................................................................... 1

3.1.2 Terms related to graphene ...................................................................................................................................... 3

3.1.3 Terms related to other 2D materials............................................................................................................... 5

3.2 Terms related to methods for producing 2D materials ........................................................................................ 5

3.2.1 Graphene and related 2D material production ...................................................................................... 5

3.2.2 Nanoribbon production ............................................................................................................................................. 8

3.3 Terms related to methods for characterizing 2D materials ............................................................................. 8

3.3.1 Structural characterization methods ............................................................................................................. 8

3.3.2 Chemical characterization methods.............................................................................................................10

3.3.3 Electrical characterization methods ............................................................................................................12

3.4 Terms related to 2D materials characteristics ..........................................................................................................13

3.4.1 Characteristics and terms related to structural and dimensional

properties of 2D materials ...................................................................................................................................13

3.4.2 Characteristics and terms related to chemical properties of 2D materials ................15

3.4.3 Characteristics and terms related to optical and electrical properties of

2D materials ......................................................................................................................................................................16

4 Abbreviated terms ...........................................................................................................................................................................................16

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

Index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 229, Nanotechnologies, and IEC/TC 113,

Nanotechnology for electrotechnical products and systems.
A list of all parts in the ISO 80004 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
Introduction

Over the last decade, huge interest has arisen in graphene both scientifically and commercially, due

to the many exceptional properties associated with this material, properties such as the electrical

and thermal conductivity. More recently, other materials with a structure similar to that of graphene

have also shown promising properties including monolayer and few-layer versions of hexagonal boron

nitride (hBN), molybdenum disulphide (MoS ), tungsten diselenide (WSe ), silicene and germanene and

2 2

layered assemblies of mixtures of these materials. These materials have their thickness constrained

within the nanoscale or smaller and consist of between one and several layers. These materials are thus

termed two-dimensional (2D) materials as they have one dimension at the nanoscale or smaller, with

the other two dimensions generally at scales larger than the nanoscale. A layered material consists of

two-dimensional layers weakly stacked or bound to form three-dimensional structures. Examples of

2D materials and the different stacking configurations in graphene are shown in Figure 1. It should

be noted that 2D materials are not necessarily topographically flat in reality and can have a buckled

structure. They can also form aggregates and agglomerates which can have different morphologies.

Two-dimensional materials are an important subset of nanomaterials.
graphene hBN graphane perfluoro- MoS WSe
2 2
graphane

a) Examples of different two-dimensional materials consisting of different elements and

structures, as shown by the different coloured orbs and top-down and side views
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)

b) Bernal stacked bilayer graphene (3.1.2.6) c) turbostratic bilayer or twisted bilayer

graphene with relative stacking angle, θ,
(3.1.2.7)
ABA trilayer ABC trilayer

d) Bernal stacked (AB) (3.4.1.10) tri-layer graphene (3.1.2.9) and Rhombohedral (ABC)

(3.4.1.11) stacked tri-layer graphene (3.1.2.9)

Figure 1 — Examples of 2D materials and the different stacking configurations in graphene layers

It is important to standardize the terminology for graphene, graphene-derived and related 2D materials

at the international level, as the number of publications, patents and organizations is increasing

rapidly. Thus, these materials need an associated vocabulary as they become commercialized and sold

throughout the world.

This document belongs to a multi-part vocabulary covering the different aspects of nanotechnologies.

It builds upon ISO/TS 80004-3, ISO/TS 80004-11 and ISO/TS 80004-6 and uses existing definitions

where possible.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 13:
Graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials
1 Scope

This document lists terms and definitions for graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials,

and includes related terms naming production methods, properties and their characterization.

It is intended to facilitate communication between organizations and individuals in research, industry

and other interested parties and those who interact with them.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1 Terms related to materials
3.1.1 General terms related to 2D materials
3.1.1.1
two-dimensional material
2D material

material, consisting of one or several layers (3.1.1.5) with the atoms in each layer strongly bonded

to neighbouring atoms in the same layer, which has one dimension, its thickness, in the nanoscale or

smaller and the other two dimensions generally at larger scales

Note 1 to entry: The number of layers when a two-dimensional material becomes a bulk material varies

depending on both the material being measured and its properties. In the case of graphene layers (3.1.2.1), it is

[10]

a two-dimensional material up to 10 layers thick for electrical measurements ,beyond which the electrical

properties of the material are not distinct from those for the bulk [also known as graphite (3.1.2.2)].

Note 2 to entry: Interlayer bonding is distinct from and weaker than intralayer bonding.

