Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 6: Nano-object characterization (ISO/TS 80004-6:2013)

This Technical Specification lists terms and definitions relevant to the characterization of nano-objects.

Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 6: Charakterisierung von Nanoobjekten (ISO/TS 80004-6:2013)

Diese Technische Spezifikation führt Begriffe auf, die für die Charakterisierung von Nanoobjekten maßgebend sind.

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 6: Caractérisation des nano-objets (ISO/TS 80004-6:2013)

L'ISO/TS 80004-6:2013 donne la liste des termes et définitions applicables à la caractérisation des nano-objets.

Nanotehnologije - Slovar - 6. del: Karakterizacija nanoobjektov (ISO/TS 80004-6:2013)

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Mar-2015
Publication Date
08-Jun-2015
Withdrawal Date
21-Apr-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
22-Apr-2021
Due Date
15-May-2021
Completion Date
22-Apr-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015
01-julij-2015
Nanotehnologije - Slovar - 6. del: Karakterizacija nanoobjektov (ISO/TS 80004-
6:2013)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 6: Nano-object characterization (ISO/TS 80004-

6:2013)

Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 6: Charakterisierung von Nanoobjekten

(ISO/TS 80004-6:2013)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 6: Caractérisation des nano-objets (ISO/TS

80004-6:2013)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015
ICS:
01.040.07 Naravoslovne in uporabne Natural and applied sciences
vede (Slovarji) (Vocabularies)
07.120 Nanotehnologije Nanotechnologies
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
CEN ISO/TS 80004-6
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
May 2015
ICS 07.030; 01.040.07
English Version
Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 6: Nano-object
characterization (ISO/TS 80004-6:2013)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 6: Caractérisation Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 6:

des nano-objets (ISO/TS 80004-6:2013) Charakterisierung von Nanoobjekten (ISO/TS 80004-

6:2013)

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 16 May 2015 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their

comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available

promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)

until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015
CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015 (E)
Contents
Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015
CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015 (E)
Foreword

The text of ISO/TS 80004-6:2013 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 229

“Nanotechnologies” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as

CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 352 “Nanotechnologies” the secretariat of which

is held by AFNOR.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany,

Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/TS 80004-6:2013 has been approved by CEN as CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015 without any

modification.
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015
TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 80004-6
First edition
2013-11-01
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 6:
Nano-object characterization
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulaire —
Partie 6: Caractérisation d’un nano-objet
Reference number
ISO/TS 80004-6:2013(E)
ISO 2013
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015
ISO/TS 80004-6:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 80004-6:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 General terms .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms related to size and shape measurement .................................................................................................................... 3

3.1 Terms related to measurands for size and shape ...................................................................................................... 3

3.2 Terms related to scattering techniques ............................................................................................................................. 4

3.3 Terms related to aerosol characterization ...................................................................................................................... 5

3.4 Terms related to separation techniques ........................................................................................................................... 6

3.5 Terms related to microscopy ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

3.6 Terms related to surface area measurement .............................................................................................................10

4 Terms related to chemical analysis ................................................................................................................................................11

5 Terms related to measurement of other properties ....................................................................................................15

5.1 Terms related to mass measurement ...............................................................................................................................15

5.2 Terms related to crystallinity measurement ..............................................................................................................16

5.3 Terms related to charge measurement in suspensions ....................................................................................16

Annex A (informative) Index ......................................................................................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TS 80004-6:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

ISO/TS 80004-6 was prepared jointly by Technical Committee ISO/TC 229, Nanotechnologies and

Technical Committee IEC/TC 113, Nanotechnology standardization for electrical and electronic products

and systems. The draft was circulated for voting to the national bodies of both ISO and IEC.

Documents in the 80000 to 89999 range of reference numbers are developed by collaboration

between ISO and IEC.

ISO/TS 80004 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary:

— Part 1: Core terms
— Part 3: Carbon nano-objects
— Part 4: Nanostructured materials
— Part 5: Nano/bio interface
— Part 6: Nano-object characterization
— Part 7: Diagnostics and therapeutics for healthcare
— Part 8: Nanomanufacturing processes
The following parts are under preparation:
— Part 2: Nano-objects: Nanoparticle, nanofibre and nanoplate
— Part 9: Nano-enabled electrotechnical products and systems
— Part 10: Nano-enabled photonic components and systems
— Part 11: Nanolayer, nanocoating, nanofilm, and related terms

1) Revision of ISO/TS 27687:2008, Nanotechnologies — Terminology and definitions for nano-objects —

Nanoparticle, nanofibre and nanoplate.
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ISO/TS 80004-6:2013(E)
— Part 12: Quantum phenomena in nanotechnology

Graphene and other two dimensional materials will form the subject of a future Part 13.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
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Introduction

Measurement and instrumentation techniques have effectively opened the door to modern

nanotechnology. Characterization is key to understanding the properties and function of all nano-objects.

