This standard forms part 4 of the series ISO 18674, as described in ISO 18674-1: Part 1. General rules the methods and gives rules for measurement of pore water pressures in geotechnical engineering or more general in foundation engineering. Pore pressures are needed to obtain effective stresses and play a key role in the analysis of engineered construction in and on ground.

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This Standard specifies a test to obtain information on the short- and long-term leaching behaviour and characteristic properties of materials. The document has been developed to measure the pH- dependent release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799 and ISO 17616. The equilibrium condition, as defined in this document, is established by the addition of predetermined amounts of acid or base to reach desired final pH values. The test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions. For the purposes of ecotoxicological tests, the relevant pH range (see 8.2) will usually be pH 5 to pH 9. This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties outlined in Clause 5.

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This document specifies a test to obtain information on the short- and long-term leaching behaviour and characteristic properties of materials.
The document has been developed to measure the pH-dependent release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799 and ISO 17616. The equilibrium condition, as defined in this document, is established by the addition of predetermined amounts of acid or base to reach desired final pH values.
NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low molecular weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil.
NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimize test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances.
NOTE 3 Within the category of organic substances, a significant difference in behaviour exists between the more polar, relatively water-soluble compounds and apolar, hydrophobic organic substances (HOCs). In the latter case, mechanisms of release (e.g. particle-bound or dissolved organic carbon-bound) can be more crucial as well as sorption losses of soluble HOCs on different materials with which they come in contact (e.g. bottles, filters). The test and the results should be used for leaching of organic substances only with thorough consideration of the specific properties of the substances in question and the associated potential problems.
NOTE 4 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is meant to include genotoxicological testing.
The test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions.
For the purposes of ecotoxicological tests, the relevant pH range (see 8.2) will usually be pH 5 to pH 9.
This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties outlined in Clause 5.

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This Standard specifies a test providing information on leaching of soil and soil-like materials under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly at a liquid to solid ratio of 2 l/kg dry matter. The document has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799[6] and ISO 17616].

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This Standard specifies a test providing information on leaching of soil and soil materials under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly at a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg dry matter. The document has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799 and ISO 17616].

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This Standard rovides guidance on the description of soil in the field and its environmental context. It is applicable to natural, near-natural, urban and industrial sites. The soil observations and measurements can be made on a project site level, on a plot level, on layer or horizon level and on specific soil constituents. It also provides guidance on how to describe layers of anthropogenic (artificial) material or layers that were not modified by pedogenic processes in the strict sense and how to describe coarse material of natural or artificial origin. This document can be used in combination with other publications that provide guidance or requirements regarding specific aspects of soil observations and measurements.

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This Standard specifies a test, which is aimed at determining the leaching behaviour of inorganic and organic substances from a soil and soil-like materials. The method is a once-through up-flow percolation test under standardized conditions of flow rate. The material is leached under dynamic hydraulic conditions. The document has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799[6] and ISO 17616[7]. The test results enable the distinction between different release patterns, for instance wash-out and release under the influence of interaction with the matrix, when approaching local equilibrium between material and leachant. This test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The results of eluate analysis are presented as a function of the liquid/solid (L/S) ratio. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions.

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This document specifies a test to obtain information on the short- and long-term leaching behaviour and characteristic properties of materials. The document has been developed to measure the pH-dependent release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799 and ISO 17616. The equilibrium condition, as defined in this document, is established by the addition of predetermined amounts of acid or base to reach desired final pH values. NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low molecular weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil. NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimize test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances. NOTE 3 Within the category of organic substances, a significant difference in behaviour exists between the more polar, relatively water-soluble compounds and apolar, hydrophobic organic substances (HOCs). In the latter case, mechanisms of release (e.g. particle-bound or dissolved organic carbon-bound) can be more crucial as well as sorption losses of soluble HOCs on different materials with which they come in contact (e.g. bottles, filters). The test and the results should be used for leaching of organic substances only with thorough consideration of the specific properties of the substances in question and the associated potential problems. NOTE 4 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is meant to include genotoxicological testing. The test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions. For the purposes of ecotoxicological tests, the relevant pH range (see 8.2) will usually be pH 5 to pH 9. This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties outlined in Clause 5.

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This document is one of the family of standards (ISO 15799, ISO 19204) providing guidance on the characterization of soils and soil materials in relation to their retention and habitat functions and uses. It is appropriate to use it in conjunction with the two other standards in this family. It provides guidance on the choice and evaluation of tests applied for ecotoxicological characterization of soils and soil materials. Recommendations for test strategies with respect to the protection of ground and surface waters and the maintenance of the habitat function of soil are included. The tests recommended represent a minimum test battery that can be complemented by additional tests, or even be replaced by others, according to the intended uses or protection goals envisaged. The effect values indicated in this document do not refer to regulation but represent the lowest level at which an adverse effect is considered likely to occur.

