Round and sawn timber - Methods of measurements - Part 3: Features and biological degradations

This European Standard specifies the methodology for measurement of features - in relation to wood structure, biological agencies and other damage - taken into account in the visual grading:
a)   for appearance - of sawn, processed and round timber;
b)   for serviceability - of sawn and processed timber (identified in EN 1611-1 as the integrity of the timber).
When the standard is applied the methodology of measurement used shall be stated.
It is not applicable to structural timber for which strength grading in accordance with EN 14081-1 is required.
This standard applies to hardwood and softwood sawn timber, both square edged and un-edged, to processed timber and to round timber.
It does not apply to tropical timber.

Rund- und Schnittholz - Verfahren zur Messung - Teil 3: Merkmale und Schädlingsbefall

Diese Europäische Norm legt das Verfahren zur Messung von Merkmalen in Bezug auf Holzkonstruktionen, biologischen Stoffe und anderen Schäden bei der visuellen Sortierung nach Folgendem fest:
a)   nach dem Aussehen von Schnittholz, weiterbearbeitetem Holz und Rundholz;
b)   nach der Brauchbarkeit von Schnittholz und weiterbearbeitetem Holz (bezeichnet in EN 1611-1 als Integrität des Holz).
Wird die Norm angewandt, muss die genutzte Vorgehensweise der Messung angegeben werden.
Sie gilt nicht für die Sortierung von Bauholz nach der Festigkeit, die nach EN 14081-1 gefordert ist.
Diese Norm bezieht sich auf parallel besäumtes und unbesäumtes Schnittholz sowie auf bearbeitetes Holz und Rundholz von Laub- und Nadelholzarten.
Auf Tropenholz ist diese Norm nicht anzuwenden.

Bois ronds et bois sciés - Méthode de mesure - Partie 3: Singularités et altérations biologiques

La présente Norme européenne spécifie la méthodologie de mesure des singularités (relatives à la structure du bois, aux altérations biologiques et aux autres dégradations) prises en compte pour le classement visuel :
a)   de l’aspect des bois sciés, usinés et ronds ;
b)   de l’aptitude à l’emploi des bois sciés et usinés (identifiée dans l’EN 1611-1 sous la dénomination « intégrité du bois »).
Lorsque la norme s’applique, la méthodologie de mesure utilisée doit être spécifiée.
Elle ne s’applique pas aux bois de structure pour lesquels un classement de résistance conforme à l’EN 14081-1 est requis.
La présente norme s’applique aux bois feuillus et résineux, sciés, avivés ou non, aux bois usinés et aux bois ronds.
Elle ne s’applique pas aux bois tropicaux.

Okrogli in žagani les - Metode merjenja - 3. del: Značilnosti in biološka razgradnja

Ta evropski standard določa metodologijo za merjenje funkcij – v povezavi s strukturo lesa, biološkimi agencijami in drugo škodo – ki se upoštevajo pri vizualnem ocenjevanju:
a) videza – žaganega, obdelanega in okroglega lesa;
b) uporabnosti – žaganega in obdelanega lesa (v standardu EN 1611-1 je to navedeno kot celovitost lesa).
Kadar je standard uporabljen, je treba navesti metodologijo uporabljenega merjenja.
Standard se ne uporablja pri konstrukcijskem lesu, pri katerem je zahtevano razvrščanje po trdnosti v skladu s standardom EN 14081-1.
Ta standard se uporablja pri žaganem lesu listavcev in iglavcev, tako z oblikovanim robom kot brez njega, obdelanem lesu in okroglem lesu. Ne uporablja se za tropski les.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Sep-2016
Publication Date
12-Feb-2018
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Feb-2018
Due Date
09-Apr-2018
Completion Date
13-Feb-2018

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
SIST EN 1309-3:2018
English language
30 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 1309-3:2018
01-marec-2018
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 1310:2001
SIST EN 1311:2001

2NURJOLLQåDJDQLOHV0HWRGHPHUMHQMDGHO=QDþLOQRVWLLQELRORãNDUD]JUDGQMD

Round and sawn timber - Methods of measurements - Part 3: Features and biological

degradations

Rund- und Schnittholz - Verfahren zur Messung - Teil 3: Merkmale und Schädlingsbefall

Bois ronds et bois sciés - Méthode de mesure - Partie 3: Singularités et altérations

biologiques
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 1309-3:2018
ICS:
79.040 Les, hlodovina in žagan les Wood, sawlogs and sawn
timber
SIST EN 1309-3:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 1309-3:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 1309-3:2018
EN 1309-3
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
January 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 79.040 Supersedes EN 1310:1997, EN 1311:1997
English Version
Round and sawn timber - Methods of measurements - Part
3: Features and biological degradations

