Energy management system application program interface (EMS-API) - Part 456: Solved power system state profiles

This part of IEC 61970 belongs to the IEC 61970-450 to IEC 61970-499 series that, taken as a
whole, defines at an abstract level the content and exchange mechanisms used for data
transmitted between power system analyses applications, control centres and/or control centre
components.
The purpose of this document is to rigorously define the subset of classes, class attributes, and
roles from the CIM necessary to describe the result of state estimation, power flow and other
similar applications that produce a steady-state solution of a power network, under a set of use
cases which are included informatively in this document.
This document is intended for two distinct audiences, data producers and data recipients, and
can be read from those two perspectives. From the standpoint of model export software used
by a data producer, the document defines how a producer may describe an instance of a
network case in order to make it available to some other program. From the standpoint of a
consumer, the document defines what that importing software must be able to interpret in order
to consume power flow cases.
There are many different use cases for which use of this document is expected and they differ
in the way that the document will be applied in each case. Implementers are expected to
consider what use cases they wish to cover in order to know the extent of different options they
must cover. As an example, the profiles defined in this document will be used in some cases to
exchange starting conditions rather than solved conditions, so if this is an important use case,
it means that a consumer application needs to be able to handle an unsolved state as well as
one which has met some solution criteria

Schnittstelle für Anwendungsprogramme für Netzführungssysteme (EMS-API) - Teil 456: Globale Stabilitätsbeurteilung

Interface de programmation d'application pour système de gestion d'énergie (EMS-API) - Partie 456: Profils d'état de réseaux électriques résolus

IEC 61970-456:2021 appartient aux séries IEC 61970-450 à IEC 61970-499 qui, considérées dans leur ensemble, définissent à un niveau abstrait le contenu et les mécanismes d'échange utilisés pour les données transmises entre des applications d’analyses de réseaux électriques, des centres de conduite et/ou des composants de centre de conduite. Le présent document a pour objet de définir de façon rigoureuse le sous-ensemble de classes, les attributs de classe et les rôles du CIM, nécessaires pour décrire le résultat de l'estimation d'état, du calcul de répartition et d'autres applications analogues qui produisent une solution en régime établi d'un réseau électrique dans un ensemble de cas d'utilisation inclus à titre informatif dans le présent document. Le présent document s'adresse à deux destinataires distincts, les producteurs de données et les destinataires de données. Il peut être interprété selon ces deux points de vue. Du point de vue du logiciel d'exportation des modèles utilisé par un producteur de données, le présent document présente la façon dont un producteur peut décrire une instance d'un cas de réseau pour le rendre accessible à un autre programme. Du point de vue du client, le document définit ce que ce logiciel d'importation doit être capable d'interpréter afin de pouvoir absorber les cas de calcul de répartition. Il existe un grand nombre de cas d'utilisation pour lesquels l'utilisation du présent document est prévue et ils diffèrent dans la manière dont le document est appliqué dans chaque cas. Il est prévu que les personnes chargées de la mise en œuvre envisagent les cas d'utilisation qu'ils souhaitent traiter afin de connaître l'étendue des différentes options qu'ils doivent traiter. Par exemple, le profil définit dans le présent document est utilisé dans certains cas pour échanger des conditions initiales plutôt que des conditions résolues, de sorte que s'il s'agit d'un cas d'utilisation important, cela signifie qu’il est nécessaire qu’une application du client soit capable de traiter un état non résolu ainsi qu'un état qui a satisfait à certains critères de solution. Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition parue en 2018. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Elle est fondée sur la version UML de l’IEC 61970 ʺIEC61970CIM17v40ʺ datée du 2020-08-24. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente: a) mise à jour pour prendre en charge le CIM17 (IEC 61970-301:2020+AMD1) et s'aligner sur l'IEC 61970-452:ED4; b) les classes PowerElectronicsConnection, PowerElectronicsUnit et PowerElectronicsWindUnit sont ajoutées au profil SSH (Steady State Hypothesis) pour correspondre aux modifications apportées au profil CoreEquipment de l’édition 4 de l’IEC 61970-452 ; c) ajout des termes pertinents utilisés dans le présent document; d) clarification de l'utilisation de Equipment.inService et de Equipment.normallyInService.