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This document specifies a test providing information on leaching of soil and soil materials under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly at a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg dry matter.
The document has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799[6] and ISO 17616[7].
NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low-molecular-weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil.
NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimize test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances.
NOTE 3 Within the category of organic substances, a significant difference in behaviour exists between the more polar, relatively water-soluble compounds and apolar, hydrophobic organic substances (HOCs). In the latter case, mechanisms of release (e.g. particle-bound or dissolved organic carbon-bound) can be more crucial as well as sorption losses of soluble HOCs on different materials with which they come in contact (e.g. bottles, filters). The test and the results should be used for leaching of organic substances only with thorough consideration of the specific properties of the substances in question and the associated potential problems.
NOTE 4 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is also meant to include genotoxicological testing.
This test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions.
This procedure is not applicable to materials with a dry-matter-content ratio lower than 33 %.
This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties as outlined in Clause 4.

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This document specifies a test, which is aimed at determining the leaching behaviour of inorganic and organic substances from a soil and soil-like materials. The method is a once-through up-flow percolation test under standardized conditions of flow rate. The material is leached under dynamic hydraulic conditions. The document has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799[6] and ISO 17616[7]. The test results enable the distinction between different release patterns, for instance wash-out and release under the influence of interaction with the matrix, when approaching local equilibrium between material and leachant.
This test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The results of eluate analysis are presented as a function of the liquid/solid (L/S) ratio. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions.
NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low-molecular-weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil.
NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimize test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances.
NOTE 3 Within the category of organic substances, a significant difference in behaviour exists between the more polar, relatively water-soluble compounds and apolar, hydrophobic organic substances (HOCs). In the latter case, mechanisms of release (e.g. particle-bound or dissolved organic carbon-bound) can be more crucial as well as sorption losses of soluble HOCs on different materials with which they come in contact (e.g. bottles, filters). The test and the results should be used for leaching of organic substances only with thorough consideration of the specific properties of the substances in question and the associated potential problems.
NOTE 4 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is also meant to include genotoxicological testing.
NOTE 5 The test is generally not suitable for soils with hydraulic conductivities below 10−8 m/s (see also Annex B). It can be difficult to maintain the designated flow rate already in the range of saturated hydraulic conductivity between 10−7 m/s and 10−8 m/s.
The application of this test method alone is not sufficient for the determination of the leaching behaviour of a material under specified conditions different to those from the test procedure, since this generally requires the application of several test methods, behavioural modelling and model validation. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties as outlined in Clause 4.

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This document specifies a test providing information on leaching of soil and soil-like materials under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly at a liquid to solid ratio of 2 l/kg dry matter.
The document has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799[6] and ISO 17616[7].
NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low-molecular-weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil.
NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimise test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances.
NOTE 3 Within the category of organic substances, a significant difference in behaviour exists between the more polar, relatively water-soluble compounds and apolar, hydrophobic organic substances (HOCs). In the latter case, mechanisms of release (e.g. particle-bound or dissolved organic carbon-bound) can be more crucial as well as sorption losses of soluble HOCs on different materials with which they come in contact (e.g. bottles, filters). The test and the results should be used for leaching of organic substances only with thorough consideration of the specific properties of the substances in question and the associated potential problems.
NOTE 4 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is also meant to include genotoxicological testing.
This test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions.
This procedure is not applicable to materials with a dry-matter-content ratio lower than 33 %.
This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties as outlined in Clause 4.

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This document specifies a method for sampling, handling and extracting enchytraeids from terrestrial field soils as a prerequisite for using these animals as bioindicators (e.g. to assess the quality of a soil as a habitat for organisms).
Basic information on the ecology of enchytraeids and their use as bioindicators in the terrestrial environment is included in the Bibliography.
This document applies to all terrestrial biotopes in which enchytraeids occur. The sampling design of field studies in general is given in ISO 18400-101. These details can vary according to the climatic/regional conditions of the site to be sampled and an overview on the determination of effects of pollutants on enchytraeids in field situations is given in Reference [6].
Methods for some other soil organism groups such as earthworms or arthropods are given in ISO 23611-1, ISO 23611-2, ISO 23611-4 and ISO 23611-5.
This document is not applicable for very wet or flooded soils and might be difficult to use under extreme climatic or geographical conditions (e.g. in high mountains).
When sampling soil invertebrates, it is highly recommendable to characterize the site (e.g. concerning soil properties, climate and land use). However, such a characterization is not covered by this document. ISO 10390, ISO 10694, ISO 11272, ISO 11274, ISO 11277, ISO 11461 and ISO 11465 are more suitable for measuring pH, particle size distribution, C/N ratio, organic carbon content and water-holding capacity.