Bois ronds et bois sciés - Méthode de mesure - Partie 3 Rund- und Schnittholz - Messmethoden - Teil 3:

: Singularités et altérations biologiques Merkmale und biologische Schädigungen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 29 October 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1309-3:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 1309-3:2018
EN 1309-3:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Sawn and processed timber ........................................................................................................................ 6

5.1 Knots .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.1.2 Appearance assessment methodology .................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Resin pocket ................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.3 Reaction wood ............................................................................................................................................... 10

5.4 Grain ................................................................................................................................................................. 10

5.4.1 Slope of grain ................................................................................................................................................. 10

5.4.2 Spiral, interlocked grain ............................................................................................................................ 11

5.4.3 Curly grain ...................................................................................................................................................... 11

5.5 Rate of growth ............................................................................................................................................... 12

5.6 Bark pocket .................................................................................................................................................... 13

5.7 Sapwood .......................................................................................................................................................... 13

5.8 Wane ................................................................................................................................................................. 13

5.9 Fissure .............................................................................................................................................................. 14

5.9.1 Face, edge and end shakes, splits ........................................................................................................... 14

5.9.2 Ring and heart shakes ................................................................................................................................ 14

5.9.3 Checks ............................................................................................................................................................... 14

5.10 Warp ................................................................................................................................................................. 15

5.10.1 Bow and spring ............................................................................................................................................. 15

5.10.2 Cup ..................................................................................................................................................................... 15

5.10.3 Twist ................................................................................................................................................................. 16

6 Round timber ................................................................................................................................................. 16

6.1 Features of the form of the log ................................................................................................................ 16

6.1.1 Sweep ................................................................................................................................................................ 16

6.1.2 Taper ................................................................................................................................................................. 17

6.1.3 Ovality .............................................................................................................................................................. 17

6.1.4 Rate of growth ............................................................................................................................................... 18

6.2 Features of the structure of the wood ................................................................................................... 19

6.2.1 Eccentric pith. ................................................................................................................................................ 19

6.2.2 Burl .................................................................................................................................................................... 19

6.2.3 Buckles ............................................................................................................................................................. 19

6.2.4 Spiral grain ..................................................................................................................................................... 20

6.2.5 Compression wood (reaction wood in softwood) ............................................................................ 20

6.2.6 Double pith ..................................................................................................................................................... 20

6.3 Sapwood .......................................................................................................................................................... 20

6.4 Included sapwood ........................................................................................................................................ 21

6.5 False heartwood ........................................................................................................................................... 21

6.6 Knots ................................................................................................................................................................. 21

6.6.1 Uncovered knot ............................................................................................................................................. 21

6.6.2 Covered knot .................................................................................................................................................. 22

6.6.3 Epicormic shoot ............................................................................................................................................ 22

6.6.4 Rose ................................................................................................................................................................... 22

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 1309-3:2018
EN 1309-3:2018 (E)

6.7 Cracks ................................................................................................................................................................ 22

6.7.1 Heart shake ..................................................................................................................................................... 22

6.7.2 Star shake ........................................................................................................................................................ 22

6.7.3 Ring shake ....................................................................................................................................................... 22

6.7.4 Check, traversing crack .............................................................................................................................. 23

6.7.5 Frost crack, lightning shake ...................................................................................................................... 23

6.7.6 Felling shake ................................................................................................................................................... 23

6.8 Biological degradation ................................................................................................................................ 23

6.8.1 Attack by insects ........................................................................................................................................... 23

6.8.2 Fungal attack .................................................................................................................................................. 24

6.8.3 Hollow ............................................................................................................................................................... 24

6.8.4 Other attack .................................................................................................................................................... 24

6.9 Other defects .................................................................................................................................................. 24

6.9.1 Dry side ............................................................................................................................................................ 24

6.9.2 Parasitic plant ................................................................................................................................................ 24

6.9.3 Carbonized wood .......................................................................................................................................... 25

6.9.4 Canker ............................................................................................................................................................... 25

6.9.5 Bird peck .......................................................................................................................................................... 25

6.10 Tapping cut ..................................................................................................................................................... 25

6.11 Foreign bodies ............................................................................................................................................... 25

6.12 Resin pocket ................................................................................................................................................... 25

6.13 Other damage ................................................................................................................................................. 26

7 Biological degrade ........................................................................................................................................ 26

7.1 Sawn timber .................................................................................................................................................... 26

7.1.1 Degrade by insects ....................................................................................................................................... 26

7.1.2 Fungal degrade .............................................................................................................................................. 26

7.2 Round timber ................................................................................................................................................. 26

7.2.1 Degrade by insects ....................................................................................................................................... 26

7.2.2 Fungal degrade .............................................................................................................................................. 27

7.2.3 Hollow ............................................................................................................................................................... 27

7.2.4 Other degrade ................................................................................................................................................ 27

Annex A (normative) Alternative methodology for measurement of knots for assessment of

serviceability .................................................................................................................................................. 28

A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 28

A.2 Round knot ...................................................................................................................................................... 28

A.3 Oval knot .......................................................................................................................................................... 28

A.4 Arris knot ......................................................................................................................................................... 29

A.5 Spike knot ........................................................................................................................................................ 29

A.6 Splay knot ........................................................................................................................................................ 29

A.7 Branched knot ............................................................................................................................................... 30

A.8 Knot cluster ..................................................................................................................................................... 30

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 1309-3:2018
EN 1309-3:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 1309-3:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 175 “Round and

sawn timber”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2018, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by July 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 1310:1997 and EN 1311:1997.

