Soil quality - Sampling - Part 202: Preliminary investigations

This document provides guidance on the design and execution of preliminary investigations comprising
desk studies and site reconnaissance, and where appropriate, preliminary risk assessment. It is
applicable whenever sampling exercises or investigations are to be carried out to determine soil quality.

Qualité du sol - Échantillonnage - Partie 202: Enquêtes préliminaires

Le pr�sent document fournit des recommandations pour la conception et l'ex�cution d'investigations pr�liminaires comprenant des �tudes sur documents et une reconnaissance du site, et, le cas �ch�ant, une appr�ciation pr�liminaire du risque. Il est applicable lorsque des activit�s d'�chantillonnage ou des investigations doivent �tre effectu�es pour d�terminer la qualit� du sol.

Kakovost tal - Vzorčenje - 202. del: Predhodne preiskave

Ta dokument podaja smernice za oblikovanje in izvedbo predhodnih preiskav, ki vključujejo teoretične študije in terenske raziskave ter po potrebi predhodno oceno tveganja. Uporablja se vedno, kadar je za določitev kakovosti tal potrebno vzorčenje ali preiskovanje.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
14-Mar-2018
Publication Date
29-Jan-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
22-Jan-2019
Due Date
29-Mar-2019
Completion Date
30-Jan-2019

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18400-202
First edition
2018-10
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 202:
Preliminary investigations
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 202: Investigations préliminaires
Reference number
ISO 18400-202:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18400-202:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18400-202:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General/principle ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Phases of investigation ................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Objectives of preliminary investigations .................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Scope of preliminary investigations ................................................................................................................................................. 5

7.1 General/strategy ................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2 Desk study ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.2 Information on past and present use ............................................................................................................. 9

7.2.3 Information on geology, pedology, geomorphology, hydrology and

hydrogeology....................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2.4 Ecology and archaeology .......................................................................................................................................11

7.3 Consultations .........................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.4 Site reconnaissance ..........................................................................................................................................................................13

8 Development of the preliminary conceptual site model .........................................................................................14

8.1 Overall conceptual site model .................................................................................................................................................14

8.2 Characteristic distributions of the physico-chemical properties .............................................................16

8.3 Formulation of contamination-related hypotheses .............................................................................................17

8.4 Preliminary qualitative risk assessment for potentially contaminated sites .................................17

8.5 Further investigations ...................................................................................................................................................................18

9 Reporting the preliminary investigation and the conceptual site model ..............................................18

Annex A (informative) Contaminants of potential concern and industry/contaminant matrix .........20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................34

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 18400-202:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 2,

Sampling.

This first edition of ISO 18400-202, together with ISO 18400-104, ISO 18400-203 and ISO 18400-205,

cancels and replaces the first editions of ISO 10381-4:2003 and ISO 10381-5:2005, which have been

technically and structurally revised.

The new ISO 18400 series is based on a modular structure and cannot be compared to the ISO 10381

series clause by clause.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18400 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 18400-202:2018(E)
Introduction

All investigation programmes to gather information about soil quality need some basic information

about the subject site and its environmental setting to allow appropriate planning of the field work. To

collect this information, a preliminary investigation is carried out comprising desk studies, retrieval

of data from archives and databases, interviews and a site reconnaissance. From the information

gathered, and the observations made, a conceptual site model can be developed including hypotheses

about soil characteristics and their possible spatial distribution.

It is for the user of this document to decide the extent and nature of information required in any

particular case taking into account the nature of the site and the objectives of the overall investigation:

however, some preliminary information will always be needed. Detailed guidance is provided in the

document based mainly on the need to obtain detailed information on many aspects of a site in the

more complex cases, e.g. a potentially contaminated site, but the guidance is intended to be helpful

when preparing to investigate all types of site.

The sources of information available for use in preliminary investigations will vary from country to

country and jurisdiction to jurisdiction and, thus, the guidance given about sources of information

in this document is of necessity generic in character. The user will find it useful to prepare detailed

information about local sources for their own use. National standards providing guidance on the design

and execution of geotechnical investigations often contain a requirement that a desk study and site

reconnaissance should be carried out and thus could provide useful guidance about potential sources

of information. Similarly, standards covering the demolition and dismantling of old buildings and

industrial plant could provide useful information and guidance.

This document deals only with the investigation of the ground. It should be recognized that there could

be derelict buildings and/or industrial plants awaiting demolition, dismantling or refurbishment on

old urban and industrial sites, but that buildings in a poor state and containing potentially hazardous

materials could also be present on farms and similar sites. Failure to investigate these buildings before

demolition could put the safety of workers at risk or lead to the spread of contamination on and around

[7][8]

the site . The investigation of derelict buildings or remnant foundations is outside the scope of this

document.

This document is part of a series on sampling standards for soil. The role/position of the standards

within the total investigation programme is shown in Figure 1.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 18400-202:2018(E)

NOTE 1 The numbers in circles in Figure 1 define the key elements (1 to 7) of the investigation programme.

NOTE 2 Figure 1 displays a generic process which can be amended when necessary.
Figure 1 — Links between the essential elements of an investigation programme
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18400-202:2018(E)
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 202:
Preliminary investigations
1 Scope

This document provides guidance on the design and execution of preliminary investigations comprising

desk studies and site reconnaissance, and where appropriate, preliminary risk assessment. It is

applicable whenever sampling exercises or investigations are to be carried out to determine soil quality.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11074, Soil quality — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11074 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
conceptual site model

synthesis (mental representation) of all information about a site relevant to the task at hand including

interpretation of the information as necessary, and recognition of uncertainties in the information

including identification of what is known to be unknown

Note 1 to entry: A conceptual site model can be presented in narrative, tabular and/or diagrammatic form.

3.2
conceptual site model

synthesis (mental representation) of all information about a site

relevant to the task at hand with interpretation as necessary and recognition of uncertainties in the

information, including, as appropriate, information regarding the ground, groundwater, surface water,

soil quality, and surrounding environment, and if the occurrence of contamination is likely, the nature

and potential sources of hazardous substances that could be present including soil gases and volatile

organic compounds (VOCs), potential migration pathways, and potential receptors, taking into account,

when appropriate, planned changes of use and anticipated changes in the environmental setting such

as in groundwater levels or propensity to flood

Note 1 to entry: A conceptual site model can be presented in narrative, tabular and/or diagrammatic form.

Note 2 to entry: The future use or uses will not always be known and could also be the subject of client

confidentiality.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 18400-202:2018(E)
4 General/principle

A preliminary investigation (Phase I investigation) should always be carried out prior to any intrusive

sampling exercise or site investigation. It should be a two-step process involving data collection

followed by interpretation and reporting. Data collection should always comprise
— a desk study (including when appropriate consultations), and
— a site reconnaissance (walk-over survey, site inspection).