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This document specifies a test, which is aimed at determining the leaching behaviour of inorganic and organic substances from a soil and soil-like materials. The method is a once-through up-flow percolation test under standardized conditions of flow rate. The material is leached under dynamic hydraulic conditions. The document has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799[6] and ISO 17616[7]. The test results enable the distinction between different release patterns, for instance wash-out and release under the influence of interaction with the matrix, when approaching local equilibrium between material and leachant. This test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The results of eluate analysis are presented as a function of the liquid/solid (L/S) ratio. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions. NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low-molecular-weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil. NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimize test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances. NOTE 3 Within the category of organic substances, a significant difference in behaviour exists between the more polar, relatively water-soluble compounds and apolar, hydrophobic organic substances (HOCs). In the latter case, mechanisms of release (e.g. particle-bound or dissolved organic carbon-bound) can be more crucial as well as sorption losses of soluble HOCs on different materials with which they come in contact (e.g. bottles, filters). The test and the results should be used for leaching of organic substances only with thorough consideration of the specific properties of the substances in question and the associated potential problems. NOTE 4 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is also meant to include genotoxicological testing. NOTE 5 The test is generally not suitable for soils with hydraulic conductivities below 10−8 m/s (see also Annex B). It can be difficult to maintain the designated flow rate already in the range of saturated hydraulic conductivity between 10−7 m/s and 10−8 m/s. The application of this test method alone is not sufficient for the determination of the leaching behaviour of a material under specified conditions different to those from the test procedure, since this generally requires the application of several test methods, behavioural modelling and model validation. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties as outlined in Clause 4.

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This document specifies a test providing information on leaching of soil and soil materials under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly at a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg dry matter. The document has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799[6] and ISO 17616[7]. NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low-molecular-weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil. NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimize test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances. NOTE 3 Within the category of organic substances, a significant difference in behaviour exists between the more polar, relatively water-soluble compounds and apolar, hydrophobic organic substances (HOCs). In the latter case, mechanisms of release (e.g. particle-bound or dissolved organic carbon-bound) can be more crucial as well as sorption losses of soluble HOCs on different materials with which they come in contact (e.g. bottles, filters). The test and the results should be used for leaching of organic substances only with thorough consideration of the specific properties of the substances in question and the associated potential problems. NOTE 4 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is also meant to include genotoxicological testing. This test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions. This procedure is not applicable to materials with a dry-matter-content ratio lower than 33 %. This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties as outlined in Clause 4.

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This document specifies a test providing information on leaching of soil and soil-like materials under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly at a liquid to solid ratio of 2 l/kg dry matter. The document has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic substances from soil and soil-like material as well as to produce eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799[6] and ISO 17616[7]. NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low-molecular-weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil. NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimise test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances. NOTE 3 Within the category of organic substances, a significant difference in behaviour exists between the more polar, relatively water-soluble compounds and apolar, hydrophobic organic substances (HOCs). In the latter case, mechanisms of release (e.g. particle-bound or dissolved organic carbon-bound) can be more crucial as well as sorption losses of soluble HOCs on different materials with which they come in contact (e.g. bottles, filters). The test and the results should be used for leaching of organic substances only with thorough consideration of the specific properties of the substances in question and the associated potential problems. NOTE 4 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is also meant to include genotoxicological testing. This test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions. This procedure is not applicable to materials with a dry-matter-content ratio lower than 33 %. This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal. This document does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties as outlined in Clause 4.

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This document specifies a method for sampling, handling and extracting enchytraeids from terrestrial field soils as a prerequisite for using these animals as bioindicators (e.g. to assess the quality of a soil as a habitat for organisms). Basic information on the ecology of enchytraeids and their use as bioindicators in the terrestrial environment is included in the Bibliography. This document applies to all terrestrial biotopes in which enchytraeids occur. The sampling design of field studies in general is given in ISO 18400-101. These details can vary according to the climatic/regional conditions of the site to be sampled and an overview on the determination of effects of pollutants on enchytraeids in field situations is given in Reference [6]. Methods for some other soil organism groups such as earthworms or arthropods are given in ISO 23611-1, ISO 23611-2, ISO 23611-4 and ISO 23611-5. This document is not applicable for very wet or flooded soils and might be difficult to use under extreme climatic or geographical conditions (e.g. in high mountains). When sampling soil invertebrates, it is highly recommendable to characterize the site (e.g. concerning soil properties, climate and land use). However, such a characterization is not covered by this document. ISO 10390, ISO 10694, ISO 11272, ISO 11274, ISO 11277, ISO 11461 and ISO 11465 are more suitable for measuring pH, particle size distribution, C/N ratio, organic carbon content and water-holding capacity.

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This document gives general guidance on the selection of procedures for the establishment and
maintenance of programmes for long-term monitoring of soil quality. It takes into account the large
number of objectives for soil-monitoring programmes.
This document is intended to help provide a basis for dialogue between parties which might be involved
in a monitoring scheme.

