Temporary works equipment - Part 3: Load testing

This standard specifies general rules for: - testing; - documentation of test results and - evaluation of test results in the field of (non mechanical) temporary works items.

Temporäre Konstruktionen für Bauwerke - Teil 3: Versuche zum Tragverhalten

Diese Norm legt die Regeln für Belastungsversuche, Dokumentation und Auswertung der Versuchsergebnisse im Bereich der nichtmaschinenbaumäßigen temporären Konstruktionen für Bauwerke fest.
ANMERKUNG   Diese EuropäischeNorm sollte allen Arbeitsgruppen des CEN/TC 53 als Grundlage für Normen dienen, welche Versuche beinhalten. Diese Norm enthält allgemeine Regeln; dabei wird vorausgesetzt, dass bei Bedarf spezielle Anforderungen in der jeweiligen Norm festgelegt werden, z. B. die Einzelheiten von Prüfverfahren.

Equipements temporaires de chantiers - Partie 3: Essais de charges

Cette Norme européenne précise les regles a appliquer pour les essais de charge effectués sur les équipements temporaires de chantier de nature non-mécanique, ainsi que pour la documentation et l'évaluation des résultats de ces essais.
NOTE   La présente norme s'adresse a tous les groupes de travail du CEN/TC53 et constitue un document de base pour les différentes normes portant sur les essais. La présente norme se limite aux regles générales ; dans tous les cas ou des exigences particulieres devront etre définies (procédure d'essai a préciser, par exemple), il est entendu que ces exigences feront l'objet d'une norme spécifique.

Začasne konstrukcije za gradnjo – 3. del: Preskusi nosilnosti

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Apr-2004
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-May-2004
Due Date
01-May-2004
Completion Date
01-May-2004

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 12811-3:2004
01-maj-2004
=DþDVQHNRQVWUXNFLMH]DJUDGQMR±GHO3UHVNXVLQRVLOQRVWL
Temporary works equipment - Part 3: Load testing
Temporäre Konstruktionen für Bauwerke - Teil 3: Versuche zum Tragverhalten
Equipements temporaires de chantiers - Partie 3: Essais de charges
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 12811-3:2002
ICS:
91.220 Gradbena oprema Construction equipment
SIST EN 12811-3:2004 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 12811-3
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2002
ICS 91.220
English version
Temporary works equipment - Part 3: Load testing

Equipements temporaires de chantiers - Partie 3: Essais Temporäre Konstruktionen für Bauwerke - Teil 3: Versuche

de charges zum Tragverhalten
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 14 September 2002.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2002 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 12811-3:2002 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 12811-3:2002 (E)
Contents
page

Foreword......................................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ..............................................................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................................................5

3 Terms and definitions....................................................................................................................................5

4 Typical test procedures.................................................................................................................................6

4.1 Basis................................................................................................................................................................6

4.2 Types of tests.................................................................................................................................................6

5 General requirements for load testing.........................................................................................................7

6 Testing of materials .......................................................................................................................................8

6.1 General............................................................................................................................................................8

6.2 Sampling.........................................................................................................................................................8

6.3 Test methods..................................................................................................................................................9

6.3.1 Metallic materials ...........................................................................................................................................9

6.3.2 Wood based materials...................................................................................................................................9

7 Testing of configurations and components................................................................................................9

7.1 General............................................................................................................................................................9

7.2 Tests to determine load bearing capacity, stiffness and looseness........................................................9

7.2.1 General............................................................................................................................................................9

7.2.2 Cyclic loading.................................................................................................................................................9

7.3 Repeated loading .........................................................................................................................................10

7.4 Vibration tests ..............................................................................................................................................10

7.5 Impact tests ..................................................................................................................................................11

8 Testing of system configurations ..............................................................................................................11

9 Documentation of test results ....................................................................................................................12

9.1 General..........................................................................................................................................................12

9.2 Content of test report ..................................................................................................................................12