The assessor should decide the extent and nature of information required in any particular case taking

into account the nature of the site, the purpose and the objectives of the overall investigation, the

availability of existing information, the size and complexity of the site, known or projected future land

uses and other relevant site-specific factors: the investigation needs to be no more detailed than the

task at hand requires. However, some preliminary information will always be needed.

It will often be appropriate for a site investigation to be iterative with several stages of investigation

within each phase. The objectives should be reconsidered at each stage, and the requirements for

further investigation reviewed as the investigatory and assessment processes are developed.

When an investigation is carried out in a number of phases or stages, the preliminary investigation

would ordinarily only be undertaken prior to the initial phase or stage. However, the results should

be reviewed on completion of the first stage or phase, and after each subsequent stage or phase to

determine whether the conclusions, including any preliminary risk assessment require amendment.

The results of the preliminary investigation enable a preliminary conceptual site model to be developed

(see Clause 8).

In the case of potentially contaminated sites, the possibility of contamination can be deduced, and

hypotheses can be formulated on the nature, location and distribution of the contamination (8.2).

These hypotheses form part of the overall preliminary conceptual site model that should be developed,

encompassing not only the contamination aspects but also the geology, pedology, hydrogeology,

geotechnical properties and the environmental setting. The current and planned site uses are also

important aspects of the conceptual site model.

NOTE Although the conceptual site model is usually first formally prepared following a preliminary

investigation, it first comes into existence the moment the question is asked whether the site needs to be

investigated. At that stage, for example, it could be recognized that the site is agricultural land or is industrial land

and the assessor will immediately form an initial picture about what the site might be like and act accordingly.

Thus, it is this initial conceptual site model and the purpose of the overall investigation that guide decisions

about the scope and depth of the preliminary investigation required.
5 Phases of investigation

A phased approach as described in ISO 18400-104:2018, Clause 4 should always be taken to site

investigation. The principal phases are
— preliminary investigation (this document),
— exploratory investigation, and
— detailed site investigation.
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18400-202:2018(E)

Figure 2 — Flow-chart of phases of site investigation for a potentially contaminated site

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 18400-202:2018(E)

NOTE A preliminary investigation is always required but whether intrusive investigation is required, and if

so, whether both an exploratory investigation and a detailed (main) investigation are required, will depend on

the context and the findings of the preliminary investigation (see ISO 18400-104 for further guidance).

Supplementary investigations could be required subsequent to the detailed site investigation in order to

— fill information gaps, and

— design works and, in the case of a contaminated site, select remedial methods, or design remediation

or construction works.

The relationship between these phases for a potentially contaminated site is illustrated in Figure 2.

Before embarking on any phase or stage of investigation including a preliminary investigation, it

is important to set data quality objectives in terms of the type, quantity and quality (e.g. analytical

quality) of the data and other information that is to be collected. These data quality objectives will

depend in part on the nature of the decisions to be made on the basis of the investigation, and the

confidence required in those decisions. Failure to set data quality objectives at the outset can lead to

significantly higher costs, if, for example, the data collected are not suitable or sufficient for a reliable

risk assessment, or leave too many uncertainties in the “conceptual site model” (see 8.1).

6 Objectives of preliminary investigations

The objectives of the preliminary investigation should be set out formally before the investigation is

started to ensure that the scope (e.g. sources of information searched) is appropriate.

The preliminary investigation should always provide sufficient information to:

— enable a sampling programme including preparation of a sampling plan if deemed necessary to be

designed that is both technically effective and economically acceptable;

— identify measures required to protect the health and safety of the investigating personnel;

— identify measures necessary to protect the environment during any subsequent intrusive

investigation;

— identify any aspect of the site requiring immediate attention for reasons of health and safety or

protection of the environment (e.g. insecure fences, hazardous substances accessible to trespassers

or likely to be dispersed by wind or water) so that those in control of the site (e.g. owner or occupier)

can be made aware of potential liabilities.

Other information relevant to the conduct of the sampling programme should also be gathered,

e.g. means of access for equipment, locations for site facilities (e.g. laboratories, stores, equipment

decontamination), availability and location of power and water, etc., and whether warfare or other

military activities might have affected the site (including, for example, whether unexploded ordnance

might be present).

NOTE In some jurisdictions, detailed information on the location of WWII bomb hits and, hence, possible

unexploded ordnance is available.

Depending on the nature of the site and the objectives of the overall investigation, specific objectives

could include:

— providing information on past and current uses of the site and surrounding area and the nature of

any hazards and physical constraints;

— providing information on the geology, geomorphology, geochemistry, soil, hydrogeology and

hydrology of the site and surrounding area;

— identifying potentially different sub-areas (zones) of a site, based on differing ground conditions;

potential contamination; and past, present and future uses;
4 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 18400-202:2018(E)

— identifying areas where informed decisions are to be made using specialist assessment techniques

or advisors, e.g. if there are ecological, unexploded ordnance (UXO) or archaeological considerations;

— identifying the need to involve regulatory bodies prior to intrusive investigation;

— determining whether there is a need to inform the neighbourhood.

And in the case of potentially contaminated sites, specifically to obtain information:

— assessing the likelihood of contamination, its nature and its extent;
— evaluating the environmental setting of the site;

— identifying current and likely future receptors, potential sources of contamination and likely pathways

and any features of immediate concern, including those that could be introduced in the future;

— providing information from which likely source-pathway-receptor relationships can be identified,

and which can then be used to formulate a conceptual site model to enable the design of a field

investigation (if required);

— producing a preliminary conceptual model for the site as a whole and/or for zones within the site;

— providing information for the preliminary risk assessment (see 8.4).
7 Scope of preliminary investigations
7.1 General/strategy
The preliminary investigation should consist of:

— a desk study, including consultations (see 7.3) with those who might have relevant information

about the site, in which information on the history and other relevant aspects of the site, is collected

and critically reviewed (see 7.2);
— a site reconnaissance (site inspection, walk-over survey) (see 7.4);

— development of a conceptual site model (see Clause 8), which in the case of potentially contaminated

sites should include:

— formulation of hypotheses on the possible type(s) and amount of contamination, migration

pathways (on- and off-site), and spatial and temporal distribution; together with hypotheses

regarding other aspects of the site, such as the hydrogeology;

— drawing conclusions with regard to the need for and scope of further investigations (see 8.4);

— identification of any need for immediate actions to protect humans or the environment (e.g. fencing,

removal of superficial deposits).

In most cases, it should be possible to make a preliminary qualitative assessment of (potential) risks to

humans and other receptors (see 8.3).