Note 3 to entry: Each layer may contain more than one element.
Note 4 to entry: A two-dimensional material can be a nanoplate (3.1.1.2).
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
3.1.1.2
nanoplate

nano-object with one external dimension in the nanoscale and the other two external dimensions

significantly larger

Note 1 to entry: The larger external dimensions are not necessarily in the nanoscale.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.6]
3.1.1.3
nanofoil
nanosheet
nanoplate (3.1.1.2) with extended lateral dimensions

Note 1 to entry: Nanofoil and nanosheet are used synonymously in specific industrial areas.

Note 2 to entry: Nanofoil and nanosheet extend further with respect to their length and width compared to

nanoplate or nanoflake.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-11:2017, 3.2.1.1]
3.1.1.4
nanoribbon
nanotape

nanoplate (3.1.1.2) with the two larger dimensions significantly different from each other

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.10]
3.1.1.5
layer

discrete material restricted in one dimension, within or at the surface of a condensed phase

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-11:2017, 3.1.2]
3.1.1.6
quantum dot

nanoparticle or region which exhibits quantum confinement in all three spatial directions

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-12:2016, 4.1]
3.1.1.7
aggregate

particle comprising strongly bonded or fused particles where the resulting external surface area is

significantly smaller than the sum of surface areas of the individual components

Note 1 to entry: The forces holding an aggregate together are strong forces, for example, covalent or ionic bonds

or those resulting from sintering or complex physical entanglement or otherwise combined former primary

particles.

Note 2 to entry: Aggregates are also termed secondary particles and the original source particles are termed

primary particles.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 3.5, modified – Notes 1 and 2 have been added.]
2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
3.1.2 Terms related to graphene
3.1.2.1
graphene
graphene layer
single-layer graphene
monolayer graphene

single layer of carbon atoms with each atom bound to three neighbours in a honeycomb structure

Note 1 to entry: It is an important building block of many carbon nano-objects.

Note 2 to entry: As graphene is a single layer (3.1.1.5), it is also sometimes called monolayer graphene or single-

layer graphene and abbreviated as 1LG to distinguish it from bilayer graphene (2LG) (3.1.2.6) and few-layered

graphene (FLG) (3.1.2.10).

Note 3 to entry: Graphene has edges and can have defects and grain boundaries where the bonding is disrupted.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-3:2010, 2.11, modified – Notes 2 and 3 have been added.]
3.1.2.2
graphite

allotropic form of the element carbon, consisting of graphene layers (3.1.2.1) stacked parallel to each

other in a three dimensional, crystalline, long-range order

Note 1 to entry: Adapted from the definition in the IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology.

Note 2 to entry: There are two primary allotropic forms with different stacking arrangements: hexagonal and

rhombohedral.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-3:2010, 2.12, modified – Note 2 has been added.]
3.1.2.3
graphane

single layer material consisting of a two-dimensional sheet of carbon and hydrogen with the repeating

unit of (CH)

Note 1 to entry: Graphane is the full hydrogenated form of graphene with carbon bonds in the sp bonding

configuration.
3.1.2.4
perfluorographane

single layer material consisting of a two-dimensional sheet of carbon and fluorine with each carbon

atom bonded to one fluorine atom with the repeating unit of (CF)

Note 1 to entry: Perfluorographane has carbon bonds in the sp bonding configuration.

Note 2 to entry: Perfluorographane is sometimes referred to as fluorographene.
3.1.2.5
epitaxial graphene
graphene layer (3.1.2.1) grown on a silicon carbide substrate

Note 1 to entry: Graphene can be grown by epitaxy on other substrates, for example, Ni(111), but these materials

are not termed epitaxial graphene.

Note 2 to entry: This specific definition applies only in the field of graphene. In general, the term “epitaxial”

refers to the epitaxial growth of a film on a single crystal substrate.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
3.1.2.6
bilayer graphene
2LG

two-dimensional material (3.1.1.1) consisting of two well-defined stacked graphene layers (3.1.2.1)

Note 1 to entry: If the stacking registry is known, it can be specified separately, for example, as “Bernal stacked

bilayer graphene”.
3.1.2.7
twisted bilayer graphene
turbostratic bilayer graphene
tBLG
t2LG

two-dimensional material (3.1.1.1) consisting of two well-defined graphene layers (3.1.2.1) that are

turbostratically stacked, with a relative stacking angle (3.4.1.12), also known as commensurate rotation,

rather than Bernal (hexagonal) (3.4.1.10) or rhombohedral stacking (3.4.1.11),
3.1.2.8
twisted few-layer graphene
t(n+m)LG

two-dimensional material (3.1.1.1) consisting of a few-layers of graphene of n Bernal stacked layers

which are situated with a relative stacking angle (3.4.1.2) upon m Bernal stacked layers

3.1.2.9
trilayer graphene
3LG

two-dimensional material (3.1.1.1) consisting of three well-defined stacked graphene layers (3.1.2.1)

Note 1 to entry: If the stacking registry is known, it can be specified separately, for example, as “twisted trilayer

graphene”.
3.1.2.10
few-layer graphene
FLG

two-dimensional material (3.1.1.1) consisting of three to ten well-defined stacked graphene layers