Nano-object characterization involves interactions between people with different backgrounds and

from different fields. Those interested in nano-object characterization might, for example, be materials

scientists, biologists, chemists or physicists and might have a background that is primarily experimental

or theoretical. Those making use of the data extend beyond this group to include regulators and

toxicologists. To avoid any misunderstandings, and to facilitate both comparability and the reliable

exchange of information, it is essential to clarify the concepts, to establish the terms for use and to

establish their definitions.
The terms are classified under the following broad headings:
— Clause 2: General terms
— Clause 3: Terms related to size and shape measurement
— Clause 4: Terms related to chemical analysis
— Clause 5: Terms related to measurement of other properties

These headings are intended as guide only, as some techniques can determine more than one property.

Subclause 3.1 lists the overarching measurands that apply to the rest of Clause 3. Other measurands are

more technique specific and are placed in the text adjacent to the technique.

It should be noted that most techniques require analysis in a non-native state and involve sample

preparation, for example placing the nano-objects on a surface or placing it in a specific fluid or vacuum.

This could change the nature of the nano-objects.

The order of the techniques in this document should not be taken to indicate a preference and the

techniques listed in this document are not intended to be exhaustive. Equally, some of the techniques

listed in this document are more popular than others in their usage in analysing certain properties of

nano-objects. Table 1 lists alphabetically the main current techniques for nano-object characterization.

Table 1 — Alphabetical list of main current techniques for nano-object characterization

Property Current main techniques

Size atomic force microscopy (AFM), centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS), differential

mobility analysing system (DMAS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron

microscopy (SEM), particle tracking analysis (PTA), transmission electron microscopy

(TEM)

Shape atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission

electron microscopy (TEM)
Surface area Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method

‘Surface’ chemistry secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

Chemistry of the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance

‘bulk’ sample spectroscopy (NMR)
Charge in suspensions zeta potential

This document is intended to serve as a starting reference for the vocabulary that underpins measurement

and characterization efforts in the field of nanotechnologies.
vi © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-6:2015
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 80004-6:2013(E)
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 6:
Nano-object characterization
1 Scope

This Technical Specification lists terms and definitions relevant to the characterization of nano-objects.

2 General terms
2.1
nanoscale
size range from approximately 1 nm to 100 nm

Note 1 to entry: Properties that are not extrapolations from a larger size will typically, but not exclusively, be

exhibited in this size range. For such properties the size limits are considered approximate.

Note 2 to entry: The lower limit in this definition (approximately 1 nm) is introduced to avoid single and small

groups of atoms from being designated as nano-objects (2.2) or elements of nanostructures, which might be

implied by the absence of a lower limit.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2010, definition 2.1]
2.2
nano-object
material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale (2.1)
Note 1 to entry: Generic term for all discrete nanoscale objects.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2010, definition 2.5]
2.3
nanoparticle
nano-object (2.2) with all three external dimensions in the nanoscale (2.1)

Note 1 to entry: If the lengths of the longest to the shortest axes of the nano-object differ significantly (typically

by more than three times), the terms nanofibre (2.6) or nanoplate (2.4) are intended to be used instead of the term

nanoparticle.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 27687:2008, definition 4.1]
2.4
nanoplate

nano-object (2.2) with one external dimension in the nanoscale (2.1) and the two other external

dimensions significantly larger

Note 1 to entry: The smallest external dimension is the thickness of the nanoplate.

Note 2 to entry: The two significantly larger dimensions are considered to differ from the nanoscale dimension

by more than three times.

Note 3 to entry: The larger external dimensions are not necessarily in the nanoscale.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 27687:2008, definition 4.2]
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TS 80004-6:2013(E)
2.5
nanorod
solid nanofibre (2.6)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 27687:2008, definition 4.5]
2.6
nanofibre

nano-object (2.2) with two similar external dimensions in the nanoscale (2.1) and the third dimension

significantly larger
Note 1 to entry: A nanofibre can be flexible or rigid.

Note 2 to entry: The two similar external dimensions are considered to differ in size by less than three times and

the significantly larger external dimension is considered to differ from the other two by more than three times.

Note 3 to entry: The largest external dimension is not necessarily in the nanoscale.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 27687:2008, definition 4.3]
2.7
nanotube
hollow nanofibre (2.6)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 27687:2008, definition 4.4]
2.8
quantum dot

crystalline nanoparticle (2.3) that exhibits size-dependent properties due to quantum confinement

effects on the electronic states
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 27687:2008, definition 4.7]
2.9
particle
minute piece of matter with defined physical boundaries
Note 1 to entry: A physical boundary can also be described as an interface.
Note 2 to entry: A particle can move as a unit.
Note 3 to entry: This general particle definition applies to nano-objects (2.2).