9.3 Detailed instructions to the content ..........................................................................................................12

9.3.1 Title page ......................................................................................................................................................12

9.3.2 Preliminary remarks ....................................................................................................................................13

9.3.3 The tested items...........................................................................................................................................13

9.3.4 Test programme...........................................................................................................................................13

9.3.5 Test arrangement and procedure...............................................................................................................13

9.3.6 Results ..........................................................................................................................................................14

10 Evaluation of load bearing capacity, stiffness from testing metallic configurations and

components..................................................................................................................................................14

10.1 General..........................................................................................................................................................14

10.2 Approximation functions ............................................................................................................................14

10.3 Dissipation of energy ..................................................................................................................................16

10.4 The ultimate value of the resistance r ...................................................................................................17

u,i

10.5 The partial safety factor g depending on the ductility .........................................................................18

R 2
a b

10.6 Adjustment of the ultimate values r to r depending on deviations of the dimensions of the

u,i u,i

cross section................................................................................................................................................18

b c

10.7 Adjustment of the ultimate values r to r depending on the material properties ...........................18

u,i u,i

10.8 Statistical determination of the basic characteristic value of the resistance R ................................20

k,b
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EN 12811-3:2002 (E)

10.9 Determination of the nominal characteristic value of the resistance R ..........................................21

k,nom

10.10 Evaluation of looseness, stiffness.............................................................................................................21

Annex A (informative) Example for the determination of an approximation function, of the quotient q


 


  
  ............................................................25

A.1 Basis..............................................................................................................................................................25

A.2 Approximation functions ............................................................................................................................26

A.3 Dissipation of energy ..................................................................................................................................28

A.4 Partial safety factor g .............................................................................................................................29

R 2

Annex B (informative) Example for the statistical evaluation of test results and determination of the

nominal characteristic value of the resistance.........................................................................................30

B.1 Basis..............................................................................................................................................................30

B.2 Calculations..................................................................................................................................................30

Annex C (informative) Example for the evaluation of stiffness...........................................................................32

C.1 Basis..............................................................................................................................................................32

C.2 Comparison of the averaged stiffnesses in positive c and negative c load................................32

pp mm

C.3 Resulting stiffness.......................................................................................................................................33

Bibliography ..............................................................................................................................................................35

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
EN 12811-3:2002 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN 12811-3:2002) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 53 "Temporary works

equipment", the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or

by endorsement, at the latest by May 2003, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by

May 2003.

This European Standard consists of the following parts under the general title: Temporary works equipment - :

Part 1: Performance requirements and general design
Part 2: Information on materials
Part 3: Load testing
Annexes A to C are informative.
This document includes a Bibliography.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
EN 12811-3:2002 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies rules for load testing, documentation and evaluation of test results in the field of

non mechanical temporary work items.

NOTE This standard is provided for use by all working groups of CEN/TC53 as a basis for standards which include testing.

While this standard provides general rules, it is anticipated that where special requirements are necessary, they will be specified

in the individual standard, for example the details of the test procedure.
2 Normative references

This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These

normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text, and the publications are listed hereafter. For

dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European

Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the

publication referred to applies (including amendments).

EN 408, Timber structures – Structural timber and glued laminated timber – Determination of some physical and

mechanical properties.

EN 789, Timber structures – Test methods – Determination of mechanical properties of wood based panels.

EN 10002-1, Materials – Tensile testing – Method of tests (at ambient temperature).

EN ISO 6506-1, Metallic materials – Brinell hardness test – Part 1: Test method (ISO 6506-1:1999).

EN ISO 6507-1, Metallic materials – Vickers hardness test – Part 1: Test method (ISO 6507-1:1997).