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This document provides guidance on the sampling of soils of
— natural and near-natural sites,
— natural arboreal areas including forests and woods,
— areas used for agriculture (arable and pasture sites),
— areas used for horticulture (including domestic gardens, allotments), and
— areas used for special crop-cultivation, orchards, vineyards, commercial plantations and forests, etc.
It is applicable to
— soil investigations and evaluations in the field, and
— collection of samples for chemical, geochemical, physical, and biological characterization of soil and
soil materials in the laboratory.
This document sets out appropriate strategies for the design of sampling programmes, field procedures
and subsequent treatment of samples for transport and storage prior to sample pretreatment (e.g.
drying, milling). It is intended to be used in conjunction with the other parts of the ISO 18400 series.
Attention is, in particular, drawn to the requirements concerning collection, handling and storage of
soil for assessment of biological functions in ISO 18400-206.
NOTE 1 Groundwater and surface water can be adversely impacted by agricultural and related activities,
such as nitrates and pesticides, and by translocation of soil particles. In turn, knowledge about water quality
can provide information about possible sources of groundwater contamination or contaminating run-off.
Investigation of groundwater and surface water quality is outside of the scope of this document; relevant
guidance is given in the ISO 5667 series of standards. ISO 15175 provides guidance on the relationship between
soil properties and groundwater quality.
NOTE 2 It could also be appropriate to investigate ambient air, vegetation, potable water supplies and a variety
of other media depending on the findings of the preliminary investigation.

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This document provides guidance on the design and execution of preliminary investigations comprising
desk studies and site reconnaissance, and where appropriate, preliminary risk assessment. It is
applicable whenever sampling exercises or investigations are to be carried out to determine soil quality.

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This document gives general guidance on the development of site investigation strategies and detailed
guidance on the development of sampling strategies, when collecting information on
— the average properties of soil,
— the variability of soil properties, and
— the spatial distribution of soil properties.
It is applicable to soil samples intended for chemical testing and determination of a variety of other
properties (e.g. physical).
Although the main focus of this document is the collection of material (field samples) for transfer to a
laboratory for testing, it is also applicable when measurements are made directly in the field.
NOTE 1 This document also provides information on the statistical principles underlying the development of
appropriate sampling strategies and statistical methodologies.
NOTE 2 Guidance on other forms of related sampling activities are given in other International Standards [for
soil gas (ISO 18400-204) and for biological testing purposes (ISO 18400-206)]. Guidance on sampling groundwater
is provided in ISO 5667-11 and ISO 5667-22 and on sampling methods and groundwater measurements in
geotechnical investigations in ISO 22475-1.

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This document provides standard procedures for the collection, handling and storage of soil for
subsequent biological testing under aerobic conditions in the laboratory. It applies to the collection,
handling and storage for assessing the effects of soil on microorganisms, invertebrates (e.g. survival,
reproduction, growth, behaviour) and plants (e.g. development, growth). This document is not
applicable to the handling of soil where anaerobic conditions need to be maintained throughout.
This document describes how to minimize the effects of differences in temperature, water content,
and availability of oxygen on aerobic processes as well as the fractionation of soil particles to facilitate
reproducible laboratory determinations[1][2].
This document is mainly applicable to temperate soils. Soils collected from extreme climates (e.g.
permafrost, tropical soils) can require special handling.
NOTE This document does not provide standard procedures on the collection, handling and storage of soil
organisms when assessing the structure and function of soil organism communities in the field. Such standard
procedures are provided in ISO 23611-1 to ISO 23611-6.

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This document gives guidance on the:
— investigation of sites, where either it is known that soil contamination is present, or the presence of
soil contamination is suspected;
— investigation of sites where no soil contamination is expected, but the soil quality is to be determined
(e.g. to make sure that there is no contamination present);
— investigation in anticipation of a need to manage re-use or disposal of excavated soil which might be
contaminated;
— collection of information that is necessary for risk assessment and/or the development of remedial
action plans (e.g. whether remediation is required and suggestions as to how this might be best
achieved).
Although the information on soil quality for the risk assessment and/or the development of remedial
action plans is gathered by applying this document, it does not give guidance on the decisions and
actions that follow from a site investigation, for example, risk assessment and decisions about the
requirements for remediation (if any).

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This document provides standard procedures for the collection, handling and storage of soil for subsequent biological testing under aerobic conditions in the laboratory. It applies to the collection, handling and storage for assessing the effects of soil on microorganisms, invertebrates (e.g. survival, reproduction, growth, behaviour) and plants (e.g. development, growth). This document is not applicable to the handling of soil where anaerobic conditions need to be maintained throughout. This document describes how to minimize the effects of differences in temperature, water content, and availability of oxygen on aerobic processes as well as the fractionation of soil particles to facilitate reproducible laboratory determinations[1][2]. This document is mainly applicable to temperate soils. Soils collected from extreme climates (e.g. permafrost, tropical soils) can require special handling. NOTE This document does not provide standard procedures on the collection, handling and storage of soil organisms when assessing the structure and function of soil organism communities in the field. Such standard procedures are provided in ISO 23611‑1 to ISO 23611‑6.