[SOURCE: ISO 14644-6:2007, definition 2.102 and ISO/TS 27687:2008, definition 3.1]

2.10
agglomerate

collection of weakly bound particles (2.9) or aggregates (2.11) or mixtures of the two where the resulting

external surface area is similar to the sum of the surface areas of the individual components

Note 1 to entry: The forces holding an agglomerate together are weak forces, for example van der Waals forces, or

simple physical entanglement.

Note 2 to entry: Agglomerates are also termed secondary particles and the original source particles are termed

primary particles.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 27687:2008, definition 3.2]
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2.11
aggregate

particle (2.9) comprising strongly bonded or fused particles where the resulting external surface area

may be significantly smaller than the sum of calculated surface areas of the individual components

Note 1 to entry: The forces holding an aggregate together are strong forces, for example covalent bonds, or those

resulting from sintering or complex physical entanglement.

Note 2 to entry: Aggregates are also termed secondary particles and the original source particles are termed

primary particles.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 27687:2008, definition 3.3]
2.12
aerosol
system of solid or liquid particles (2.9) suspended in gas
[SOURCE: ISO 15900:2009, definition 2.1]
2.13
suspension

heterogeneous mixture of materials comprising a liquid and a finely dispersed solid material

[SOURCE: ISO 4618:—, definition 2.243]
3 Terms related to size and shape measurement
3.1 Terms related to measurands for size and shape
3.1.1
particle size

linear dimension of a particle (2.9) determined by a specified measurement method and under specified

measurement conditions
[SOURCE: ISO 26824:2013, definition 1.5]

Note 1 to entry: Different methods of analysis are based on the measurement of different physical properties.

Independent of the particle property actually measured, the particle size can be reported as a linear dimension,

e.g. as the equivalent spherical diameter.
3.1.2
particle size distribution
distribution of particles (2.9) as a function of particle size (3.1.1)
[SOURCE: ISO 14644-1:1999, definition 2.2.4, modified]

Note 1 to entry: Particle size distribution may be expressed as cumulative distribution or a distribution density

(distribution of the fraction of material in a size class, divided by the width of that class).

3.1.3
particle shape
external geometric form of a particle (2.9)
[SOURCE: ISO 3252:1999]
3.1.4
aspect ratio
ratio of length of a particle (2.9) to its width
[SOURCE: ISO 14966:2002, definition 2.8]
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3.1.5
equivalent diameter

diameter of a sphere that produces a response by a given particle-sizing method, that is equivalent to the

response produced by the particle (2.9) being measured

Note 1 to entry: The physical property to which the equivalent diameter refers is indicated using a suitable

subscript (see ISO 9276-1:1998).

Note 2 to entry: For discrete-particle-counting, light-scattering instruments, an equivalent optical diameter is used.

Note 3 to entry: Other material constants like density of the particle are used for the calculation of the equivalent

diameter like Stokes diameter or sedimentation equivalent diameter. The material constants, used for the

calculation, should be reported additionally.

Note 4 to entry: For inertial instruments, the aerodynamic diameter is used. Aerodynamic diameter is the

diameter of a sphere of density 1 000 kg m that has the same settling velocity as the irregular particle.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 27687:2008, A.3.3, modified]
3.2 Terms related to scattering techniques
3.2.1
radius of gyration

measure of the distribution of mass about a chosen axis, given as the square root of the moment of

inertia about that axis divided by the mass
[SOURCE: ISO 14695:2003, definition 3.4]

Note 1 to entry: For nano-object (2.2) characterization, physical methods that measure radius of gyration to

determine particle size (3.1.1) include static light scattering, small angle neutron scattering (3.2.2) and small angle

X-ray scattering (3.2.4).
3.2.2
small angle neutron scattering
SANS

method in which a beam of neutrons is scattered from a sample and the scattered neutron intensity is

measured for small angle deflection

Note 1 to entry: The scattering angle is usually between 0,5° and 10° in order to study the structure of a material

on the length scale of 1 nm to 100 nm. The method provides information on the sizes of the particles (2.9) and to

a limited extent the shapes of the particles dispersed in homogeneous medium.
3.2.3
neutron diffraction

application of elastic neutron scattering for the determination of the atomic or magnetic structure of matter

Note 1 to entry: The neutrons emerging from the experiment have approximately the same energy as the incident

neutrons. A diffraction pattern is formed that provides information on the structure of the material.