Aplikacijski programski vmesnik za sistem upravljanja z energijo (EMS-API) - 456. del: Profili stanja sproščenega elektroenergetskega sistema

Ta del standarda IEC 61970 pripada skupini standardov od IEC 61970-450 do IEC 61970-499, ki kot celota na abstraktni ravni določa vsebino in mehanizme izmenjave, ki se uporabljajo za podatke, prenesene med aplikacijami za analizo elektroenergetskega sistema, nadzornimi centri in/ali komponentami nadzornih centrov. Namen tega dokumenta je natančna opredelitev podmnožice razredov, atributov razredov in vlog v skupnem informacijskem modelu (CIM), potrebnih za opis rezultata ocenjevanja stanj, pretoka moči in drugih podobnih aplikacij, ki ustvarijo ustaljeno rešitev napajalnega omrežja na podlagi nabora primerov uporabe, ki jih ta standard informativno vključuje. Ta dokument je namenjen dvema ločenima skupinama (proizvajalcem podatkov in prejemnikom podatkov) in se lahko tolmači s teh dveh vidikov. S stališča programske opreme za izvažanje modelov, ki jo uporablja proizvajalec podatkov, dokument določa, kako lahko proizvajalec opiše omrežni primer, da omogoči njegovo razpoložljivost drugemu programu. S stališča porabnika dokument določa, katere zmogljivosti tolmačenja mora vključevati programska oprema za uvažanje, da lahko porablja primere pretoka moči. Obstajajo številni različni primeri uporabe, pri katerih se pričakuje uporaba tega dokumenta in ki se razlikujejo v načinu uporabe dokumenta. Od izvajalcev se pričakuje odločitev, katere primere uporabe želijo zajeti, da določijo obseg različnih možnosti, ki morajo biti vključene. Profili, opredeljeni v tem dokumentu, se na primer uporabijo v nekaterih primerih za izmenjavo začetnih pogojev namesto izpolnjenih pogojev. Če je to pomemben primer uporabe, to pomeni, da mora biti porabniška aplikacija zmožna obravnavati tako neizpolnjeno stanje kot tudi stanje, pri katerem so bili izpolnjeni nekateri kriteriji rešitve.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Apr-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
18-Mar-2022
Due Date
23-May-2022
Completion Date
11-Apr-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 61970-456:2022
01-maj-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN IEC 61970-456:2018

Aplikacijski programski vmesnik za sistem upravljanja z energijo (EMS-API) - 456.

del: Profili stanja sproščenega elektroenergetskega sistema

Energy management system application program interface (EMS-API) - Part 456: Solved

power system state profiles

Schnittstelle für Anwendungsprogramme für Netzführungssysteme (EMS-API) - Teil 456:

Globale Stabilitätsbeurteilung

Interface de programmation d'application pour système de gestion d'énergie (EMS-API) -

Partie 456: Profils d'état de réseaux électriques résolus
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 61970-456:2022
ICS:
29.240.30 Krmilna oprema za Control equipment for electric
elektroenergetske sisteme power systems
35.200 Vmesniška in povezovalna Interface and interconnection
oprema equipment
SIST EN IEC 61970-456:2022 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN IEC 61970-456:2022
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SIST EN IEC 61970-456:2022
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 61970-456
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM February 2022
ICS 33.200 Supersedes EN IEC 61970-456:2018 and all of its
amendments and corrigenda (if any)
English Version
Energy management system application program interface
(EMS-API) - Part 456: Solved power system state profiles
(IEC 61970-456:2021)

Interface de programmation d'application pour système de Schnittstelle für Anwendungsprogramme für

gestion d'énergie (EMS-API) - Partie 456: Profils d'état de Netzführungssysteme (EMS-API) - Teil 456: Gelöste

réseaux électriques résolus Zustandsprofile des Stromversorgungssystems
(IEC 61970-456:2021) (IEC 61970-456:2021)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2022-01-19. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 61970-456:2022 E
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SIST EN IEC 61970-456:2022
EN IEC 61970-456:2022 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 57/2406/FDIS, future edition 3 of IEC 61970-456, prepared by IEC/TC 57

"Power systems management and associated information exchange" was submitted to the IEC-

CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as EN IEC 61970-456:2022.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2022-10-19

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2025-01-19

document have to be withdrawn

This document supersedes EN IEC 61970-456:2018 and all of its amendments and corrigenda (if

any).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a Standardization Request given to CENELEC by the