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this European Standard, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1
system
(e.g. scaffold system, trench lining system):
- set of interconnectable components, mostly purpose designed for the system and
- assessed set of system configurations and
- product manual
3.2
component
dismantable part of the system, e.g. a diagonal, a vertical frame
3.3
element
integral (e. g. welded) part of a component, e.g. a transom of a vertical frame
3.4
connection
device for the connection of components
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
EN 12811-3:2002 (E)
3.5
configuration
particular arrangement of connected components by means of connections
3.6
system configuration

configuration of the system comprising a complete structure (e.g. a scaffold, a load bearing tower) or a

representative section from it
3.7
standard set of system configurations

specified range of system configurations for the purpose of structural design and assessment

3.8
looseness

real (original) or fictitious (additional looseness resulting from the evaluation procedure) play of a connection

between two components
3.9
cyclic loading test

tests in which the load is cycled several times through zero so that reversals of load and its effects occur in the test

sample
3.10
hysteresis loops

resulting moment-rotation or the force-displacement curves from cycling loading tests

3.11
repeated loading tests

tests in which the load is applied and removed a number of times but is not reversed in sign

3.12
assessment

checking process establishing whether everything complies with the specified requirements

4 Typical test procedures
4.1 Basis

European standards for structural design shall be the basis of the structural design of temporary works, however

when suitable calculation models do not exist in such standards, then testing shall be undertaken in place by

calculation.

Tests may not be made simply to circumvent conservative assumptions made in the calculation models of the

relevant standards.
4.2 Types of tests
A non-exhaustive list of typical tests is given in Table 1.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
EN 12811-3:2002 (E)
Table 1 — Typical kinds of tests
Type of test Item tested Examples
1 load bearing capacity and stiffness s,a,c - connection device
- modular node
- horizontal plane

2 verification of the results of static calculation s (in particular) - system configuration

a,c
3 checking the influence of cyclic loading on the a,c,e - connection device
characteristic structural behaviour
- modular node
- horizontal plane
4 checking of the influence of repeated loading a,c,e - stair treads
5 checking of the usability in case of a,c - wedge connection
- repeated attaching - couplers
- vibrations
6 checking the influence of impact loading a,c - decking
components and
their supports
- side protection
components and
their supports
s system configuration, a configuration, c component, e element
5 General requirements for load testing

The load(s) and the relevant displacements or rotations shall be recorded at a sufficient number of steps during

loading and unloading to define the deformation curves fully. A running plot of the principal deformation against

load should be available during the test. For preference, the tests shall be carried out under displacement control.

The rate of loading shall be slow enough to allow full development of plastic deformations.

The loading rate for static loading may be adjusted to the behaviour of the tested component or configuration, but

shall not be more than 25 % of the estimated maximum load per minute. Similarly, the size of the load steps may

be adjusted to the behaviour of the tested component or configuration, but each step shall not exceed 10 % of the

maximum load. Load may be applied continuously, subject to the limit rate of loading outlined in Table 1, for cycling

loading see 7.2.
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EN 12811-3:2002 (E)
6 Testing of materials
6.1 General

Material tests shall be carried out in order to determine the actual mechanical properties of the tested components

or elements.
Tests on materials may be needed:

to check, whether the used materials comply with the specifications given by the manufacturer;

to determine parameters for the evaluation of test results.

Normally for metallic materials, the parameters to be determined are (see also 6.3.1):

the yield stress or the proof stress;
the tensile strength;
the elongation.
Normally for timber based materials, the parameters to be determined are:
bending strength;
the density;
moisture content.
6.2 Sampling

The samples shall be representative for the relevant properties and shall be cut, where possible, from tested items.

Where there is a significant variation in the material properties of similar items, samples should be taken from each

tested item.

When testing configurations or components, samples shall be taken from all materials which can contribute to the

failure or can cause the failure.

NOTE 1 A series of configuration tests could show the failure for one element; configuration tests with another batch could

produce the failure for another element, owing to variations in material properties.

When sampling from the tested items, the samples shall be cut from parts where the preceding testing has no

influence on the material test results. This means:

the sample was not subjected to plastic deformations and that sustained elastic deformations were low during

the test;
the sample was not cut from a heat effected zone.