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This document provides guidance on the sampling of soils of — natural and near-natural sites, — natural arboreal areas including forests and woods, — areas used for agriculture (arable and pasture sites), — areas used for horticulture (including domestic gardens, allotments), and — areas used for special crop-cultivation, orchards, vineyards, commercial plantations and forests, etc. It is applicable to — soil investigations and evaluations in the field, and — collection of samples for chemical, geochemical, physical, and biological characterization of soil and soil materials in the laboratory. This document sets out appropriate strategies for the design of sampling programmes, field procedures and subsequent treatment of samples for transport and storage prior to sample pretreatment (e.g. drying, milling). It is intended to be used in conjunction with the other parts of the ISO 18400 series. Attention is, in particular, drawn to the requirements concerning collection, handling and storage of soil for assessment of biological functions in ISO 18400-206. NOTE 1 Groundwater and surface water can be adversely impacted by agricultural and related activities, such as nitrates and pesticides, and by translocation of soil particles. In turn, knowledge about water quality can provide information about possible sources of groundwater contamination or contaminating run-off. Investigation of groundwater and surface water quality is outside of the scope of this document; relevant guidance is given in the ISO 5667 series of standards. ISO 15175 provides guidance on the relationship between soil properties and groundwater quality. NOTE 2 It could also be appropriate to investigate ambient air, vegetation, potable water supplies and a variety of other media depending on the findings of the preliminary investigation.

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This document gives general guidance on the development of site investigation strategies and detailed guidance on the development of sampling strategies, when collecting information on — the average properties of soil, — the variability of soil properties, and — the spatial distribution of soil properties. It is applicable to soil samples intended for chemical testing and determination of a variety of other properties (e.g. physical). Although the main focus of this document is the collection of material (field samples) for transfer to a laboratory for testing, it is also applicable when measurements are made directly in the field. NOTE 1 This document also provides information on the statistical principles underlying the development of appropriate sampling strategies and statistical methodologies. NOTE 2 Guidance on other forms of related sampling activities are given in other International Standards [for soil gas (ISO 18400-204) and for biological testing purposes (ISO 18400-206)]. Guidance on sampling groundwater is provided in ISO 5667-11 and ISO 5667-22 and on sampling methods and groundwater measurements in geotechnical investigations in ISO 22475-1.

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This document provides guidance on the design and execution of preliminary investigations comprising desk studies and site reconnaissance, and where appropriate, preliminary risk assessment. It is applicable whenever sampling exercises or investigations are to be carried out to determine soil quality.

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This document gives guidance on the: — investigation of sites, where either it is known that soil contamination is present, or the presence of soil contamination is suspected; — investigation of sites where no soil contamination is expected, but the soil quality is to be determined (e.g. to make sure that there is no contamination present); — investigation in anticipation of a need to manage re-use or disposal of excavated soil which might be contaminated; — collection of information that is necessary for risk assessment and/or the development of remedial action plans (e.g. whether remediation is required and suggestions as to how this might be best achieved). Although the information on soil quality for the risk assessment and/or the development of remedial action plans is gathered by applying this document, it does not give guidance on the decisions and actions that follow from a site investigation, for example, risk assessment and decisions about the requirements for remediation (if any).

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This document specifies a method for sampling and handling earthworms from field soils as a prerequisite for using these animals as bioindicators (e.g. to assess the quality of a soil as a habitat for organisms).
This document applies to all terrestrial biotopes in which earthworms occur. The sampling design of field studies in general is given in ISO 18400‑101 and guidance on the determination of effects of pollutants on earthworms in field situations is given in ISO 11268‑3. These aspects can vary according to the national requirements or the climatic/regional conditions of the site to be sampled (see also Annex C).
This document is not applicable for semi-terrestrial soils and it can be difficult to use under extreme climatic or geographical conditions (e.g. in high mountains). Methods for some other soil organism groups, such as collembolans, are covered in other parts of ISO 23611.

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This International Standard gives guidance on how to store and preserve soil samples for laboratory
determinations and how to prepare them for analysis after storage. Special emphasis is given to maximum
storage times as a function of different storage conditions.

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This document specifies methods for the pretreatment of samples that can be applied “in the field”
directly after sampling. Pretreatment methods in this document are limited to:
— sample division methods aimed at reducing the size/volume of the sample;
— the production of composite samples;
— the selection of a specific fraction of the sampled material.
This document
— does not apply to samples required for biological or microbiological examination,
— does not apply to soil materials sampled for the content of volatile components, and
NOTE 1 These soil materials are intended to be sampled according to ISO 22155.
— does not give instructions for particle size reduction.
NOTE 2 Guidance for particle size reduction is given in ISO 11464, ISO 14507 and ISO 23909.