The minimum information that should be collected in the preliminary investigation is set out in 7.2

and 7.3 and the procedures on how the information can be obtained are provided in 7.2.3. Guidance on

reporting the results of the preliminary investigation is provided in Clause 9.

The objectives of the preliminary investigation might not require all the elements recommended in 7.2,

7.3 and 7.4, in which case the strategy should identify what elements of the preliminary investigation

are essential and those that do not need to be addressed. Some examples of information that could be

required relating to stockpiles are listed in Table 1, to agricultural sites in Table 2 and wooded sites in

Table 3. Much of the guidance in Table 1 is also applicable to other site types.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 18400-202:2018(E)

Where elements of a preliminary investigation described in 7.2 to 7.4 are not to be included, these should

be documented in the report, and any limitations on the final assessment arising from the omissions

should be clearly understood by all parties involved and stated in the report.

The strategy should provide for a review of the information obtained at the conclusion of the preliminary

investigation to determine if the objectives have been achieved (and are still appropriate) and whether

there is a need to carry out an exploratory investigation and/or detailed investigation (see Clause 5).

The site should be divided into zones if necessary or advantageous if this has not already been

done (guidance on site zoning is provided in ISO 18400-104). Separate conceptual models should be

developed for each zone that is identified.

NOTE It is likely that there will be different requirements for further investigation of each zone.

Care should be taken that a focus on separate zones does not obscure the overall picture and that the

potential interactions between zones are not overlooked.

The output from the preliminary investigation should include the preliminary conceptual site model

(see Clause 8) and, in the case of potentially contaminated sites, a preliminary risk assessment (see 8.3)

based on the information available.
Table 1 — Examples of information requirements for stockpiles
General Site details History of the stockpile Material type and
dimensions

Background information on a The project manager should The project manager should The project manager should

stockpile will often be essen- establish details of the site establish a history of the establish the material char-

tial in order to get (general) location and access, includ- stockpile in order to deter- acteristics (e.g. soil type,

information on the material ing any perceived hazards mine the potential environ- water content, particle size

to be sampled. relating, for example, to high mental risks involved. The distribution, maximum par-

stockpiles, non-consolidated history should include the ticle size) and dimensions of

The effort that should be put

stockpiles or difficult access. period before the soil or the stockpile to be sampled.

into obtaining prior informa-
other material was placed
tion depends on the purpose In some situations, there
in the stockpile. The his-
for sampling in combination could be a difference be-
tory of the stockpile should
with the sampling strategy tween the owner of the site
be based on the location(s)
that is used to fulfil this where the stockpile is situ-
where the material in the
purpose. ated and the client for whom
stockpile originated from
the stockpile is sampled. If so,
Prior information can also and the processes that oc-
the project manager should
be essential for assessing the curred on that site. It should
contact the site owner in
safety aspects of sampling also include the process in
order to get access to the
the particular stockpile. which the stockpile was
stockpile and be informed
formed (e.g. placement in
about any site specific health
layers, placement by end-
and safety regulations to
tipping, “single” or mixed
comply with.
materials) as this can give
prior information on the spa-
tial variability of material
within the stockpile.
6 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 18400-202:2018(E)

Table 2 — Background Information requirements for investigation of agricultural sites

— Owner and occupiers.
— Relevant requirements in lease/rental agreements.
— Soil type(s).

— Whether the land to be investigated is used for raising crops or animals and the history of these activities

(e.g. what crops or animals and when).
— Whether the farm is “organic” or conventional.
— Whether genetically modified crops are grown.

— Use of pesticides, soil amendment materials, and fertilizers, and how these have been applied.

— If organic wastes (e.g. farmyard manure, sewage sludge) has been spread the time period that has elapsed

since this was done (important for safety in respect of the possible presence of pathogens).

— Current or past presence of plant or animal pathogens (7.2.4).
— Presence of ground-nesting birds.
— Whether irrigation is used and if so in what form.
— Presence of areas of stressed vegetation.
— Location of areas of wet ground and/or ground liable to flooding.
— Location used for servicing farm machinery.
— Location of waste deposits (slurry ponds, dung heaps, etc.).
— Location of animal burial pits and filled ponds.
— Location of natural water courses and artificial drainage ditches.
— Location of any in-ground drainage system (e.g. presence of land-drains).
— Location of any old redundant or litt
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 18400-202:2019
01-marec-2019
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ISO 10381-5:2006
.DNRYRVWWDO9]RUþHQMHGHO3UHGKRGQHSUHLVNDYH
Soil quality - Sampling - Part 202: Preliminary investigations
Qualité du sol - Échantillonnage - Partie 202: Enquêtes préliminaires
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 18400-202:2018
ICS:
13.080.05 Preiskava tal na splošno Examination of soils in
general
SIST ISO 18400-202:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-202:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-202:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18400-202
First edition
2018-10
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 202:
Preliminary investigations
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 202: Investigations préliminaires
Reference number
ISO 18400-202:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-202:2019
ISO 18400-202:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-202:2019
ISO 18400-202:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General/principle ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Phases of investigation ................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Objectives of preliminary investigations .................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Scope of preliminary investigations ................................................................................................................................................. 5

7.1 General/strategy ................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2 Desk study ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.2 Information on past and present use ............................................................................................................. 9

7.2.3 Information on geology, pedology, geomorphology, hydrology and

hydrogeology....................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2.4 Ecology and archaeology .......................................................................................................................................11

7.3 Consultations .........................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.4 Site reconnaissance ..........................................................................................................................................................................13

8 Development of the preliminary conceptual site model .........................................................................................14

8.1 Overall conceptual site model .................................................................................................................................................14

8.2 Characteristic distributions of the physico-chemical properties .............................................................16

8.3 Formulation of contamination-related hypotheses .............................................................................................17

8.4 Preliminary qualitative risk assessment for potentially contaminated sites .................................17

8.5 Further investigations ...................................................................................................................................................................18

9 Reporting the preliminary investigation and the conceptual site model ..............................................18

Annex A (informative) Contaminants of potential concern and industry/contaminant matrix .........20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................34

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-202:2019
ISO 18400-202:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 2,

Sampling.

This first edition of ISO 18400-202, together with ISO 18400-104, ISO 18400-203 and ISO 18400-205,

cancels and replaces the first editions of ISO 10381-4:2003 and ISO 10381-5:2005, which have been

technically and structurally revised.

The new ISO 18400 series is based on a modular structure and cannot be compared to the ISO 10381

series clause by clause.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18400 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18400-202:2018(E)
Introduction

All investigation programmes to gather information about soil quality need some basic information

about the subject site and its environmental setting to allow appropriate planning of the field work. To

collect this information, a preliminary investigation is carried out comprising desk studies, retrieval

of data from archives and databases, interviews and a site reconnaissance. From the information

gathered, and the observations made, a conceptual site model can be developed including hypotheses

about soil characteristics and their possible spatial distribution.