European Commission and the European Free Trade Association.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national committee. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CENELEC website.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 61970-456:2021 was approved by CENELEC as a

European Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
IEC 61970-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61970-1
IEC/TS 61970-2 NOTE Harmonized as CLC/TS 61970-2
IEC 61970-453 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61970-453
IEC 61970-501 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61970-501
IEC 61970-552 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61970-552
IEC 61970-600-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 61970-600-1
IEC 61970-600-2 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 61970-600-2
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SIST EN IEC 61970-456:2022
EN IEC 61970-456:2022 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the

relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available

here: www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 61970-301 2020 Energy management system application EN IEC 61970-301 2020
program interface (EMS-API) - Part 301:
Common information model (CIM) base
1 2
A1 — A1 —
IEC 61970-452 2021 Energy management system application EN IEC 61970-452 2021
program interface (EMS-API) - Part 452:
CIM static transmission network model
profiles

Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: IEC/RPVC 61970-301/AMD1:2021.

Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: EN IEC 61970-301:2020/FprA1:2021.

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SIST EN IEC 61970-456:2022
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SIST EN IEC 61970-456:2022
IEC 61970-456
Edition 3.0 2021-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Energy management system application program interface (EMS-API) –
Part 456: Solved power system state profiles
Interface de programmation d'application pour système de gestion d'énergie
(EMS-API) –
Partie 456: Profils d'état de réseaux électriques résolus
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 33.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-1046-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
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SIST EN IEC 61970-456:2022
– 2 – IEC 61970-456:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 10

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 12

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 13

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 13

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 13

4 Profile specification ....................................................................................................... 15

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 15

4.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

4.1.2 Steady state hypothesis profile ...................................................................... 15

4.1.3 Topology profile ............................................................................................. 16

4.1.4 State variables profile .................................................................................... 16

4.2 Requirements and constraints ............................................................................... 16

5 Overview ....................................................................................................................... 21

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 21

5.2 Modelling authorities ............................................................................................. 22

5.3 Profile relationships .............................................................................................. 24

5.4 Connectivity model................................................................................................ 25

6 Use cases ..................................................................................................................... 26

6.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 26

6.2 EMS network analysis integration ......................................................................... 28

6.3 Power flow based network analysis ....................................................................... 28

6.4 Model partitioning and boundary modelling ........................................................... 29

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 29

6.4.2 Network model boundaries ............................................................................ 30

6.4.3 Network parts and model merge .................................................................... 31

6.4.4 Partitioning of a merged model ...................................................................... 33

7 Data model with CIMXML examples ............................................................................... 34

7.1 Topology processing ............................................................................................. 34

7.1.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 34

7.1.2 Bus-branch and node-breaker models ........................................................... 34

8 Detailed Profile specification ......................................................................................... 36

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 36

8.2 Package SteadyStateHypothesisProfile................................................................. 36

8.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 36

8.2.2 (abstract) ACDCConverter ............................................................................. 41

8.2.3 (Description) ACDCConverterDCTerminal ...................................................... 41

8.2.4 (abstract) ACDCTerminal ............................................................................... 42

8.2.5 (Description) ActivePowerLimit ...................................................................... 42

8.2.6 (Description) ApparentPowerLimit .................................................................. 42

8.2.7 (Description) AsynchronousMachine .............................................................. 43

8.2.8 (Description) BatteryUnit................................................................................ 43

8.2.9 (Description) Breaker ..................................................................................... 43

8.2.10 (abstract) ConductingEquipment .................................................................... 44

8.2.11 (Description) ConformLoad ............................................................................ 44

8.2.12 (Description) ControlArea .............................................................................. 44

8.2.13 (Description) CsConverter ............................................................................. 45

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8.2.14 (Description) CurrentLimit .............................................................................. 46

8.2.15 (abstract) DCBaseTerminal ............................................................................ 47

8.2.16 (Description) DCTerminal .............................................................................. 47

8.2.17 (Description) Disconnector............................................................................. 47

8.2.18 (Description) DisconnectingCircuitBreaker ..................................................... 48

8.2.19 (abstract) EnergyConnection ......................................................................... 48

8.2.20 (Description) EnergyConsumer ...................................................................... 48

8.2.21 (Description) EnergySource ........................................................................... 49

8.2.22 Equipment ..................................................................................................... 50

8.2.23 (abstract) EquivalentEquipment ..................................................................... 50