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This document contains guidance on soil gas sampling using
— active sampling (adsorbents, filters, air containers), and
— passive sampling
applied at permanent or temporary monitoring wells or other installations in soils or underneath
buildings (sub-slab).
It provides guidance on:
— development of a sampling plan;
— construction of monitoring installations;
— transport, packaging and storage soil gas samples;
— quality assurance.
This document also gives basic information about
— soil gas dynamics, and
— identification of soil gas sources
relevant to permanent or temporary boreholes in soils or underneath buildings (sub‑slab).
The compounds covered by this document are:
— volatile organic compounds (VOCs);
— inorganic volatile compounds (e.g. mercury, HCN);
— permanent gases (i.e. CO2, N2, O2, CH4).
This document does not give guidance on:
— risk evaluation and characterization;
— selection and design of protective measures;
— the verification of protective measures, although the site investigation methodologies described
can be used when appropriate;
— the sampling of atmospheric or indoor gases;
— the measurement of gases from the soil entering into the atmosphere;
— monitoring and sampling for radon.

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This document gives guidelines for techniques for taking samples so that these can subsequently be
examined for the purpose of providing information on soil quality. It gives information on equipment
that is typically applicable in particular sampling situations to enable correct sampling procedures to
be carried out and representative samples to be collected. Guidance is given on the selection of the
equipment and the techniques to use to enable both disturbed and undisturbed samples to be correctly
taken at different depths.
This document does not cover:
— investigations for geotechnical purposes, though where redevelopment of a site is envisaged, the soil
quality investigation and the geotechnical investigation may sometimes be beneficially combined;
— sampling of hard strata such as bedrock;
— methods for the collection of information on soil quality without taking samples such as geophysical
methods;
— collection of water samples (these are to be collected in accordance with appropriate International
Standards on ground or surface water sampling; for further information, see the ISO 5667 series);
— investigations of soil gas about which guidance is provided in ISO 18400-204;
— investigation of radioactively contaminated sites.
NOTE 1 “Sampling technique” is defined in ISO 11074.
NOTE 2 Guidance on the investigation and assessment of radioactivity in soils is provided in the ISO 18589
series.

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This document provides guidelines for quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) for soil sampling.
It identifies the steps which are subject to QA and QC in situations where QA and QC are required. It
addresses aspects of QA and QC of the International Standards under the ISO 18400-100 umbrella
(level 1, level 2) and gives guidance to methods on level 3.

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This document establishes general principles for packing, preservation, transport and delivery of
samples of soil and related materials with an emphasis on requirements for when chemical analysis
of the samples is required, but with the intention that the general procedures are to be adapted as
appropriate when other forms of testing are required (e.g. biological testing, physical tests on disturbed
or undisturbed samples). Special procedures for specific sampling purposes are given in other parts of
ISO 18400 (see also 7.2).
This document is intended to be read in conjunction with ISO 18512.

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This document specifies the minimum information required for a sampling report independent of the
purpose of the investigation.
The preparation of the overall investigation report is not covered by this document (see
ISO/IEC 17025:2005, 5.10.3).

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This document specifies the procedural elements to be taken in the preparation and application of a
sampling plan. The sampling plan describes among other things what laboratory samples are to be
taken, how they are to be taken and from where they are to be taken, in order that the objectives of
the investigation programme can be achieved. The principles or basic rules outlined in this document
provide a framework that can be used to
— produce standardized sampling plans for use in more regular or routine circumstances,
— incorporate the specific requirements of national legislation, and
— design and develop a sampling plan for use on a case-by-case basis.
This document is applicable to sampling of soil and soil material, more specifically, e.g.
— soil in the landscape,
— soil stockpiles,
— potentially contaminated sites,
— agricultural soils,
— landfills, and
— forest soils.
Ultimately, the sampling plan provides the sampler with detailed instructions on how sampling should
be carried out.
NOTE 1 There might be a need for more than one sampling plan to meet all the requirements of the
investigation programme.
NOTE 2 It might sometimes be appropriate to divide a site or above-ground deposit (e.g. stockpile) into two or
more zones and to develop separate sampling plans for each zone. For example, a (potentially) contaminated site
might be zoned on the basis of past use, future use, topography or geology and an agricultural site on the basis of
known or suspected soil types or use (pasture, type of crops, etc.).

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This document describes the structure of sampling standards for any kind of soil investigation. It also
describes the coherence of the different parts in the ISO 18400 series. It provides guidance on the
selection of sampling standards appropriate for the objectives of users.

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This document gives guidelines for:
— identification of hazards that could be encountered during a site investigation and when collecting
samples of soil and other ground material, including hazards that are intrinsic in the sampling
operation (e.g. physical hazards) in addition to the hazards that might arise, e.g. from contamination
with chemicals or biological agents;
— measures to be adopted to control risks once an appropriate risk assessment has been carried out.