It is for the user of this document to decide the extent and nature of information required in any

particular case taking into account the nature of the site and the objectives of the overall investigation:

however, some preliminary information will always be needed. Detailed guidance is provided in the

document based mainly on the need to obtain detailed information on many aspects of a site in the

more complex cases, e.g. a potentially contaminated site, but the guidance is intended to be helpful

when preparing to investigate all types of site.

The sources of information available for use in preliminary investigations will vary from country to

country and jurisdiction to jurisdiction and, thus, the guidance given about sources of information

in this document is of necessity generic in character. The user will find it useful to prepare detailed

information about local sources for their own use. National standards providing guidance on the design

and execution of geotechnical investigations often contain a requirement that a desk study and site

reconnaissance should be carried out and thus could provide useful guidance about potential sources

of information. Similarly, standards covering the demolition and dismantling of old buildings and

industrial plant could provide useful information and guidance.

This document deals only with the investigation of the ground. It should be recognized that there could

be derelict buildings and/or industrial plants awaiting demolition, dismantling or refurbishment on

old urban and industrial sites, but that buildings in a poor state and containing potentially hazardous

materials could also be present on farms and similar sites. Failure to investigate these buildings before

demolition could put the safety of workers at risk or lead to the spread of contamination on and around

[7][8]

the site . The investigation of derelict buildings or remnant foundations is outside the scope of this

document.

This document is part of a series on sampling standards for soil. The role/position of the standards

within the total investigation programme is shown in Figure 1.
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NOTE 1 The numbers in circles in Figure 1 define the key elements (1 to 7) of the investigation programme.

NOTE 2 Figure 1 displays a generic process which can be amended when necessary.
Figure 1 — Links between the essential elements of an investigation programme
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SIST ISO 18400-202:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18400-202:2018(E)
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 202:
Preliminary investigations
1 Scope

This document provides guidance on the design and execution of preliminary investigations comprising

desk studies and site reconnaissance, and where appropriate, preliminary risk assessment. It is

applicable whenever sampling exercises or investigations are to be carried out to determine soil quality.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11074, Soil quality — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11074 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
conceptual site model

synthesis (mental representation) of all information about a site relevant to the task at hand including

interpretation of the information as necessary, and recognition of uncertainties in the information

including identification of what is known to be unknown

Note 1 to entry: A conceptual site model can be presented in narrative, tabular and/or diagrammatic form.

3.2
conceptual site model

synthesis (mental representation) of all information about a site

relevant to the task at hand with interpretation as necessary and recognition of uncertainties in the

information, including, as appropriate, information regarding the ground, groundwater, surface water,

soil quality, and surrounding environment, and if the occurrence of contamination is likely, the nature

and potential sources of hazardous substances that could be present including soil gases and volatile

organic compounds (VOCs), potential migration pathways, and potential receptors, taking into account,

when appropriate, planned changes of use and anticipated changes in the environmental setting such

as in groundwater levels or propensity to flood

Note 1 to entry: A conceptual site model can be presented in narrative, tabular and/or diagrammatic form.

Note 2 to entry: The future use or uses will not always be known and could also be the subject of client

confidentiality.
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4 General/principle

A preliminary investigation (Phase I investigation) should always be carried out prior to any intrusive

sampling exercise or site investigation. It should be a two-step process involving data collection

followed by interpretation and reporting. Data collection should always comprise
— a desk study (including when appropriate consultations), and
— a site reconnaissance (walk-over survey, site inspection).

The assessor should decide the extent and nature of information required in any particular case taking

into account the nature of the site, the purpose and the objectives of the overall investigation, the

availability of existing information, the size and complexity of the site, known or projected future land

uses and other relevant site-specific factors: the investigation needs to be no more detailed than the

task at hand requires. However, some preliminary information will always be needed.

It will often be appropriate for a site investigation to be iterative with several stages of investigation

within each phase. The objectives should be reconsidered at each stage, and the requirements for

further investigation reviewed as the investigatory and assessment processes are developed.

When an investigation is carried out in a number of phases or stages, the preliminary investigation

would ordinarily only be undertaken prior to the initial phase or stage. However, the results should

be reviewed on completion of the first stage or phase, and after each subsequent stage or phase to

determine whether the conclusions, including any preliminary risk assessment require amendment.

The results of the preliminary investigation enable a preliminary conceptual site model to be developed

(see Clause 8).

In the case of potentially contaminated sites, the possibility of contamination can be deduced, and

hypotheses can be formulated on the nature, location and distribution of the contamination (8.2).

These hypotheses form part of the overall preliminary conceptual site model that should be developed,

encompassing not only the contamination aspects but also the geology, pedology, hydrogeology,

geotechnical properties and the environmental setting. The current and planned site uses are also

important aspects of the conceptual site model.

NOTE Although the conceptual site model is usually first formally prepared following a preliminary

investigation, it first comes into existence the moment the question is asked whether the site needs to be

investigated. At that stage, for example, it could be recognized that the site is agricultural land or is industrial land

and the assessor will immediately form an initial picture about what the site might be like and act accordingly.

Thus, it is this initial conceptual site model and the purpose of the overall investigation that guide decisions

about the scope and depth of the preliminary investigation required.
5 Phases of investigation

A phased approach as described in ISO 18400-104:2018, Clause 4 should always be taken to site

investigation. The principal phases are
— preliminary investigation (this document),
— exploratory investigation, and
— detailed site investigation.
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Figure 2 — Flow-chart of phases of site investigation for a potentially contaminated site

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SIST ISO 18400-202:2019
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NOTE A preliminary investigation is always required but whether intrusive investigation is required, and if

so, whether both an exploratory investigation and a detailed (main) investigation are required, will depend on

the context and the findings of the preliminary investigation (see ISO 18400-104 for further guidance).

Supplementary investigations could be required subsequent to the detailed site investigation in order to

— fill information gaps, and

— design works and, in the case of a contaminated site, select remedial methods, or design remediation

or construction works.

The relationship between these phases for a potentially contaminated site is illustrated in Figure 2.

Before embarking on any phase or stage of investigation including a preliminary investigation, it

is important to set data quality objectives in terms of the type, quantity and quality (e.g. analytical

quality) of the data and other information that is to be collected. These data quality objectives will

depend in part on the nature of the decisions to be made on the basis of the investigation, and the

confidence required in those decisions. Failure to set data quality objectives at the outset can lead to

significantly higher costs, if, for example, the data collected are not suitable or sufficient for a reliable

risk assessment, or leave too many uncertainties in the “conceptual site model” (see 8.1).