This standard is one of a series, and covers methods of measurement for round timber and sawn timber.

Other standards in this series are:

— EN 1309-1 Round and sawn timber - Method of measurement of dimensions – Part 1: Sawn timber

— EN 1309-2 Round and sawn timber - Method of measurement of dimensions – Part 2: Round timber

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands,

Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

the United Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 1309-3:2018
EN 1309-3:2018 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies the methodology for measurement of features – in relation to wood

structure, biological agencies and other damage – taken into account in the visual grading:

a) for appearance – of sawn, processed and round timber;

b) for serviceability – of sawn and processed timber (identified in EN 1611-1 as the integrity of the

timber).

When the standard is applied the methodology of measurement used shall be stated.

It is not applicable to structural timber for which strength grading in accordance with EN 14081-1 is

required.

This standard applies to hardwood and softwood sawn timber, both square edged and un-edged, to

processed timber and to round timber.
It does not apply to tropical timber.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 844 (all parts), Round and sawn timber - Terminology

EN 1611-1, Sawn timber - Appearance grading of softwoods - Part 1: European spruces, firs, pines and

Douglas firs

EN 14081-1, Timber structures - Strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross section - Part 1:

General requirements
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 844 apply.

4 Symbols
d size, in millimetres;
a width on the minor axis, in millimetres;
b width on the major axis, in millimetres;
n maximum permitted number of knots;
max
d, d , sizes of the individual knots, in millimetres;
1 2
...d
d maximum permitted size of a knot, in millimetres.
max
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 1309-3:2018
EN 1309-3:2018 (E)
5 Sawn and processed timber
5.1 Knots
5.1.1 General

For the purposes of this standard, knots in sawn timber are classified according to their shape, size and

position. Size is derived from the formulae given below and expressed in millimetres or as a percentage

of a dimension of the surface where the knot occurs. The following symbols are used in the formulae, with

suffixes as required:
d is the size, in millimetres;
a is the width on the minor axis, in millimetres;
b is the width on the major axis, in millimetres.

Methodology for measurement of knots for the assessment of appearance is set out in 5.1.2. For

assessment of serviceability, an alternative methodology for measurement of knots is given in Annex A.

NOTE For strength grading of structural timber, refer to EN 14081-1.
5.1.2 Appearance assessment methodology
5.1.2.1 General
Consider each knot individually, except for ‘cat’s paw’.

Measure knots on a part or all the surface of the face(s) or the edge(s) as specified by the grading rule

used. In the case of a knot with bark on its perimeter, the measurement of the knot shall include the bark.

Figures 1 to 6 show the categories of knots that shall be measured. Each figure is accompanied by the

corresponding formula that is generally the arithmetic average of the minor axis (a) and major axis (b) of

the knot (d = (a + b)/2). Measure the width on each axis and derive the size from the formula.

For each grade, the maximum size and number of knots per piece or per unit measure is stated in the

grading standards / grading rules.

A larger number of smaller knots may be permitted provided their cumulative measure does not exceed

the maximum knot size multiplied by the number permitted within a grade, which can be expressed as:

dn≤× d (1)
max max
where
n is the maximum permitted number of knots;
max
d , d , ...d are the sizes of the individual knots, in millimetres;
1 2 n
d is the maximum permitted size of a knot, in millimetres.
max

Where a grading standard permits the use of such cumulative measurement it will be stated in the grading