(3.1.2.1)
3.1.2.11
graphene nanoplate
graphene nanoplatelet
GNP
nanoplate (3.1.1.2) consisting of graphene layers (3.1.2.1)

Note 1 to entry: GNPs typically have thickness of between 1 nm to 3 nm and lateral dimensions ranging from

approximately 100 nm to 100 µm.
3.1.2.12
graphite oxide

chemically modified graphite (3.1.2.2) prepared by extensive oxidative modification of the basal planes

Note 1 to entry: The structure and properties of graphite oxide depend on the degree of oxidation and the

particular synthesis method.
3.1.2.13
graphene oxide

chemically modified graphene (3.1.2.1) prepared by oxidation and exfoliation of graphite (3.1.2.2),

causing extensive oxidative modification of the basal plane

Note 1 to entry: Graphene oxide is a single-layer material with a high oxygen content (3.4.2.7), typically

characterized by C/O atomic ratios of approximately 2,0 depending on the method of synthesis.

4 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
3.1.2.14
reduced graphene oxide
rGO
reduced oxygen content (3.4.2.7) form of graphene oxide (3.1.2.13)

Note 1 to entry: This can be produced by chemical, thermal, microwave, photo-chemical, photo-thermal or

microbial/bacterial methods or by exfoliating reduced graphite oxide.

Note 2 to entry: If graphene oxide was fully reduced, then graphene would be the product. However, in practice,

3 2

some oxygen containing functional groups will remain and not all sp bonds will return back to sp configuration.

Different reducing agents will lead to different carbon to oxygen ratios and different chemical compositions in

reduced graphene oxide.

Note 3 to entry: It can take the form of several morphological variations such as platelets and worm-like

structures.
3.1.3 Terms related to other 2D materials
3.1.3.1
2D heterostructure

two-dimensional material (3.1.1.1) consisting of two or more well-defined layers (3.1.1.5) of different 2D

materials
Note 1 to entry: These can be stacked together in-plane or out-of-plane.
3.1.3.2
2D vertical heterostructure

two-dimensional material (3.1.1.1) consisting of two or more well-defined layers (3.1.1.5) of different 2D

materials that are stacked out-of-plane
3.1.3.3
2D in-plane heterostructure

two-dimensional material (3.1.1.1) consisting of two or more well-defined layers (3.1.1.5) of different 2D

materials that are bonded to each other in the in-plane direction
3.2 Terms related to methods for producing 2D materials
3.2.1 Graphene and related 2D material production
3.2.1.1
chemical vapour deposition
CVD

deposition of a solid material by chemical reaction of a gaseous precursor or mixture of precursors,

commonly initiated by heat on a substrate
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-8:2013, 7.2.3]
3.2.1.2
roll-to-roll production
R2R production

<2D material> CVD growth of a 2D material(s) (3.1.1.1) upon a continuous substrate that is processed as

a rolled sheet, including transfer of a 2D material(s) to a separate substrate
3.2.1.3
mechanical exfoliation

<2D material> detachment of separate/individual 2D material layers (3.1.1.5) from the body of a

material via mechanical methods

Note 1 to entry: There are a number of different methods to achieve this. One method is via peeling, also called

the scotch tape method, mechanical cleavage or micromechanical exfoliation/cleavage. Another method is via

dry-media ball milling.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
3.2.1.4
liquid-phase exfoliation

<2D material> exfoliation of 2D materials (3.1.1.1) from the bulk layered material in a solvent through

hydrodynamic shear-forces
Note 1 to entry: The solvent may be aqueous, organic or ionic liquid.

Note 2 to entry: A surfactant may be used in aqueous dispersions to enable or promote exfoliation and increase

stability of the dispersion.

Note 3 to entry: The shear forces may be generated by various methods including ultrasonic cavitation or high-

shear mixing.
3.2.1.5
growth on silicon carbide

production of graphene layers (3.1.2.1) through controlled high temperate heating of a

silicon carbide substrate to sublimate the silicon atoms within the substrate, leaving graphene

Note 1 to entry: Graphene may be grown on the carbon-side or silicon-side of the SiC substrate with variations in

the resulting number of and stacking of graphene layers.
Note 2 to entry: The product is typically called epitaxial graphene (3.1.2.5).
3.2.1.6
graphene precipitation

production of graphene layers (3.1.2.1) on the surface of a metal through heating and

segregation of the carbon present within the metal substrate to the surface

Note 1 to entry: Carbon impurities or dopants within the bulk of the metal may be fortuitous or deliberately

introduced.
3.2.1.7
chemical synthesis

bottom-up graphene production route using small organic molecules that become linked

into carbon rings through surface-mediated reactions and elevated temperatures
3.2.1.8
alcohol precursor growth

growth of graphene by introducing an alcohol precursor into a high temperature

environment to decompose the alcohol and form graphene
3.2.1.9
molecular beam epitaxy
MBE

process of growing single crystals in which beams of atoms or molecules are deposited on a single-

crystal substrate in vacuum, giving rise to crystals whose crystallographic orientation is in registry

with that of the substrate

Note 1 to entry: The beam is defined by allowing the vapour to escape from the evaporation zone to a high

vacuum zone through a small orifice.