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This document specifies a method for sampling and handling earthworms from field soils as a prerequisite for using these animals as bioindicators (e.g. to assess the quality of a soil as a habitat for organisms). This document applies to all terrestrial biotopes in which earthworms occur. The sampling design of field studies in general is given in ISO 18400‑101 and guidance on the determination of effects of pollutants on earthworms in field situations is given in ISO 11268‑3. These aspects can vary according to the national requirements or the climatic/regional conditions of the site to be sampled (see also Annex C). This document is not applicable for semi-terrestrial soils and it can be difficult to use under extreme climatic or geographical conditions (e.g. in high mountains). Methods for some other soil organism groups, such as collembolans, are covered in other parts of ISO 23611.

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This document specifies the basic principles for classification of those material characteristics
most commonly used for soils for engineering purposes. It is intended to be read in conjunction
with ISO 14688-1, which gives rules for the identification and description of soils. The relevant
characteristics could vary and therefore, for particular projects or materials, more detailed subdivisions
of the descriptive and classification terms could be appropriate. Due to differences in local geological
conditions, practices to enhance relevant classification criteria are used.
The classification principles established in this document allow soils to be classified into groups of
similar composition and geotechnical properties, based on the results of field and laboratory tests with
respect to their suitability for geotechnical engineering purposes.
This document is applicable to natural soil in situ, natural soil reworked artificially and synthetic
materials. A more detailed classification specific to use in earthworks is given in EN 16907-2.
NOTE 1 Identification and description of rocks are covered by ISO 14689. Identification and description of
materials intermediate between soil and rock are carried out using the procedures in ISO 14688-1, this document
and ISO 14689, as appropriate.
NOTE 2 The identification and classification of soil for pedological purposes, as well as in the framework of
measurements for soil protection and for remediation of contaminated areas, is covered by ISO 25177.

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This document specifies the rules for the identification and description of soils and is intended to
be read in conjunction with ISO 14688-2, which outlines the basis of classification of those material
characteristics most commonly used for soils for engineering purposes. The relevant characteristics
could vary and therefore, for particular projects or materials, more detailed subdivisions of the
descriptive and classification terms could be appropriate.
This document specifies procedures for the identification and description of soils based on a flexible
system for use by experienced persons, covering both material and mass characteristics by visual
and manual techniques. Details are given of the individual characteristics for identifying soils and the
descriptive terms in regular use, including those related to the results of hand tests carried out in the
field as part of the descriptive process.
This document is applicable to the description of soils for engineering purposes which can be those laid
by natural processes, those laid by man or comprise synthetic materials.
NOTE 1 The identification and description of rocks are covered by ISO 14689-1. Identification and description
of materials intermediate between soil and rocks are carried out using the procedures in this document,
ISO 14688-2 and ISO 14689-1 as appropriate.
NOTE 2 The identification and classification of soil for pedological purposes, as well as in the framework of
measurements for soil protection and for remediation of contaminated areas, is covered by ISO 25177.

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ISO 14688-2:2017 specifies the basic principles for classification of those material characteristics most commonly used for soils for engineering purposes. It is intended to be read in conjunction with ISO 14688‑1, which gives rules for the identification and description of soils. The relevant characteristics could vary and therefore, for particular projects or materials, more detailed subdivisions of the descriptive and classification terms could be appropriate. Due to differences in local geological conditions, practices to enhance relevant classification criteria are used.
The classification principles established in this document allow soils to be classified into groups of similar composition and geotechnical properties, based on the results of field and laboratory tests with respect to their suitability for geotechnical engineering purposes.
ISO 14688-2:2017 is applicable to natural soil in situ, natural soil reworked artificially and synthetic materials. A more detailed classification specific to use in earthworks is given in EN 16907‑2.
NOTE 1 Identification and description of rocks are covered by ISO 14689. Identification and description of materials intermediate between soil and rock are carried out using the procedures in ISO 14688‑1, this document and ISO 14689, as appropriate.
NOTE 2 The identification and classification of soil for pedological purposes, as well as in the framework of measurements for soil protection and for remediation of contaminated areas, is covered by ISO 25177.

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ISO 14688-1:2017 specifies the rules for the identification and description of soils and is intended to be read in conjunction with ISO 14688‑2, which outlines the basis of classification of those material characteristics most commonly used for soils for engineering purposes. The relevant characteristics could vary and therefore, for particular projects or materials, more detailed subdivisions of the descriptive and classification terms could be appropriate.
ISO 14688-1:2017 specifies procedures for the identification and description of soils based on a flexible system for use by experienced persons, covering both material and mass characteristics by visual and manual techniques. Details are given of the individual characteristics for identifying soils and the descriptive terms in regular use, including those related to the results of hand tests carried out in the field as part of the descriptive process.
ISO 14688-1:2017 is applicable to the description of soils for engineering purposes which can be those laid by natural processes, those laid by man or comprise synthetic materials.
NOTE 1 The identification and description of rocks are covered by ISO 14689-1. Identification and description of materials intermediate between soil and rocks are carried out using the procedures in this document, ISO 14688‑2 and ISO 14689-1 as appropriate.
NOTE 2 The identification and classification of soil for pedological purposes, as well as in the framework of measurements for soil protection and for remediation of contaminated areas, is covered by ISO 25177.