6 Objectives of preliminary investigations

The objectives of the preliminary investigation should be set out formally before the investigation is

started to ensure that the scope (e.g. sources of information searched) is appropriate.

The preliminary investigation should always provide sufficient information to:

— enable a sampling programme including preparation of a sampling plan if deemed necessary to be

designed that is both technically effective and economically acceptable;

— identify measures required to protect the health and safety of the investigating personnel;

— identify measures necessary to protect the environment during any subsequent intrusive

investigation;

— identify any aspect of the site requiring immediate attention for reasons of health and safety or

protection of the environment (e.g. insecure fences, hazardous substances accessible to trespassers

or likely to be dispersed by wind or water) so that those in control of the site (e.g. owner or occupier)

can be made aware of potential liabilities.

Other information relevant to the conduct of the sampling programme should also be gathered,

e.g. means of access for equipment, locations for site facilities (e.g. laboratories, stores, equipment

decontamination), availability and location of power and water, etc., and whether warfare or other

military activities might have affected the site (including, for example, whether unexploded ordnance

might be present).

NOTE In some jurisdictions, detailed information on the location of WWII bomb hits and, hence, possible

unexploded ordnance is available.

Depending on the nature of the site and the objectives of the overall investigation, specific objectives

could include:

— providing information on past and current uses of the site and surrounding area and the nature of

any hazards and physical constraints;

— providing information on the geology, geomorphology, geochemistry, soil, hydrogeology and

hydrology of the site and surrounding area;

— identifying potentially different sub-areas (zones) of a site, based on differing ground conditions;

potential contamination; and past, present and future uses;
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— identifying areas where informed decisions are to be made using specialist assessment techniques

or advisors, e.g. if there are ecological, unexploded ordnance (UXO) or archaeological considerations;

— identifying the need to involve regulatory bodies prior to intrusive investigation;

— determining whether there is a need to inform the neighbourhood.

And in the case of potentially contaminated sites, specifically to obtain information:

— assessing the likelihood of contamination, its nature and its extent;
— evaluating the environmental setting of the site;

— identifying current and likely future receptors, potential sources of contamination and likely pathways

and any features of immediate concern, including those that could be introduced in the future;

— providing information from which likely source-pathway-receptor relationships can be identified,

and which can then be used to formulate a conceptual site model to enable the design of a field

investigation (if required);

— producing a preliminary conceptual model for the site as a whole and/or for zones within the site;

— providing information for the preliminary risk assessment (see 8.4).
7 Scope of preliminary investigations
7.1 General/strategy
The preliminary investigation should consist of:

— a desk study, including consultations (see 7.3) with those who might have relevant information

about the site, in which information on the history and other relevant aspects of the site, is collected

and critically reviewed (see 7.2);
— a site reconnaissance (site inspection, walk-over survey) (see 7.4);

— development of a conceptual site model (see Clause 8), which in the case of potentially contaminated

sites should include:

— formulation of hypotheses on the possible type(s) and amount of contamination, migration

pathways (on- and off-site), and spatial and temporal distribution; together with hypotheses

regarding other aspects of the site, such as the hydrogeology;

— drawing conclusions with regard to the need for and scope of further investigations (see 8.4);

— identification of any need for immediate actions to protect humans or the environment (e.g. fencing,

removal of superficial deposits).

In most cases, it should be possible to make a preliminary qualitative assessment of (potential) risks to

humans and other receptors (see 8.3).

The minimum information that should be collected in the preliminary investigation is set out in 7.2

and 7.3 and the procedures on how the information can be obtained are provided in 7.2.3. Guidance on

reporting the results of the preliminary investigation is provided in Clause 9.

The objectives of the preliminary investigation might not require all the elements recommended in 7.2,

7.3 and 7.4, in which case the strategy should identify what elements of the preliminary investigation

are essential and those that do not need to be addressed. Some examples of information that could be

required relating to stockpiles are listed in Table 1, to agricultural sites in Table 2 and wooded sites in

Table 3. Much of the guidance in Table 1 is also applicable to other site types.
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SIST ISO 18400-202:2019
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Where elements of a preliminary investigation described in 7.2 to 7.4 are not to be included, these should

be documented in the report, and any limitations on the final assessment arising from the omissions

should be clearly understood by all parties involved and stated in the report.

The strategy should provide for a review of the information obtained at the conclusion of the preliminary

investigation to determine if the objectives have been achieved (and are still appropriate) and whether

there is a need to carry out an exploratory investigation and/or detailed investigation (see Clause 5).

The site should be divided into zones if necessary or advantageous if this has not already been

done (guidance on site zoning is provided in ISO 18400-104). Separate conceptual models should be

developed for each zone that is identified.

NOTE It is likely that there will be different requirements for further investigation of each zone.

Care should be taken that a focus on separate zones does not obscure the overall picture and that the

potential interactions between zones are not overlooked.

The output from the preliminary investigation should include the preliminary conceptual site model

(see Clause 8) and, in the case of potentially contaminated sites, a preliminary risk assessment (see 8.3)

based on the information available.
Table 1 — Examples of information requirements for stockpiles
General Site details History of the stockpile Material type and
dimensions

Background information on a The project manager should The project manager should The project manager should

stockpile will often be essen- establish details of the site establish a history of the establish the material char-

tial in order to get (general) location and access, includ- stockpile in order to deter- acteristics (e.g. soil type,

information on the material ing any perceived hazards mine the potential environ- water content, particle size

to be sampled. relating, for example, to high mental risks involved. The distribution, maximum par-

stockpiles, non-consolidated history should include the ticle size) and dimensions of

The effort that should be put

stockpiles or difficult access. period before the soil or the stockpile to be sampled.

into obtaining prior informa-
other material was placed
tion depends on the purpose In some situations, there
in the stockpile. The his-
for sampling in combination could be a difference be-
tory of the stockpile should
with the sampling strategy tween the owner of the site
be based on the location(s)
that is used to fulfil this where the stockpile is situ-
where the material in the
purpose. ated and the client for whom
stockpile originated from
the stockpile is sampled. If so,
Prior information can also and the processes that oc-
the project manager should
be essential for assessing the curred on that site. It should
contact the site owner in
safety aspects of sampling also include the process in
order to get access to the
the particular stockpile. which the stockpile was
stockpile and be informed
formed (e.g. placement in
about any site specific health
layers, placement by end-
and safety regulations to
tipping, “single” or mixed
comply with.
materials) as this can give
prior information on the spa-
tial variability of material
within the stockpile.
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Table 2 — Background Information requirements for investigation of agricultural sites

— Owner and occupiers.
— Relevant requirements in lease/rental agreements.
— Soil type(s).