Note 2 to entry: Structures with nanoscale features can be grown in this method by exploiting strain, e.g. InAs

dots on GaAs substrate.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-8:2013, 7.2.13]
3.2.1.10
anodic bonding

production of graphene layers (3.1.2.1) on a substrate using a graphite precursor in flake

form, which is bonded to glass using an electrostatic field and then cleaved off
6 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
3.2.1.11
laser ablation

erosion of material from the surface of a target using energy from a pulsed laser

Note 1 to entry: Method of producing nanoscale and microscale features on a surface.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-8:2013, 7.3.15 – modified]
3.2.1.12
photoexfoliation

detachment of (part of) a layer (3.1.1.5)of a 2D material (3.1.1.1) due to irradiation of a laser beam

Note 1 to entry: For graphene layers (3.1.2.1), this method does not induce evaporation or sublimation of the

carbon atoms as with laser ablation (3.2.1.11).
3.2.1.13
exfoliation via chemical intercalation

<2D materials> production of single or few-layers of 2D materials (3.1.1.1) by insertion of chemical

species between the layers of a thicker layered material, followed by immersion in a liquid combined

with the application of mechanical or thermal energy
3.2.1.14
electrochemical exfoliation

production of graphene using an ionically conductive solution (electrolyte) and a direct

current power source to prompt the structural changes and exfoliation of the graphitic precursor used

as the electrode in order to form layers (3.1.1.5) of graphene (3.1.2.1)

Note 1 to entry: This method offers the potential to use environmentally benign chemicals, with elimination

of harsh oxidizers/reducers, relatively fast fabrication rates, and high mass production potential at ambient

pressure/temperature.
3.2.1.15
graphite oxidation

production of graphite oxide (3.1.2.12) from graphite (3.1.2.2) in solution using very strong oxidizers

Note 1 to entry: There are a number of different methods used to produce graphite or graphene oxide (3.1.2.13);

these include methods from Hummers, Brodie, Staudenmaier, Marcano-Tour [modified version of Hummers'

method (3.2.1.16)].
3.2.1.16
Hummers’ method

production of graphene oxide (3.1.2.13) from graphite (3.1.2.2) in a sodium nitrate and sulfuric acid

solution after the addition of potassium permanganate
Note 1 to entry: This method is described in Reference [11].
3.2.1.17
thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide

production of reduced graphene oxide (3.1.2.14) after the introduction of oxygen-containing functional

groups between the graphene layers (3.1.2.1) in graphite (3.1.2.2) and heating, decomposing the

introduced species and generation of gases, thus exfoliating the resulting reduced graphene oxide layers

Note 1 to entry: Thermal exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide (3.1.2.12) occur at the same time.

3.2.1.18
gas phase synthesis

production of graphene sheets onto a substrate by introducing a carbon precursor into a

high temperature gas environment
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-13:2020
ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(E)
3.2.1.19
atomic layer deposition
ALD

process of fabricating uniform conformal films through the cyclic deposition of material through self-

terminating surface reactions that enable thickness control at the atomic scale

Note 1 to entry: This process often involves the use of at least two sequential reactions to complete a cycle that

can be repeated several times to establish a desired thickness.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-8:2013, 7.2.2]
3.2.2 Nanoribbon production
3.2.2.1
carbon nanotube unzipping

method to produce a graphene nanoribbon (3.1.1.4) by splitting a carbon nanotube along its long axis

3.2.2.2
templated growth on SiC

method to produce a graphene nanoribbon (3.1.1.4) using a long narrow mask and subsequent growth

on silicon carbide (3.2.1.5)
3.2.2.3
templated CVD growth

method to produce a graphene nanoribbon (3.1.1.4) using a long narrow mask and CVD (3.2.1.1)

3.2.2.4
bottom-up precursor growth

method to produce a graphene nanoribbon (3.1.1.4) using surface-assisted coupling of molecular

precursors and subsequent cyclodehydrogenation
3.2.2.5
electron beam lithographic patterning

method to produce a graphene nanoribbon (3.1.1.4) through a top-down approach using electron beam

lithography followed by etching to produce the nanoribbon from a graphene layer (3.1.2.1)

3.2.2.6
ion beam lithographic patterning

method to produce a graphene nanoribbon (3.1.1.4) through a top-down approach using a controlled ion

beam to etc
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.