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ISO 18400-100:2017 describes the structure of sampling standards for any kind of soil investigation. It also describes the coherence of the different parts in the ISO 18400 series. It provides guidance on the selection of sampling standards appropriate for the objectives of users.

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ISO 18400-101:2017 specifies the procedural elements to be taken in the preparation and application of a sampling plan. The sampling plan describes among other things what laboratory samples are to be taken, how they are to be taken and from where they are to be taken, in order that the objectives of the investigation programme can be achieved. The principles or basic rules outlined in this document provide a framework that can be used to - produce standardized sampling plans for use in more regular or routine circumstances, - incorporate the specific requirements of national legislation, and - design and develop a sampling plan for use on a case-by-case basis. ISO 18400-101:2017 is applicable to sampling of soil and soil material, more specifically, e.g. - soil in the landscape, - soil stockpiles, - potentially contaminated sites, - agricultural soils, - landfills, and - forest soils. Ultimately, the sampling plan provides the sampler with detailed instructions on how sampling should be carried out. NOTE 1 There might be a need for more than one sampling plan to meet all the requirements of the investigation programme. NOTE 2 It might sometimes be appropriate to divide a site or above-ground deposit (e.g. stockpile) into two or more zones and to develop separate sampling plans for each zone. For example, a (potentially) contaminated site might be zoned on the basis of past use, future use, topography or geology and an agricultural site on the basis of known or suspected soil types or use (pasture, type of crops, etc.).

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ISO 18400-204:2017 contains guidance on soil gas sampling using - active sampling (adsorbents, filters, air containers), and - passive sampling applied at permanent or temporary monitoring wells or other installations in soils or underneath buildings (sub-slab). It provides guidance on: - development of a sampling plan; - construction of monitoring installations; - transport, packaging and storage soil gas samples; - quality assurance. ISO 18400-204:2017 also gives basic information about - soil gas dynamics, and - identification of soil gas sources relevant to permanent or temporary boreholes in soils or underneath buildings (sub‑slab). The compounds covered by this document are: . volatile organic compounds (VOCs); . inorganic volatile compounds (e.g. mercury, HCN); . permanent gases (i.e. CO2, N2, O2, CH4). ISO 18400-204:2017 does not give guidance on: - risk evaluation and characterization; - selection and design of protective measures; - the verification of protective measures, although the site investigation methodologies described can be used when appropriate; - the sampling of atmospheric or indoor gases; - the measurement of gases from the soil entering into the atmosphere; - monitoring and sampling for radon.

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ISO 18400-201:2017 specifies methods for the pretreatment of samples that can be applied "in the field" directly after sampling. Pretreatment methods in this document are limited to: - sample division methods aimed at reducing the size/volume of the sample; - the production of composite samples; - the selection of a specific fraction of the sampled material. ISO 18400-201:2017 - does not apply to samples required for biological or microbiological examination, - does not apply to soil materials sampled for the content of volatile components, and NOTE 1 These soil materials are intended to be sampled according to ISO 22155. -? does not give instructions for particle size reduction. NOTE 2 Guidance for particle size reduction is given in ISO 11464, ISO 14507 and ISO 23909.

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ISO 18400-105:2017 establishes general principles for packing, preservation, transport and delivery of samples of soil and related materials with an emphasis on requirements for when chemical analysis of the samples is required, but with the intention that the general procedures are to be adapted as appropriate when other forms of testing are required (e.g. biological testing, physical tests on disturbed or undisturbed samples). Special procedures for specific sampling purposes are given in other parts of ISO 18400 (see also 7.2). ISO 18400-105:2017 is intended to be read in conjunction with ISO 18512.

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ISO 18400-102:2017 gives guidelines for techniques for taking samples so that these can subsequently be examined for the purpose of providing information on soil quality. It gives information on equipment that is typically applicable in particular sampling situations to enable correct sampling procedures to be carried out and representative samples to be collected. Guidance is given on the selection of the equipment and the techniques to use to enable both disturbed and undisturbed samples to be correctly taken at different depths. ISO 18400-102:2017 does not cover: - investigations for geotechnical purposes, though where redevelopment of a site is envisaged, the soil quality investigation and the geotechnical investigation may sometimes be beneficially combined; - sampling of hard strata such as bedrock; - methods for the collection of information on soil quality without taking samples such as geophysical methods; - collection of water samples (these are to be collected in accordance with appropriate International Standards on ground or surface water sampling; for further information, see the ISO 5667 series); - investigations of soil gas about which guidance is provided in ISO 18400‑204; - investigation of radioactively contaminated sites. NOTE 1 "Sampling technique" is defined in ISO 11074. NOTE 2 Guidance on the investigation and assessment of radioactivity in soils is provided in the ISO 18589 series.

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