8.2.24 (Description) EquivalentInjection ................................................................... 50

8.2.25 (Description) ExternalNetworkInjection .......................................................... 51

8.2.26 (Description) Fuse ......................................................................................... 51

8.2.27 (Description) GeneratingUnit ......................................................................... 52

8.2.28 (Description) GroundDisconnector ................................................................. 52

8.2.29 (Description) HydroGeneratingUnit ................................................................ 53

8.2.30 (abstract) IdentifiedObject root class ............................................................. 53

8.2.31 (Description) Jumper ..................................................................................... 53

8.2.32 (Description) LinearShuntCompensator ......................................................... 54

8.2.33 (Description) LoadBreakSwitch ...................................................................... 54

8.2.34 (Description) NonConformLoad ...................................................................... 54

8.2.35 (Description) NonlinearShuntCompensator .................................................... 55

8.2.36 (Description) NuclearGeneratingUnit ............................................................. 55

8.2.37 (abstract) OperationalLimit ............................................................................ 55

8.2.38 (abstract) PhaseTapChanger ......................................................................... 56

8.2.39 (Description) PhaseTapChangerAsymmetrical ............................................... 56

8.2.40 (Description) PhaseTapChangerLinear .......................................................... 57

8.2.41 (abstract) PhaseTapChangerNonLinear ......................................................... 57

8.2.42 (Description) PhaseTapChangerSymmetrical ................................................. 57

8.2.43 (Description) PhaseTapChangerTabular ........................................................ 58

8.2.44 (Description) PowerElectronicsConnection .................................................... 58

8.2.45 (abstract) PowerElectronicsUnit ..................................................................... 59

8.2.46 (abstract) PowerSystemResource .................................................................. 59

8.2.47 (abstract) ProtectedSwitch ............................................................................. 59

8.2.48 (Description) RatioTapChanger ...................................................................... 60

8.2.49 (abstract,Description) RegulatingCondEq ...................................................... 60

8.2.50 (Description) RegulatingControl ..................................................................... 60

8.2.51 (abstract) RotatingMachine ............................................................................ 61

8.2.52 (abstract) ShuntCompensator ........................................................................ 62

8.2.53 (Description) SolarGeneratingUnit ................................................................. 63

8.2.54 (Description) StaticVarCompensator .............................................................. 63

8.2.55 (Description) StationSupply ........................................................................... 63

8.2.56 (Description) Switch ....................................................................................... 64

8.2.57 (Description) SynchronousMachine ................................................................ 64

8.2.58 (abstract) TapChanger ................................................................................... 65

8.2.59 (Description) TapChangerControl .................................................................. 65

8.2.60 (Description) Terminal ................................................................................... 66

8.2.61 (Description) ThermalGeneratingUnit ............................................................. 66

8.2.62 (Description) VoltageLimit .............................................................................. 66

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8.2.63 (Description) VsConverter .............................................................................. 67

8.2.64 (Description) WindGeneratingUnit .................................................................. 68

8.2.65 AsynchronousMachineKind enumeration ........................................................ 68

8.2.66 BatteryStateKind enumeration ....................................................................... 68

8.2.67 CsOperatingModeKind enumeration............................................................... 68

8.2.68 CsPpccControlKind enumeration ................................................................... 69

8.2.69 SynchronousMachineOperatingMode enumeration ........................................ 69

8.2.70 UnitMultiplier enumeration ............................................................................. 69

8.2.71 UnitSymbol enumeration ................................................................................ 70

8.2.72 VsPpccControlKind enumeration .................................................................... 76

8.2.73 VsQpccControlKind enumeration ................................................................... 76

8.2.74 ActivePower datatype .................................................................................... 77

8.2.75 AngleDegrees datatype ................................................................................. 77

8.2.76 AngleRadians datatype .................................................................................. 77

8.2.77 ApparentPower datatype................................................................................ 78

8.2.78 CurrentFlow datatype .................................................................................... 78

8.2.79 PerCent datatype ........................................................................................... 78

8.2.80 PU datatype ................................................................................................... 79

8.2.81 ReactivePower datatype ................................................................................ 79

8.2.82 RealEnergy datatype ..................................................................................... 79

8.2.83 Resistance datatype ...................................................................................... 79

8.2.84 Voltage datatype............................................................................................ 80

8.2.85 Boolean primitive ........................................................................................... 80

8.2.86 Date primitive ................................................................................................ 80