— Whether the land to be investigated is used for raising crops or animals and the history of these activities

(e.g. what crops
...

NORME
ISO
INTERNATIONALE
18400-202
Première édition
2018-10
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 202:
Investigations préliminaires
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 202: Preliminary investigations
Numéro de référence
ISO 18400-202:2018(F)
ISO 2018
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ISO 18400-202:2018(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
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ii © ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 18400-202:2018(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principes généraux ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Phases d’investigation .................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Objectifs des investigations préliminaires ................................................................................................................................ 5

7 Périmètre des investigations préliminaires ............................................................................................................................ 6

7.1 Stratégie générale ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

7.2 Étude sur documents ......................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2.2 Informations relatives à l’utilisation antérieure et actuelle ....................................................12

7.2.3 Informations sur la géologie, la pédologie, la géomorphologie, l’hydrologie

et l’hydrogéologie .........................................................................................................................................................14

7.2.4 Écologie et archéologie ........................................................................................................................................... .14

7.3 Consultations .........................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.4 Reconnaissance du site .................................................................................................................................................................16

8 Élaboration du schéma conceptuel préliminaire du site ........................................................................................17

8.1 Schéma conceptuel global du site ........................................................................................................................................17

8.2 Distributions caractéristiques des propriétés physico-chimiques .........................................................19

8.3 Formulation d’hypothèses liées à la contamination ............................................................................................20

8.4 Évaluation qualitative préliminaire des risques pour les sites potentiellement

contaminés ..............................................................................................................................................................................................21

8.5 Investigations approfondies .....................................................................................................................................................21

9 Rapport sur l’investigation préliminaire et le schéma conceptuel du site ...........................................21

Annexe A (informative) Contaminants potentiellement préoccupants et matrice industrie/

contaminant ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................24

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................36

© ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 18400-202:2018(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/directives).

L’attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: www .iso .org/iso/fr/avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 190, Qualité du sol, sous-comité SC 2,

Échantillonnage.

Cette première édition de l’ISO 18400-202, associée à l’ISO 18400-104, l’ ISO 18400-203 et l’ISO 18400-205,

annule et remplace les premières éditions de l’ISO 10381-4:2003 et de l’ISO 10381-5:2005, qui ont fait

l’objet d’une révision technique et structurelle.

La nouvelle série ISO 18400 est fondée sur une structure modulaire et ne peut être comparée, article

par article, à la série ISO 10381.

Une liste de toutes les parties de la série ISO 18400 se trouve sur le site web de l’ISO.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/fr/members .html.
iv © ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 18400-202:2018(F)
Introduction

L’ensemble des programmes d’investigation visant à recueillir des informations sur la qualité des sols

nécessite certaines informations de base concernant le site sujet et son cadre environnemental afin

de permettre une planification adéquate des travaux sur le terrain. Une investigation préliminaire est

effectuée en vue de recueillir ces informations, comprenant des études sur documents, l’extraction de

données d’archives et de bases de données, des entretiens et une reconnaissance du site. À partir des

informations recueillies et des observations effectuées, il est possible d’élaborer un schéma conceptuel

du site, comprenant des hypothèses sur les caractéristiques du sol et leur possible répartition spatiale.

Il appartient à l’utilisateur du présent document de décider de l’étendue et de la nature des informations

exigées dans un cas donné, en tenant compte de la nature du site et des objectifs de l’investigation

globale. Toutefois, certaines informations préliminaires seront systématiquement nécessaires. Le

présent document fournit des recommandations détaillées reposant essentiellement sur la nécessité

d’obtenir des informations détaillées relatives à de nombreux aspects d’un site traitant de cas plus

complexes, par exemple un site potentiellement contaminé; toutefois, ces recommandations se veulent

un instrument utile dans la préparation d’investigations sur tous les types de sites.

Les sources d’informations disponibles pouvant servir dans le cadre d’investigations préliminaires

varient d’un pays à l’autre et en fonction des juridictions; par conséquent, dans le présent document, les

recommandations relatives aux sources d’information revêtent, par nécessité, un caractère générique.

L’utilisateur appréciera le caractère utile de ces recommandations pour la préparation d’informations

détaillées sur les sources locales pour son usage personnel. Les normes nationales proposant des

recommandations sur la conception et la mise en œuvre de reconnaissances géotechniques contiennent

souvent une exigence stipulant qu’il convient d’effectuer une étude sur documents et une reconnaissance

du site, et de ce fait, peuvent fournir des indications utiles sur des sources d’information potentielles.

De la même façon, les normes traitant de la démolition et du démantèlement d’anciens bâtiments et

installations industrielles peuvent fournir des informations et des recommandations utiles.

Le présent document traite uniquement de l’investigation du sol. Il convient de souligner que les anciens

sites urbains et industriels peuvent abriter des bâtiments dégradés et/ou des installations industrielles

en attente de démolition, démantèlement ou rénovation, mais également des bâtiments en mauvais

état et contenant des matériaux potentiellement dangereux sur des exploitations et sites semblables.

L’absence d’investigation sur ces bâtiments avant démolition peut mettre la sécurité des travailleurs en

[7][8]

danger ou conduire à la propagation de la contamination sur et autour du site. L’investigation de

bâtiments dégradés ou de vestiges des fondations n’entre pas dans le domaine d’application du présent

document.

Le présent document fait partie d’une série de normes d’échantillonnage des sols. Le rôle/la fonction

des normes au sein de l’ensemble du programme d’investigation est illustré(e) à la Figure 1.

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ISO 18400-202:2018(F)

NOTE 1 Les chiffres encerclés de la Figure 1 définissent les éléments clés (1 à 7) du programme d’investigation.

NOTE 2 La Figure 1 présente un processus générique qui peut être modifié si nécessaire.