When the samples are taken from items which have not been tested they shall be of the same type and from the

same batch as the tested elements.

In circumstances where the material properties differ significantly within the cross section, it is recommended that

samples of the whole cross section are taken.

NOTE 2 For cold-formed sections or extruded materials, the properties can vary within the cross section.

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EN 12811-3:2002 (E)

When samples are not taken from each configuration or component tested, at least the following number of tests

shall be carried out:
metallic materials: 3 of each material;
timber based materials: 5 of each grade.
6.3 Test methods
6.3.1 Metallic materials

For determining the mechanical properties, tensile tests shall be carried out in accordance with EN 10002-1.

In cases where the samples cannot be taken with standardised dimensions or when whole sections are tested, the

length shall be three to five times the greatest cross-section dimension.
NOTE This requirement reduces the influence of the end sections.

If tensile tests are not possible (e. g. for smaller elements of cast iron), hardness tests shall be carried out in

accordance with EN ISO 6506-1 for preference or EN ISO 6507-1.

In addition to testing samples of whole sections, tests may be carried out on stub columns in accordance with the

recommendations of ENV 1993-1-3:1996, A.3.2.
6.3.2 Wood based materials

Tests for determining the mechanical properties shall be carried out in accordance with EN 408 or with EN 789.

7 Testing of configurations and components
7.1 General

Connections using wedges or bolts shall be assembled and dismantled three times before assembly for any test.

7.2 Tests to determine load bearing capacity, stiffness and looseness
7.2.1 General

Before loading to failure, cyclic loading shall be carried out in the following cases:

a) full cyclic loading (c ) shall be carried out for configurations and components which are intended to subject to

full

stress reversals to measure the characteristic structural behaviour (see 7.2.2.1).

b) limited cyclic loading (c ) shall be carried out for configurations and components which may exhibit looseness

lim
if not a) is required.
7.2.2 Cyclic loading

7.2.2.1 For full cyclic loading (c ), tests shall be carried out over a load range of:

full
+ -
R R
k k
+1,0 · ; - 1,0 ·
g · g g · g
M F M F
where
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EN 12811-3:2002 (E)
R is the characteristic value of the resistance in positive load direction;
R is the characteristic value of the resistance in negative load direction;
g is the partial safety factor for the resistance;
g is the partial safety factor for the action.

At least, three cycles shall be made at this one load level. On completion of such loading, the load shall be

increased in one load direction until failure occurs with some unloadings back to the zero level.

Since the characteristic resistances R are not known at the beginning of the tests estimated values for instance

from pilot tests may be accepted.
At least five equal tests shall be carried out for each traced parameter.

A test may be made either with one load (or moment) or with combinations of loading to determine the interaction

behaviour.

7.2.2.2 For limited cyclic loading (c ), three cycles shall be carried out over a load range of:

lim
+ -
R R
k k
+ 0,1· ; - 0,1·
g · g g · g
M F M F

at first and then the load shall be increased to failure with some unloadings. At least five tests shall be carried out

for each traced parameter.
7.3 Repeated loading

Repeated loading tests are required for configurations and components, where the load is essentially unidirectional

and the load repetition is expected to be high.

The purpose of a repeated loading test is to check that the serviceability of the configuration or the component is

not adversely affected when the sample is repeatedly loaded and unloaded a representative number of times.

For repeated loading tests, the number of load applications shall be determined on a rational basis by considering

the anticipated life and the expected frequency of use.

As an example, 300 000 load applications would be appropriate for treads of stairways.

The load intensity shall be equal to the service load, or one that produces the same effects as the service load.