8.2.87 Float primitive ................................................................................................ 80

8.2.88 Integer primitive ............................................................................................. 80

8.2.89 String primitive .............................................................................................. 80

8.3 Package TopologyProfile ...................................................................................... 80

8.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 80

8.3.2 (Description) ACDCConverterDCTerminal ...................................................... 82

8.3.3 (abstract) ACDCTerminal ............................................................................... 82

8.3.4 (abstract) BaseVoltage root class .................................................................. 82

8.3.5 (Description) ConnectivityNode root class ...................................................... 82

8.3.6 (abstract) ConnectivityNodeContainer root class ............................................ 83

8.3.7 (abstract) DCBaseTerminal ............................................................................ 83

8.3.8 (abstract) DCEquipmentContainer root class ................................................. 83

8.3.9 (Description) DCNode .................................................................................... 83

8.3.10 (Description) DCTerminal .............................................................................. 84

8.3.11 DCTopologicalNode ....................................................................................... 84

8.3.12 (abstract) IdentifiedObject root class ............................................................. 85

8.3.13 (Description) Terminal ................................................................................... 85

8.3.14 TopologicalNode ............................................................................................ 86

8.3.15 Date primitive ................................................................................................ 87

8.3.16 (abstract) ReportingGroup ............................................................................. 87

8.3.17 String primitive .............................................................................................. 87

8.4 Package StateVariablesProfile .............................................................................. 87

8.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 87

8.4.2 (abstract) ACDCConverter ............................................................................. 90

8.4.3 (abstract) ACDCTerminal ............................................................................... 90

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8.4.4 (Description) CsConverter ............................................................................. 90

8.4.5 (abstract) ConductingEquipment root class .................................................... 91

8.4.6 DCTopologicalIsland ...................................................................................... 91

8.4.7 (abstract) DCTopologicalNode ....................................................................... 92

8.4.8 (abstract) IdentifiedObject root class ............................................................. 92

8.4.9 (abstract) ShuntCompensator root class ........................................................ 93

8.4.10 SvInjection root class..................................................................................... 93

8.4.11 SvPowerFlow root class ................................................................................. 93

8.4.12 SvShuntCompensatorSections root class ....................................................... 94

8.4.13 SvStatus root class ........................................................................................ 94

8.4.14 SvSwitch root class ....................................................................................... 95

8.4.15 SvTapStep root class ..................................................................................... 95

8.4.16 SvVoltage root class ...................................................................................... 96

8.4.17 (abstract) Switch ............................................................................................ 96

8.4.18 (abstract) TapChanger root class ................................................................... 96

8.4.19 (abstract) Terminal ........................................................................................ 97

8.4.20 TopologicalIsland........................................................................................... 97

8.4.21 (abstract) TopologicalNode root class ............................................................ 98

8.4.22 (Description) VsConverter .............................................................................. 98

8.4.23 UnitMultiplier enumeration ............................................................................. 98

8.4.24 UnitSymbol enumeration ................................................................................ 99

8.4.25 ActivePower datatype .................................................................................. 105

8.4.26 AngleDegrees datatype ............................................................................... 105

8.4.27 CurrentFlow datatype .................................................................................. 105

8.4.28 ReactivePower datatype .............................................................................. 105

8.4.29 Voltage datatype.......................................................................................... 106

8.4.30 Boolean primitive ......................................................................................... 106

8.4.31 Date primitive .............................................................................................. 106

8.4.32 Float primitive .............................................................................................. 106

8.4.33 String primitive ............................................................................................ 106

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 107

Figure 1 – Relations between MAS, profile and dataset ........................................................ 23

Figure 2 – Profile relationships ............................................................................................. 24

Figure 3 – Connectivity and solution model ........................................................................... 25

Figure 4 – The European power system with regions ............................................................ 27

Figure 5 – Information exchange in power flow and sharing of results ................................... 27

Figure 6 – EMS datasets to an external client ....................................................................... 28

Figure 7 – Node-breaker power flow integration architecture ................................................. 29

Figure 8 – Bus-branch power flow integration architecture .................................................... 29

Figure 9 – Line boundary dataset example ............................................................................ 30

Figure 10 – Substation boundary dataset example ................................................................ 30

Figure 11 – Merged model .................................................................................................... 31

Figure 12 – Alternate boundary
...

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