Figure 1 — Liens entre les éléments essentiels d’un programme d’investigation
vi © ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 18400-202:2018(F)
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 202:
Investigations préliminaires
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document fournit des recommandations pour la conception et l’exécution d’investigations

préliminaires comprenant des études sur documents et une reconnaissance du site, et, le cas échéant,

une appréciation préliminaire du risque. Il est applicable lorsque des activités d’échantillonnage ou des

investigations doivent être effectuées pour déterminer la qualité du sol.
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants cités dans le texte constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur contenu, des

exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique. Pour les

références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les éventuels

amendements).
ISO 11074, Qualité du sol — Vocabulaire
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l’ISO 11074 ainsi que les

suivants s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https: //www .iso .org/obp;

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http: //www .electropedia .org/.
3.1
schéma conceptuel de site

synthèse (représentation mentale) de l’ensemble des informations sur un site en rapport avec la tâche

à accomplir, y compris l’interprétation des informations, le cas échéant, et la reconnaissance des

incertitudes associées à ces informations, incluant l’identification des éléments dont on sait qu’ils ne

sont pas connus

Note 1 à l'article: Un schéma conceptuel de site peut être présenté sous une forme narrative, de tableau et/ou de

représentation schématique.
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3.2
schéma conceptuel de site

synthèse (représentation mentale) de l’ensemble des informations

sur un site en rapport avec la tâche à accomplir, y compris l’interprétation, le cas échéant, et la

reconnaissance des incertitudes associées à ces informations, incluant, s’il y a lieu, les informations

sur le sol, les eaux souterraines, les eaux de surface, la qualité du sol ainsi que l’environnement proche;

et, en cas de probable contamination, la nature et les sources potentielles de substances dangereuses

susceptibles d’être présentes, notamment les gaz de sol et les composés organiques volatils (COV), les

éventuelles voies de migration et les récepteurs potentiels; il s’agit de tenir compte, si nécessaire, des

changements prévus d’utilisation et des variations prévisibles des conditions environnementales, telles

que dans les niveaux des eaux souterraines, ou l’inondabilité

Note 1 à l'article: Un schéma conceptuel de site peut être présenté sous une forme narrative, de tableau et/ou de

représentation schématique.

Note 2 à l'article: Il ne sera pas possible d’informer avec certitude de la ou des utilisations futures, d’autant

qu’elle(s) peu(ven)t faire l’objet d’un devoir de confidentialité vis-à-vis du commanditaire.

4 Principes généraux

Il convient de toujours procéder à une investigation préliminaire (Phase 1) avant toute activité

d’échantillonnage intrusive ou d’investigation de site. Il convient de scinder ce processus en deux

étapes, à savoir la collecte de données suivie de leur interprétation et de la rédaction d’un rapport. Il

convient que la collecte de données comprenne systématiquement:
— une étude de documents (incluant des consultations, le cas échéant); et
— une reconnaissance du site (relevé de terrain, inspection du site).

Il convient que l’évaluateur détermine l’étendue et la nature des informations exigées dans un cas

donné, en tenant compte de la nature du site, de la finalité et des objectifs de l’investigation globale, de

la disponibilité des informations existantes, de l’étendue et de la complexité du site, des utilisations du

terrain connues ou envisagées, ainsi que d’autres facteurs pertinents propres au site: il est inutile que

l’investigation soit plus détaillée que ce que la tâche à accomplir ne le nécessite. Toutefois, certaines

informations préliminaires seront systématiquement nécessaires.

Il convient souvent qu’une investigation de site soit itérative, avec plusieurs étapes d’investigation pour

chaque phase. Il convient de réexaminer les objectifs à chaque étape et revoir les exigences relatives à

une investigation plus approfondie au fur et à mesure de l’évolution des processus d’investigation et

d’évaluation.

Lorsqu’une investigation est effectuée en un certain nombre de phases ou d’étapes, l’investigation

préliminaire ne peut normalement être menée qu’en amont de la phase ou de l’étape initiale. Cependant,

il convient de passer les résultats en revue à l’issue de la première étape ou phase et après chaque étape

ou phase ultérieure, afin de déterminer si les conclusions, notamment l’appréciation préliminaire du

risque, nécessitent des modifications.

Les résultats de l’investigation préliminaire permettent d’élaborer un schéma conceptuel préliminaire

du site (voir l’Article 8).

Dans le cas de sites potentiellement contaminés, il est possible d’en déduire le degré de contamination

et de formuler des hypothèses sur la nature, l’emplacement et la répartition de la contamination (8.2).

Ces hypothèses font partie intégrante du schéma conceptuel préliminaire global du site qu’il convient

d’élaborer, en englobant non seulement les aspects liés à la contamination, mais également la géologie,

la pédologie, l’hydrogéologie, les propriétés géotechniques ainsi que le milieu environnemental. Les

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utilisations actuelles et planifiées du site représentent également des aspects importants du schéma

conceptuel du site.

NOTE Bien que le schéma conceptuel du site soit généralement d’abord élaboré de manière formelle suite

à une investigation préliminaire, il n’existe de façon effective qu’à l’instant où la question de savoir si le site

nécessite une investigation est posée. À ce stade et à titre d’exemple, il est possible de reconnaître si le site

est un terrain agricole ou industriel et en partant de cette information, l’évaluateur dressera sans attendre un

premier aperçu général du site et agira en conséquence. Par conséquent, ce schéma conceptuel initial du site

ainsi que la finalité de l’investigation globale orientent les décisions relatives au périmètre et à la profondeur de

l’investigation préliminaire nécessaires.
5 Phases d’investigation

Pour l’investigation du site, il convient d’adopter systématiquement une approche par étapes, telle que

décrite dans l’ISO 18400-104:2018, Article 4. Les phases principales sont:
— l’investigation préliminaire (le présent document);
— l’investigation exploratoire; et
— l’investigation détaillée du site.
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Figure 2 — Organigramme des phases d’investigation d’un site potentiellement contaminé

NOTE Une investigation préliminaire est toujours exigée, mais, si une investigation intrusive s’avère

nécessaire, la nécessité de mener à la fois une investigation exploratoire et une investigation détaillée

(approfondie) du site dépendra du contexte et des conclusions de l’investigation préliminaire (voir l’ISO 18400-104

pour obtenir des recommandations supplémentaires).
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Des investigations complémentaires peuvent être exigées à la suite de l’investigation détaillée sur site

afin de:
— compléter les informations manquantes; et

— concevoir des travaux et, dans le cas d’un site contaminé, choisir des méthodes de remédiation, ou

concevoir des travaux de remédiation ou de construction.

La relation entre ces phases pour un site potentiellement contaminé est illustrée à la Figure 2.

Avant de s’engager dans une phase ou étape d’investigation, y compris une investigation préliminaire, il

est important d’établir des objectifs de qualité des données en termes de type, de quantité et de qualité

(par exemple qualité analytique) des données et autres informations à collecter. Ces objectifs de qualité

des données dépendront en partie de la nature des décisions à prendre sur la base de l’investigation,

ainsi que de la confiance nécessaire dans ces décisions. L’absence d’objectifs initiaux en termes de

qualité des données peut entraîner des coûts nettement plus élevés lorsque, par exemple, les données

collectées ne sont pas adaptées ou suffisantes pour une appréciation fiable des risques, ou lorsqu’elles

laissent subsister de trop nombreuses incertitudes sur le «schéma conceptuel de site» (voir 8.1).