3.2.4
small angle X-ray scattering
SAXS

method in which the elastically scattered intensity of X-rays is measured for small-angle deflections

Note 1 to entry: The angular scattering is usually measured within the range 0,1° to 10°. This provides structural

information on macromolecules as well as periodicity on length scales typically larger than 5 nm and less than

200 nm for ordered or partially ordered systems.
[SOURCE: ISO 18115-1, definition 4.18]
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3.2.5
light scattering

change in propagation of light at the interface of two media having different optical properties

[SOURCE: ISO 13320:2009, definition 3.1.17]
3.2.6
hydrodynamic diameter

equivalent diameter (3.1.5) of a particle (2.9) in a liquid having the same diffusion coefficient as the real

particle in that liquid
3.2.7
dynamic light scattering
DLS
photon correlation spectroscopy
PCS
quasi-elastic light scattering
QELS

method in which particles (2.9) undergoing Brownian motion in a liquid suspension (2.13) are illuminated

by a laser and the change in intensity of the scattered light is used to determine particle size (3.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: Analysis of the time-dependent intensity of the scattered light can yield the translational diffusion

coefficient and hence the particle size as the hydrodynamic diameter (3.2.6) via the Stokes–Einstein relationship.

Note 2 to entry: The analysis is applicable to nanoparticles (2.3) as the size of particles detected is typically in the

range 1 nm to 6000 nm. The upper limit is due to limited Brownian motion and sedimentation.

3.2.8
nanoparticle tracking analysis
NTA
particle tracking analysis
PTA

method where particles (2.9) undergoing Brownian motion in a liquid suspension (2.13) are illuminated

by a laser and the change in position of individual particles is used to determine particle size (3.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: Analysis of the time-dependent position of individual particles by means of scattered light can

yield the translational diffusion coefficient and hence the particle size as the hydrodynamic diameter (3.2.6) using

the Stokes–Einstein relationship

Note 2 to entry: The analysis is applicable to nanoparticles (2.3) as the size of particles detected is typically in the

range 10 nm to 2000 nm. The lower limit requires particles with high refractive index and the upper limit is due

to limited Brownian motion and sedimentation.
3.3 Terms related to aerosol characterization
3.3.1
condensation particle counter
CPC

instrument that measures the particle (2.9) number concentration of an aerosol (2.12)

Note 1 to entry: The sizes of particles detected are usually smaller than several hundred nanometres and larger

than a few nanometres.

Note 2 to entry: A CPC is one possible detector suitable for use with a differential electrical mobility classifier

(DEMC) (3.3.2).

Note 3 to entry: In some cases, a condensation particle counter may be called a condensation nucleus counter (CNC).

[SOURCE: ISO 15900:2009, definition 2.5]
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3.3.2
differential electrical mobility classifier
DEMC

classifier that is able to select aerosol (2.12)particles (2.9) according to their electrical mobility and pass

them to its exit

Note 1 to entry: A DEMC classifies aerosol particles by balancing the electrical force on each particle with its

aerodynamic drag force in an electrical field. Classified particles are in a narrow range of electrical mobility

determined by the operating conditions and physical dimensions of the DEMC, while they can have different sizes

due to difference in the number of charges that they have.
[SOURCE: ISO 15900:2009, definition 2.7]
3.3.3
differential mobility analysing system
DMAS

system to measure the size distribution of submicrometre aerosol (2.12)particles (2.9) consisting of a DEMC

(3.3.2), flow meters, a particle detector, interconnecting plumbing, a computer and suitable software

[SOURCE: ISO 15900:2009, definition 2.8]
3.3.4
Faraday-cup aerosol electrometer
FCAE

system designed for the measurement of electrical charges carried by aerosol (2.12)particles (2.9)

Note 1 to entry: A Faraday-cup aerosol electrometer consists of an electrically conducting and electrically grounded

cup as a guard to cover the sensing element that includes aerosol filtering media to capture charged aerosol particles,

an electrical connection between the sensing element and an electrometer circuit, and a flow meter.

[SOURCE: ISO 15900:2009, definition 2.12, modified]
3.4 Terms related to separation techniques
3.4.1
field flow fractionation
FFF

separation technique where a field is applied to a liquid suspension (2.13) passing along a narrow channel

in order to cause separation of the particles (2.9) present in the liquid, dependent on their differing

mobility under the force exerted by the field

Note 1 to entry: The field can be, for example, gravitational, centrifugal, a liquid flow, electrical or magnetic.

Note 2 to entry: Using a suitable detector after or during separation allows determination of the size and size

distribution of nano-objects (2.2).
3.4.2
centrifugal liquid sedimentation
CLS
differential centrifugal sedimentation
DCS

method in which a sample is separated based on size and density using a rotating disc filled with a fluid

contai
...

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