NOTE Normally, such tests are not required for temporary works equipment.
7.4 Vibration tests

Vibration tests are carried out on configurations, which may be susceptible to loosening when subject to frequent

load reversals for example, those incorporating wedge connections.
Normally, such tests shall be carried out
at a load intensity of:
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
EN 12811-3:2002 (E)
– 0,1·
g · g
M F
where
R is the characteristic value of the resistance;
g is the partial safety factor for the resistance;
g is the partial safety factor for the action.
at a frequency of 5 cycles per second;
with a minimum duration of 3 000 cycles.
At least three identical tests shall be carried out.

After each vibration test, the position of the components and the parts of the connection device shall be checked.

Movement of any component or part, e.g. the wedge, is not permissible.
7.5 Impact tests
The main purposes of impact tests are:

a) to determine the load bearing capacity of configurations and/or components, which can be expected to

experience such loading in normal working life. Example: Side protection components and their supports,

which are designed to catch falling bodies. The magnitude of the dynamic effect specified for the test shall be

measured by the kinetic energy of a moving body at the point of impact and shall be equal to the actual impact

energy that the component or configuration will experience in service;

b) to determine the magnification of static loads by dynamic effects. Example: Decking components and their

supports, which can be loaded by moving persons;

c) to find out structural inadequacy of configuration or components. Example: Decking components and their

supports.
Details are to be provided by the respective standard.
8 Testing of system configurations

Generally full scale tests for system configurations shall only be carried out for verification purposes to confirm that

the assumptions used in the analysis model chosen by the designer are conservative.

The system configuration and the chosen loading shall be representative. The main components and connections

shall be activated during the tests.
Only the applied forces and some significant displacements need to be recorded.
No statistical treatment of the results is required.

When a pure second order analysis is carried out the load displacement curves determined in the tests shall be

compared with those determined by calculation. The calculated curves shall be on the conservative side up to

failure.

When the influence of the deformations on the equilibrium is considered by a modified calculation following first

order analysis, the test shall provide a basis for estimating the ideal buckling load via the failure load and the eigen-

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EN 12811-3:2002 (E)

function. Where the primary loads are axial only, additional small perturbating horizontal loads may be induced

which will stimulate the eigen-function corresponding to the lowest buckling load.

9 Documentation of test results
9.1 General

Details of the tested components, the test arrangement, the test programme and procedure as well as the results

shall be fully documented. Text shall be adequately supported by:
drawings;
photographs;
plots and
tables.
9.2 Content of test report
The test report shall include the following:
title page;
list of contents;
preliminary remarks;
the tested items;
test programme;
test arrangement and procedure;
results;
summary;
a reference to this standard;
list of appendices;
appendices.
9.3 Detailed instructions to the content
9.3.1 Title page
The title page shall include as a minimum:
the name and identity of the test laboratory;
the title and identification number of the report;
the date of the report;
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EN 12811-3:2002 (E)
the number of pages and the number of appendices;
an indication of the tested items;
the name and the address of the customer.

If they are not written elsewhere in the report, other information may be included such as:

the address of the laboratory, telephone and fax numbers and the e-mail address;

name of the department or division responsible.
9.3.2 Preliminary remarks
The following information shall be given:
the date of the tests;

the reason and the reference for the tests (e.g. approval procedure, the number of the EN);

the date of the assent of the certification body to the test programme if available or necessary.

9.3.3 The tested items

The tested items shall be documented by drawings or by other means. The form, dimensions, materials and the

nature of corrosion protection shall be clearly defined. The production process shall be stated (e.g. forged,

punched, cast, cold-formed).

Information about the sampling shall be given, whether the components are selected by the test laboratory or sent

by the manufacturer, whether the components are new or used.

The primary dimensions and the mechanical properties of relevant materials shall be measured and listed.

Significant deviations shall be indicated. Chemical properties of materials shall only be controlled where relevant.

9.3.4 Test programme

The test programme shall be compiled. The following shall be stated for each test type:

the objectives (e.g. stiffness, load bearing capacity);
the number of tests;
the type of loading and its parameters, with loading sketches where necessary;
a brief descri
...

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