standard.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 1309-3:2018
EN 1309-3:2018 (E)
5.1.2.2 Round knot
Figure 1 — Round knot
Formula:
ab+
d= (2)
5.1.2.3 Oval knot
Figure 2 — Oval knot
Formula:
ab+
d= (3)
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 1309-3:2018
EN 1309-3:2018 (E)
5.1.2.4 Arris knot
Knot A Knot B
Key
1 On faces
2 On edges (Knot B: not measured, record its presence)
Figure 3 — Arris knot
Formula:
on face (Knot A and Knot B):
(4)
da=
on edge (Knot A):
da= (5)
5.1.2.5 Spike knot (Oval knot with maximum to minimum ratio exceeding 4)
Depending on the grading rule used,
a) measure as oval knot, or
b) not measured, record its presence.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 1309-3:2018
EN 1309-3:2018 (E)
Figure 4 — Spike knot
5.1.2.6 Splay knot
Figure 5 — Splay knot
Depending on the grading rule used,
a) measure on the edge only and use the formula:
ab+
d= (6)
b) not measured, record its presence.
5.1.2.7 Branched knot
Depending on the grading rule used,
a) not measured, record its presence, or
b) record the number of knots in a unit of length.
Where a branched knot opens on the edge, measure according to 5.1.2.6.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 1309-3:2018
EN 1309-3:2018 (E)
5.1.2.8 Knot cluster
Measure the individual knots.
5.1.2.9 Cat's paw
Measure the total size of the knot cluster.
Figure 6 — Cat's paw
Formula:
ab+
d= (7)
5.2 Resin pocket
Depending on the grading rule used,

a) measure the major axis of the resin pocket, expressed in millimetres. If more than one, also record

their number per metre length of the piece or for the full length of the piece; or

b) not measured, record its presence.
5.3 Reaction wood
Depending on the grading rule used,

a) measure the length and/or the width of a rectangle that encloses it, expressed in centimetres or as a

percentage of the length and/or the width of the surface (face or edge) being considered.

Where there are two or more areas of reaction wood, each shall be measured as before, and the

respective dimensions totalled; or
b) not measured, record its presence.
5.4 Grain
5.4.1 Slope of grain
Use a scribe to determine slope of grain (see Figure 7.a).

A scribe is shown in Figure 7.b. It consists of a cranked rod with a swivel handle at one end, a needle set

to a slight trailing angle at the other.

If the scribe is drawn along the piece of timber in the apparent direction of the grain, applying sufficient

but not excessive pressure, it will scribe a line that shows accurately the direction of grain.

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 1309-3:2018
EN 1309-3:2018 (E)

To check, it is recommended to draw several adjacent lines, with the direction of pull diverging slightly

to the left and to the right; the scribe should still follow the correct direction, (see Figure 7.c).

Key
a) Determination of slope of grain on the edge of piece
b) Scribe
c) Use of a scribe
Figure 7 — Determination of slope of grain
Express the result as a percentage, using the formula:
× 100 (8)
where
x is the deviation of the grain, in millimetres;
y is the length over which the measurement is taken, in millimetres.
5.4.2 Spiral, interlocked grain
Not measured, record its presence.
5.4.3 Curly grain
Depending on the grading rule used,
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 1309-3:2018
EN 1309-3:2018 (E)

a) measure the length and/or the width of a rectangle that encloses it, expressed in centimetres or as a

percentage of the length and/or the width of the surface (face or edge) being considered.

Where there are two or more areas of curly grain, each shall be measured as before, and the

respective dimensions totalled, or
b) not measured, record its presence.
5.5 Rate of growth

On one end of the piece, mark out the longest possible straight line normal to the growth rings. Count the

number of growth rings along this line. Repeat at the other end of the piece. Disregard the portion, if any,

within 25 mm of the pith. Divide the sum of the lengths of the two lines at the two ends by the total

number of growth rings counted to obtain the rate of growth, expressed as the average width of the

growth rings in millimetres (see Figure 8).
a) b)
c) d)
Figure 8 — Rate of growth
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 1309-3:2018
EN 1309-3:2018 (E)
5.6 Bark pocket
Depending on the grading rules used,
a) measure the length and width and express in centimetres,

Where there are two or more areas of bark pocket, each shall be measured as above, the respective

dimensions totalled and expressed in centimetres or assess overall and express the total as a

percentage of the surface being considered, or

b) record the number of bark pockets over one metre length or over the entire piece, or

c) not measured, record its presence.
5.7 Sapwood
Depending on the grading rule used,

a) find that portion of the surface (face or edge) being considered, where the sapwood is widest.

Measure the width and express the result in millimetres or as a percentage of the width of the surface,

b) not measured, record its presence.
5.8 Wane
Depending on the grading rule used,

a) measure the length (c) of wane and express it in centimetres or as a percentage of the length. If wane

shows on more than one part of the arris, add the different lengths (c , c ,..., cn), see Figure 9,

1 2

b) measure the greatest width of the wane on the face or edge and express the result in millimetres,

alternatively as a decimal fraction using the following formulae:
a− a
w = (9)
b− b
w = (10)
where
w is the width of the wane on the face, as a decimal fraction;
w is the width of the wane on the edge, as a decimal fraction;
a is the full width of the face, in millimetres;
a is the width of the face when reduced by the wane, in millimetres;
b is the full width of the edge, in millimetres;

b is the width of the edge when reduced by the wane, in millimetres, see Figure 9;

c) not measured, rec
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.