6 Objectifs des investigations préliminaires

Il y a lieu de définir formellement les objectifs de l’investigation préliminaire avant son démarrage afin

de s’assurer que le périmètre (sources d’information recherchées, par exemple) est approprié.

Il convient que l’investigation préliminaire fournisse systématiquement suffisamment

d’informations pour:

— lancer un programme d’échantillonnage comprenant l’élaboration et, si nécessaire, la conception

d’un plan d’échantillonnage à la fois techniquement efficace et rentable;

— identifier les mesures exigées pour protéger la santé et assurer la sécurité du personnel

d’investigation;

— identifier les mesures nécessaires à la protection de l’environnement lors de toute investigation

intrusive ultérieure;

— identifier tout aspect du site nécessitant une attention immédiate pour des raisons de santé et

de sécurité ou pour la protection de l’environnement (par exemple des clôtures non sécurisées,

des substances dangereuses accessibles à des personnes non autorisées ou susceptibles d’être

dispersées par le vent ou diluées dans l’eau), de manière à sensibiliser les personnes en charge du

contrôle du site (le propriétaire ou l’occupant, par exemple) sur leurs responsabilités éventuelles.

Il convient également de recueillir d’autres informations pertinentes pour la conduite du programme

d’échantillonnage, par exemple les moyens d’accès à l’équipement, les emplacements des installations

sur le site (laboratoires, magasins ou décontamination du matériel, par exemple), la disponibilité et

l’emplacement des sources d’alimentation en électricité et en eau, etc., et si des combats ou d’autres

activités militaires pourraient avoir affecté le site (y compris, par exemple, si des munitions explosives

non explosées pourraient être présentes).

NOTE Dans certaines juridictions, des informations détaillées sont disponibles sur l’emplacement des

impacts des bombes de la Seconde Guerre mondiale et, de ce fait, sur les éventuelles munitions explosives non

explosées.

Selon la nature du site et les objectifs de l’investigation globale, des objectifs spécifiques pourraient

inclure de:

— fournir des informations sur les utilisations antérieures et actuelles du site et de la zone environnante

ainsi que sur la nature de tout phénomène dangereux et de contraintes physiques;

— fournir des informations sur la géologie, la géomorphologie, la géochimie, le sol, l’hydrogéologie et

l’hydrologie du site et de la zone environnante;
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— identifier les sous-zones (zones) potentiellement différentes d’un site, sur la base des conditions

différentes de sol, de la contamination potentielle et des usages passés, présents et futurs;

— identifier les zones pour lesquelles il est nécessaire de prendre des décisions éclairées, en utilisant

des techniques d’évaluation spécialisées ou en faisant appel à des conseillers dans ce domaine, par

exemple en cas de munitions explosives non explosées ou de facteurs écologiques ou archéologiques

à prendre en compte;

— identifier la nécessité d’impliquer les organismes de réglementation avant toute investigation

intrusive;
— déterminer la nécessité d’informer le voisinage.

Dans le cas de sites potentiellement contaminés, il s’agit en particulier d’obtenir des informations afin:

— d’évaluer la probabilité de contamination, sa nature et son ampleur;
— d’évaluer le cadre environnemental du site;

— d’identifier les récepteurs actuels et futurs probables, les sources de contamination potentielles et les

voies d’exposition probables ainsi que tout élément source de préoccupation immédiate et à venir;

— fournir des informations permettant d’identifier les relations probables source-voie d’exposition-

récepteur, pouvant être utilisées par la suite afin de formuler un schéma conceptuel du site

permettant de concevoir une investigation de terrain (si nécessaire);

— produire un schéma conceptuel préliminaire pour le site dans son ensemble et/ou pour des zones au

sein du site;

— fournir des informations destinées à l’appréciation préliminaire du risque (voir 8.4).

7 Périmètre des investigations préliminaires
7.1 Stratégie générale
Il convient que l’investigation préliminaire comporte:

— une étude sur documents, notamment des consultations (voir 7.3) avec toute personne susceptible

de disposer d’informations pertinentes sur le site, notamment des informations sur l’historique et

d’autres aspects pertinents du site, qui sont collectées et soumises à un examen critique (voir 7.2);

— une reconnaissance du site (inspection du site, levé de surface) (voir 7.4);

— l’élaboration d’un schéma conceptuel du site (voir l’Article 8) dans lequel, en cas de sites

potentiellement contaminés, il convient d’inclure:

— la formulation d’hypothèses sur le (s) type(s) et degré(s) possibles de contamination, les voies de

migration (sur et hors site), la distribution spatiale et temporelle et des hypothèses concernant

d’autres aspects du site, telles que l’hydrogéologie;

— les conclusions à tirer sur la nécessité et le périmètre des investigations supplémentaires (voir 8.4);

— le recensement des actions immédiates éventuellement exigées pour assurer la protection des êtres

humains ou de l’environnement (mise en place de clôtures, élimination des dépôts superficiels, par

exemple).

Dans la plupart des cas, il convient de pouvoir effectuer une évaluation qualitative préliminaire des

risques (potentiels) pour l’homme et les autres récepteurs (voir 8.3).

Les informations minimales qu’il convient de recueillir dans le cadre de l’investigation préliminaire sont

définies aux 7.2 et 7.3 et les modes opératoires permettant de les obtenir sont décrits au 7.2.3. L’Article 9

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fournit des recommandations pour l’établissement d’un rapport sur les résultats de l’investigation

préliminaire.

Les objectifs de l’investigation préliminaire peuvent ne pas nécessiter d’inclure tous les éléments

recommandés aux 7.2, 7.3 et 7.4, auquel cas il convient que la stratégie identifie les éléments qui sont

essentiels pour l’investigation préliminaire et ceux qu’il est inutile de traiter. Plusieurs exemples

d’informations exigibles au sujet des dépôts en tas sont répertoriés dans le Tableau 1, des sites agricoles

dans le Tableau 2 et des sites boisés dans le Tableau 3. La majorité des recommandations du Tableau 1

sont également applicables à d’autres types de sites.

Lorsque des éléments d’une investigation préliminaire décrite de 7.2 à 7.4 ne doivent pas figurer, il est

recommandé de les consigner dans le rapport et il convient que toute limite que ces omissions imposent

à l’évaluation finale soit clairement comprise par toutes les parties concernées et citées dans le rapport.

Il y a lieu que la stratégie prévoie un examen des informations obtenues à l’issue de l’investigation

préliminaire afin de déterminer si les objectifs ont été atteints (et s’ils sont toujours pertinents) et s’il

est nécessaire de mener une investigation exploratoire et/ou détaillée (voir Article 5).

Si cette opération s’avère nécessaire ou avantageuse, il convient de diviser le
...

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